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Topic 2 Body Coordination

2.1 Body Coordination


Koordinasi Badan

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination
Body Coordination

Body Coordination

Is a process where various parts of body work together to produce an


appropriate response to the changes around us that are called stimuli.

Body Coordination

Controlled by

Nervous system Endocrine system

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Badan

Adalah satu proses di mana pelbagai bahagian badan berkerjasama dalam


memberi tindak balas terhadap perubahan di sekeliling tubuh yang dikenali
sebagai rangsangan.

Koordinasi Badan

Dikawal oleh

Sistem Saraf Sistem Endokrin

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Body Coordination

The Important of Body Coordination

 Enable our body to respond to changes in our surrounding.

 Avoid situition and protect our body from injuries.

 Coordinates all body activities to regulate appropriate responses to


the changes.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Koordinasi Badan

Kepentingan Koordinasi Badan

 membenarkan badan menyesuaikan diri dengan perubahan sekitar.

 Mengelakkan dan melindungi tubuh badan daripada kecederaan.

 menyelaras aktiviti badan bagi membolehkannya bertindak balas


dengan perubahan sekitar.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Human Nervous System

Stimulus And Response

Change in the internal or external environment.


Stimulus
Example : change in light, heat, sound, pressure, touch.

Response Process that promotes action

Body
Stimulus Response
coordination

Example

Stimulus Response
Coordination
Our hand accidentally Our hand quickly draw
centre
touch a hot iron away from the hot iron

Important
This is to protect the
hand from injures.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Koordinasi Badan

Rangsangan Dan Tindak Balas

Perubahan pada persekitaran dalam atau luar.


Rangsangan
Contoh : perubahan haba, tekanan, sentuhan, bunyi, cahaya.

Tindak Balas Proses yang mencetuskan tindakan.

Rangsangan Koordinasi Badan Tindak Balas

Contoh

Rangsangan Tindak balas


Tangan tersentuh Pusat Koordinasi Tangan akan menjauhi
seterika panas. seterika dengan segera.

Kepentingan
Mengelakkan tangan
dari tercedera.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

2.2 The Human Nervous System


Sistem Saraf Manusia

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Human Nervous System

Human Nervous System

Brain
Cranial
Central nerves Somatic
nervous Spinal nervous
system Spinal nerves system
Peripheral
cord nervous system
Autonomic
nervous system
(join to internal
organ)

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Sistem Saraf Manusia

Sistem Saraf Manusia

Otak
Saraf
kranium Sistem
Sistem saraf
Saraf saraf
pusat
Saraf spina soma
Sistem saraf
tunjang periferi
Sistem saraf
autonomi
(berhubung
dengan organ
dalaman)

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Human Nervous System


Central Nervous System

Receives information from sensory organs, interprets and send to concern


organs to respond accordingly.

Brain Spinal cord

 protected by the skull / cranium.  Protected by the backbone.

 made up of grey matter (outer  Consists of relay neurons.


layer) and white matter (inner
layer) which consist of neurons.  Carries impulses to and from the
brain.
 controls all the body activities.
 Controls reflex action.

Skull
Brain Spinal cord

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Sistem Saraf Manusia
Sistem Saraf Pusat

Menerima maklumat daripada organ deria, mentafsir, dan menghantar


maklumat ke organ motor untuk melakukan tindakan yang sesuai.

Otak Saraf tunjang

 Dilindungi oleh tulang tengkorak/  Dilindungi oleh tulang belakang.


kranium.
 Terdiri daripada neuron
 Terdiri daripada berjuta-juta
perantaraan.
neuron.
 Membawa impuls ke dan dari
 Terbahagi kepada jirim kelabu
otak.
(lapisan luaran) dan jirim putih
(lapisan dalaman).  Mengawal tindakan refleks.
 Mengawal semua aktitivi badan.
Saraf tunjang
Tengkorak
Otak

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Human Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System

Cranial nerves Spinal nerves


31 pairs that originate from the spinal
12 pairs that originate from the brain
cord and connect to sense organs and
and connect to sense organs in head
effectors in the whole body, hand and
and neck.
legs.

