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Lecture 22

(Chapter 10)

• Variable-Area Flowmeters

Measurement Systems

quantity of a fluid flowing through a conduit.

Technical Basis on Fluid Systems

Technical Basis on Fluid Systems

Technical Basis on Fluid Systems

Systems for Measuring Fluid Flow Rate

Variable-Area Flowmeters

• A variable-area flowmeter is a meter that measures fluid flow by allowing

the cross sectional area of the device to vary in response to the flow, causing

some measurable effect that indicates the rate.

• This class of flowmeters consists of devices in which the flow area of the

meter varies with flow rate and the value of the flow rate is determined by

sensing the position of the component causing the area change.

• The most common of these devices is known as the rotameter.

Rotameter

• The rotameter consists of a

weighted object called a float,

which is free to move, within a

vertical tube. Flow entering from

the bottom of the tube passes over

the float as shown below:

Systems for Measuring Fluid Flow Rate

• The principle of the device is based on the balance between the drag force,

the weight and buoyancy forces acting on the float in the moving fluid.

• In operation, the float rises to some position within the tube at which the

force balance exists. The height of this position increases with flow velocity

and, hence, the flow rate.

• The force balance is:

FD FB FW

where FD is the drag force caused by the upward-moving fluid, FB is the

buoyant force acting on the fluid, and FW is the weight of the float. The

buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid:

FB f g

where, ∀ is the float volume, f is the density of the flowing fluid, and g is

the acceleration due to gravity.

• The weight is given by:

FW b g

where, b is the density of the float.

Lecture 22 Lecture Notes on MECH 373 – Instrumentation and Measurements 7

Systems for Measuring Fluid Flow Rate

• The drag force can be described by the drag coefficient:

CD Afr f V ref2

FD

2

where CD is the drag coefficient, Afr is the frontal area of the float (in the

direction of the flow), and Vref is a reference fluid velocity. In this case, we use

Va, the velocity in the annular area between the float and the tapered tube, as

Vref.

C D Afr f Va2

• Substituting: f g b g

2

1/ 2

• Solving for Va, we obtain 2g (b f )

Va

C A

D fr f

1/ 2

2gb

For gases, f b , so Va

C D A fr f

Lecture 22 Lecture Notes on MECH 373 – Instrumentation and Measurements 8

Systems for Measuring Fluid Flow Rate

• The float can be designed such that CD is approximately independent of the

float position.

• Since the volume flow rate is:

Q Va Aa

• Va is constant, the flow rate is proportional to the annular area, Aa.

• It is possible to design the rotameter so that the annular area is a linear

function of the float vertical position y. Hence, a measure of the float vertical

position is a linear function of the flow rate.

• Although it is possible to use devices that sense float position, most

rotameters are not used for remote sensing of flow but are instead read visually

and used to check or adjust the fluid flow rate.

• Rotatmeters have the advantages of being easy to read, having a low pressure

drop, and having a scale that is linear with flow.

• Most rotameteres must be mounted with the axis vertical, but there are

rotameters that can be installed in any orientation and that use a spring instead

of the weight of the float to counter the fluid drag force.

Lecture 22 Lecture Notes on MECH 373 – Instrumentation and Measurements 9

Systems for Measuring Fluid Flow Rate

• While it is not common to have a sensor for remote sensing of flow rate, it is

common in the process industries to have a sensing switch that will trip an

alarm if the flow exceeds some system limit.

• The accuracy of higher-quality rotameters can be better than ±2% of full

scale, but many are used to give a general indication of flow and are accurate

only to the order of ±10%.

• Rotameters are usually calibrated to produce the best accuracy for a particular

application.

• To avoid a new calibration, a rotameter can sometimes be calibrated for one

fluid and used to measure the flow of another fluid or the same fluid at another

temperature or pressure. A simple method to permit use with another fluid is

based on the above equations.

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Course Review

Youmin Zhang

Phone: x5741, Office Location: EV 4-109

Email: ymzhang@encs.concordia.ca

Course Website: Access from your “My Concordia” portal

Lecture 22 Lecture Notes on MECH 373 – Instrumentation and Measurements 11

Course Outline

1. Introduction, Chapter 1 [1.1]

• course objective and requirements; why measurement systems,

experimental design

2. General Characteristics of Measurement Systems, Chapter 2 [2.1, 2.2, 2.3]

• components

• instrumentation

• error – systematic & random, accuracy, precision, sensitivity

• calibration, traceability of standards

• dynamic measurement systems – response, damping, etc

3. Measurement Systems with Electrical Signals, Chapter 3 [3.1, 3.2 (3.2.1, 3.2.3,

3.2.4), 3.3]

• sensors, amplification, attenuation, filtering

• measurement instruments

• sensor principles and characteristics

4. Computer-based Data Acquisition Systems, Chapter 4 [4.1, 4.2, 4.3 (4.3.1,

4.3.2, 4.3.4), 4.4]

• system components – principles of A/D & D/A conversion

Lecture 22 Lecture Notes on MECH 373 – Instrumentation and Measurements 12

Course Outline

5. Sampling and Analysis of Time-Varying Signals, Chapter 5 [5.1, 5.2, 5.3]

• characteristics of time-varying signals

• sampling rate considerations

• filtering

6. Statistical Analysis of Experimental Data, Chapter 6 [6.1, 6.2, 6.3 (6.3.2), 6.4

(6.4.1), 6.5, 6.6 (6.6.1, 6.6.2, 6.6.3, 6.6.4)]

• noises

• experimental considerations

7 Experimental Uncertainty Analysis, Chapter 7 [7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.7]

• propagation of uncertainty

• uncertainty analysis

8. Sensor Systems for Engineering Applications, [8.1.1, 8.2.1, 8.3.1, 8.5.1, 8.5.4,

8.6.1, 9.1.2, 9.2.1, 10.1.2, 10.2.2]

• measurement of various parameters of interest to engineers, e.g.

displacement, velocity, temperature, pressure, vibration, stress, flow rate

etc.

