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Mode of Heat transfer
• Conduction
• Convection
• Radiation
 Heattransfer between two bodies in
contact or from one point of a body to
another point of the same body. Atoms in
hotter regions have more kinetic energy
which they transfer to neighboring atoms.

Heat, Q


Heat, Q
 Consider a conductor of length L and cross-
section A. If one end of the conductor is at high
temperature TH and the other end at a lower
temperature Tc, then the heat current H, is
defined as the rate of heat flow through the
L In case of Rods

In case of Walls/Plates

 Heattransfer by electromagnetic wave
(through empty space).

A - surface area of the object, m2

e - emissivity (ranges from 0 to 1)
H - Heat Current (rate at which an object radiates or
emits radiant energy (J/s or W)
T – Absolute temperature (K)
ΔH = Aeσ(T4S-T4body)

A - surface area of the object, m2

e - emissivity (ranges from 0 to 1
ΔH - Net Rate of Heat loss or gain of energy by
radiation(J/s or W)
Tbody – Absolute temperature of the radiating body
TS – Absolute temperature of surroundings

Tair = TS
1) The rod is made of copper is 45 cm long and has a cross
sectional area of 1.25 cm2. Let TH = 100oC and TC =
0oC. (Use thermal conductivity of copper =
a) What is the final steady-state temperature
gradient along the rod?
b) What is the heat current in the rod in the final
steady state?
c) What is the final steady-state temperature at a
point in the rod 12 cm from its left end?
2) One end of the insulated metal rod is maintained at
100oC, and the other end is maintained at 0oC by an ice-
water mixture. The rod is 60 cm long and has cross-
sectional area of 1.25 cm2. The heat conducted by the
rod melts 8.50 g of ice in 10 min. Find the thermal
conductivity k of the metal.
3. A long rod, insulated to prevent heat loss along its
sides, is in perfect thermal contact with boiling water
(at atmospheric pressure) at one end and with an ice-
water mixture at the other end. The rod consists of 1
m long copper (one end in boiling water) with the other
end joined end to end to a length L2 of steel (one end in
ice-water). Both sections of the rod have cross-
sectional areas of 4 cm2. The temperature of the
copper-steel junction is 65oC after a steady state has
been set-up.
K cu = 385 W/m.K
K steel = 50.2 W/m.K

a) How much heat per second flows from the steam bath
to the ice-water mixture?
b) What is the length L2 of the steel section?
c) Find the mass of ice melted in one hour.
4) An insulating wall consists 2 layers with the 1st layer
4 cm thick whose thermal conductivity K= K1 and a
2nd layer 8.0 cm thick whose conductivity K2 = 4K1.
The innermost and outermost surfaces are kept at -
10˚C and 76 ˚C respectively. Calculate the
temperature of the interface.

5) The surface area of the sun has a temperature of

about 5800 K. Taking the radius of the sun to be
equal to 6.86 X 108 m, calculate the energy radiated
by the sun each day. (Assume e = 1)
6) An aluminum kettle (K al = 238 W/m.C°) has a
circular cross-section and is 8 cm in radius and 0.3
cm thick. It is placed on a hot plate and filled with
1 kg of water. If the bottom of the kettle is
maintained at 101°C and the inside at 100°C, find
(a) the rate of heat flow into the water and (b) the
time it takes for all the water to boil away. (Neglect
heat transferred from the sides.)