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Heat Transfer

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CHAPTER 7

EXTERNAL FLOW

• The empirical and theoretical methods

• Flow over flat plate, cylinder, and sphere

• Flow across banks of tubes

The sphere

Whitaker’s empirical correlation

evaluated at Ts

Flow across banks of tubes

Tubes arrangements in a bank

Aligned Staggered

The configuration is characterized

by:

• Tube diameter D

• Transverse pitch ST

• Longitudinal pitch SL

Flow across banks of tubes

The average heat transfer coefficient for the entire tube bank (Zukauskas correlation)

All properties except Prs evaluated at the mean of inlet and outlet temperatures

C1 and m are listed in Table 7.5 of Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 8th edition or

The values of the constants C, m, and n depend on Reynolds number. Such correlations are

given in Table 7–2 of Heat and Mass Transfer(in SI Units). McGraw-Hill

Flow across banks of tubes

6

Flow across banks of tubes

Zukauskas correlation

If NL ≤ 20 , a correction factor may be applied:

C2 C2

Flow across banks of tubes

ReD,max: based on the maximum velocity occurring within the tube bank

Flow across banks of tubes

N: the total number of tubes in the bank

NT: the number of tubes in each row

The overall heat transfer rate per unit length of the tubes:

Flow across banks of tubes

The pressure drop:

: the correction factor

ΔP = P1 – P2

Flow across banks of tubes

Flow across banks of tubes

Example

Pressurized water is often available at elevated temperatures and may be used for space heating or

industrial process applications. In such cases it is customary to use a tube bundle in which the water is

passed through the tubes, while air is passed in cross flow over the tubes. Consider a staggered

arrangement for which the tube outside diameter is 16.4 mm and the longitudinal and transverse pitches are SL

34.3 mm and ST 31.3 mm. There are seven rows of tubes in the airflow direction and eight tubes per row. Under

typical operating conditions the cylinder surface temperature is at 70C, while the air upstream temperature and

velocity are 15C and 6 m/s, respectively.

(a) Determine the air-side convection coefficient

and the rate of heat transfer for the tube bundle.

(b What is the air-side pressure drop?

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND IT

INTERNAL FLOW

• Mean velocity and mean temperature

• General thermal considerations

• Laminar and turbulent flow in circular tubes

• Flow in noncircular tubes

• Heat transfer enhancement

Introduction

Pipe/tube & duct

Flow conditions

Entrance and fully developed regions

Flow conditions

Reynolds number for flow in a circular tube

ReD > 2300: turbulent

Hydrodynamic entry length of laminar flow (ReD ≤ 2300)

The mean velocity

mean velocity um

mass flow rate may also be expressed as the integral of the mass flux

(ρu) over the cross section:

Velocity profile in fully developed region

in the fully developed region

𝜕𝑢

:gradient of the axial velocity component

𝜕𝑥

Velocity profile in fully developed region

Momentum conservation:

Integrating twice:

Boundary conditions:

Velocity profile in fully developed region

Substituting:

into

Friction factor in fully developed region

Example

An air duct heater consists of an aligned array of electrical heating elements in which the longitudinal

and transverse pitches are SL = ST = 24 mm. There are 3 rows of elements in the flow direction (NL =

3) and 4 elements per row (NT = 4). Atmospheric air with an upstream velocity of 12 m/s and a

temperature of 250C moves in cross flow over the elements, which have a diameter of 12 mm, a

length of 250 mm, and are maintained at a surface temperature of 3500C.

a) Determine the total heat transfer to the air and the temperature of the air leaving the duct heater.

b) Determine the pressure drop across the element bank and the fan power requirement.

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