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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND IT

CHAPTER 7
EXTERNAL FLOW
• The empirical and theoretical methods
• Flow over flat plate, cylinder, and sphere
• Flow across banks of tubes
The sphere
Whitaker’s empirical correlation

where all properties are evaluated at T∞, except μs, which is


evaluated at Ts
Flow across banks of tubes
Tubes arrangements in a bank

Aligned Staggered
The configuration is characterized
by:
• Tube diameter D
• Transverse pitch ST
• Longitudinal pitch SL
Flow across banks of tubes
The average heat transfer coefficient for the entire tube bank (Zukauskas correlation)

 NL is the number of tube rows


 All properties except Prs evaluated at the mean of inlet and outlet temperatures
C1 and m are listed in Table 7.5 of Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 8th edition or
The values of the constants C, m, and n depend on Reynolds number. Such correlations are
given in Table 7–2 of Heat and Mass Transfer(in SI Units). McGraw-Hill
Flow across banks of tubes

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Flow across banks of tubes
Zukauskas correlation
If NL ≤ 20 , a correction factor may be applied:

C2 C2
Flow across banks of tubes
ReD,max: based on the maximum velocity occurring within the tube bank

maximum velocity will occur at A2 if:


Flow across banks of tubes

Log-mean temperature difference

The outlet temperature may be estimated from:


N: the total number of tubes in the bank
NT: the number of tubes in each row

The overall heat transfer rate per unit length of the tubes:
Flow across banks of tubes
The pressure drop:

f: the friction factor P1 P2


: the correction factor

ΔP = P1 – P2
Flow across banks of tubes
Flow across banks of tubes
Example
Pressurized water is often available at elevated temperatures and may be used for space heating or
industrial process applications. In such cases it is customary to use a tube bundle in which the water is
passed through the tubes, while air is passed in cross flow over the tubes. Consider a staggered
arrangement for which the tube outside diameter is 16.4 mm and the longitudinal and transverse pitches are SL
34.3 mm and ST 31.3 mm. There are seven rows of tubes in the airflow direction and eight tubes per row. Under
typical operating conditions the cylinder surface temperature is at 70C, while the air upstream temperature and
velocity are 15C and 6 m/s, respectively.
(a) Determine the air-side convection coefficient
and the rate of heat transfer for the tube bundle.
(b What is the air-side pressure drop?
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND IT
INTERNAL FLOW

• Entrance and fully developed regions


• Mean velocity and mean temperature
• General thermal considerations
• Laminar and turbulent flow in circular tubes
• Flow in noncircular tubes
• Heat transfer enhancement
Introduction
Pipe/tube & duct

Circular pipes can withstand large pressure

Low speed, forced convection


Flow conditions
Entrance and fully developed regions

FIGURE: Laminar, hydrodynamic boundary layer development in a circular tube.


Flow conditions
Reynolds number for flow in a circular tube

ReD ≤ 2300: laminar


ReD > 2300: turbulent

um is the mean velocity over the tube cross section


Hydrodynamic entry length of laminar flow (ReD ≤ 2300)

Hydrodynamic entry length of turbulent flow


The mean velocity
mean velocity um

for flow in a circular pipe:

mass flow rate may also be expressed as the integral of the mass flux
(ρu) over the cross section:

for incompressible flow in a circular pipe:


Velocity profile in fully developed region
in the fully developed region

(laminar flow, incompressible, constant property fluid)

v ∶ radial velocity component


𝜕𝑢
:gradient of the axial velocity component
𝜕𝑥
Velocity profile in fully developed region

Momentum conservation:

Integrating twice:

Boundary conditions:
Velocity profile in fully developed region

Substituting:

into

and integrating, we obtain


Friction factor in fully developed region
Example
An air duct heater consists of an aligned array of electrical heating elements in which the longitudinal
and transverse pitches are SL = ST = 24 mm. There are 3 rows of elements in the flow direction (NL =
3) and 4 elements per row (NT = 4). Atmospheric air with an upstream velocity of 12 m/s and a
temperature of 250C moves in cross flow over the elements, which have a diameter of 12 mm, a
length of 250 mm, and are maintained at a surface temperature of 3500C.
a) Determine the total heat transfer to the air and the temperature of the air leaving the duct heater.
b) Determine the pressure drop across the element bank and the fan power requirement.