Lecture 22 Lecture Notes on MECH 373 – Instrumentation and Measurements 13

Course Objective / Requirement

• Objective: Introduce the fundamental principles that

need to be followed when setting up a measurement

experiment. Develop a basic understanding of

measurement systems and its role in engineering.

Learn how to analyze experimental data.

• Requirements:

– Quizzes (two): 10%

– Midterm: 20%

– Laboratories: 10%

– Final exam: 60%

– Need to pass (50% marks) the Laboratory

Lecture 22 Lecture Notes on MECH 373 – Instrumentation and Measurements 14

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurement

Lecture 1

(Course Website: Access from your “My Concordia” portal)

Introduction:

Introduction to measurement systems

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurement

Lecture 2

(Course Website: Access from your “My Concordia” portal)

General Characteristics of Measurement Systems

(Chapter 2)

• Dealing with error • Dynamic measurements

– Error reduction techniques

– Zero order, first order, second order systems

– Standards

– Time constant, response time, rise time, settling

– Calibration time

– Frequency response

Next lecture:

• Experimental design

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurement

Lecture 3

(Course Website: Access from your “My Concordia” portal)

General Characteristics of Measurement Systems

(Chapter 2)

• Dynamic measurements

– Zero order, first order, second order systems

– Time constant, response time, rise time, settling time

– Frequency response

• Experimental design

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 4

(Course Website: Access from your “My Concordia” portal)

(Chapter 3)

• Electrical signal measurement systems

• Signal conditioners

Amplification

Attenuation

Filtering

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 5

(Course Website: Access from your “My Concordia” portal)

(Chapter 3)

• Electrical signal measurement systems

• Signal conditioners

Amplification

Attenuation

Filtering

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 6

(Course Website: Access from your “My Concordia” portal)

(Chapter 3)

• Electrical signal measurement systems

• Signal conditioners

Filtering

Indicating and recording devices

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 7

(Course Website: Access from your “My Concordia” portal)

(Chapter 4)

• Computer systems

• Representing numbers in computer systems

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 7

(Course Website: Access from your “My Concordia” portal)

(Chapter 4)

• Data-acquisition components

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 8

(Course Website: Access from your “My Concordia” portal)

(Chapter 4)

• Data-acquisition components

multiplexers

A/D converters

D/A converters

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 9

(Course Website: Access from your “My Concordia” portal)

Signals (Chapter 5)

• Sampling-Rate Theorem

Sampling

Nyquist frequency

Aliasing

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 10

Signals (Chapter 5)

• Spectral Analysis of Time-Varying Signal

• Spectral Analysis uisng the Fourier Transform

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 11

Signals (Chapter 5)

• Spectral Analysis of Time-Varying Signal

• Spectral Analysis uisng the Fourier Transform

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 12

(Chapter 6)

• Introduction

• General Concepts and Definitions

• Probability

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 13

(Chapter 6)

• Introduction

• General Concepts and Definitions

• Probability

• Probability Distribution Function

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 14

(Chapter 6)

• Introduction

• General Concepts and Definitions

• Probability

• Probability Distribution Function

• Parameter Estimation

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 15

(Chapter 6)

• General Concepts and Definitions Data Points

• Probability • Correlation of Experimental Data

• Probability Distribution Function • Least-Squares Linear Fit

• Parameter Estimation • Outliers in x-y Data Sets

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 16

(Chapter 7)

• Introduction

• Types of Errors

• Propagation of Uncertainties

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 17

(Chapter 7)

• Types of Errors Components of Uncertainty

• Propagation of Uncertainties • Sources of Elemental Error

• Step-by-Step Procedure for Analysis

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 18

Measurement of Solid-Mechanical

Quantities (Chapter 8)

• Measuring Strain • Measuring Accepleration and Vibaration

• Measuring Displacement • Measuring Force

• Measuring Linear Velocity

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 19

Measurement of Solid-Mechanical

Quantities (Chapter 8)

• Measuring Strain • Measuring Accepleration and Vibaration

• Measuring Displacement • Measuring Force

• Measuring Linear Velocity

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 20

(Chapter 9)

• Measuring Pressure

• Measuring Temperature

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 21

(Chapter 9)

• Measuring Pressure

• Measuring Temperature

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Lecture 22

(Chapter 10)

• Variable-Area Flowmeters

MECH 373

Instrumentation and Measurements

Final Exam:

MECH 373/2 X, 12/5/2007, 14:00-17:00, H407

• 29/11/07 (Thursday) 13:00-15:00, EV 4-109

30/12/07 (Friday) 13:00-15:00, EV 4-109

03/12/07 (Monday) 10:00-12:00, 13:00-15:00, EV 4-109

4/12/07 (Tuesday) 13:00-16:00, EV 4-109

16:15-17:30, H-620

• Further office hours can be scheduled by appointment

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