Eye Cranial nerves Spinal cord

Spinal
nerves Muscle Skin

Nerve
fibres
(axons)

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Sistem Saraf Manusia

Sistem Saraf Periferi

Saraf kranium Saraf spina


31 pasang yang berasal dari saraf
12 pasang saraf yang berasal dari otak
tunjang dan bersambung dengan
dan bersambung dengan organ deria
bahagian lain dalam badan seperti
di kepala dan leher.
tangan dan kaki.

Mata Saraf kranium Saraf tunjang


Saraf
spina Otot Kulit

Neuron
(akson)

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Human Nervous System

Neurone

Basic function unit of the nervous system.

To carry nerve impulses

Nucleus
Cell body

Ranvier node
Dendrons

Myelin Axon
Dendrites
sheath

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Sistem Saraf Manusia

Neuron

Unit fungsi asas sistem saraf.

Membawa impuls saraf.

Nukleus
Badan sel

Nodus Ranvier
Dendron

Salut Akson
Dendrit
Meilin

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Human Nervous System

Part Of The Neurone And Its Function

Part of neurone Function

Cell body Control all the activities of neurones.

Dendrite Receive impulses and transmits to dendron.

Dendron Receives impulse and transmits to cell body.

Atom Transmits impulse out of the cell body.

Thick layer of fatty substance along axon to prevent leakage


Myelin sheath
of impulses. It increases the speed of impulse transmission.

Ranvier node Help to speed up the transmission of impulse.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Sistem Saraf Manusia

Bahagian-bahagian pada Neuron Dan Fungsinya

Bahagian neuron Fungsi

Badan sel Mengawal semua aktiviti neuron.

Dendrit Menerima dan menghantar impuls ke dendron.

Dendron Menerima dan menghantar impuls ke badan sel.

Akson Menghantar impuls keluar dari badan sel.

Melindungi akson dan dendron serta mencepatkan


Salut Meilin
penghantaran impuls.

Nodus Ranvier Membantu mempercepat penghantaran impuls.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Human Nervous System

Three Type Of Neurones

Sensory Relay Motor


Neurones Neurones Neurones

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Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Sistem Saraf Manusia

Tiga Jenis Neuron

Neuron
Neuron deria Neuron motor
perantaraan

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Human Nervous System

Sensory Neurones

Cell body
Myelin sheath
Direction
of impulse

Dendrite
Dendron
Ranvier Axon
Receptor
node
(sensory organ)

 Carry impulse from receptors (sensory organs) to the central nervous system

 Cell body at the side of the nerve.

 Dendron is longer than the axon.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Sistem Saraf Manusia

Neuron Deria

Badan sel
Salut Meilin
Arah impuls

Dendrit
Dendron
Nodus Ranvier Akson
Reseptor
(organ deria)

 Menghantar impuls dari reseptor (organ deria) ke sistem saraf pusat.

 Badan sel di bahagian tepi neuron.

 Dendron lebih panjang daripada akson.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Human Nervous System

Relay Neurones

Direction of impulse
Cell body

Dendron

Axon
Dendrite

 Connect sensory neurones and motor neurones.


 Located in the central nervous system.

 Cell body at the central of nerve.

 Axons and dendron extending from cell body.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Sistem Saraf Manusia

Neuron Perantaraan

Arah impuls
Badan sel

Dendron

Akson
Dendrit

 Menghubungkan neuron deria dengan neuron motor.


 Terdapat dalam sistem saraf pusat.

 Badan sel berada di pusat neuron.

 Akson and dendron memperluas dari badan sel.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Human Nervous System

Motor Neurones

Cell body

Effector
Dendrite Ranvier node (muscles or
Myelin sheath
axon glands)

Direction of impulse
Dendron

 Carry impulses from central nervous system to muscles and glands


(effectors) in the body.

 Cell body at the end of the nerve.

 Axon is longer than the axon.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Sistem Saraf Manusia

Neuron Motor

Badan sel

Efektor
Dendrit Nodus Ranvier (otot atau
Salut Meilin
Akson kelenjar)

Arah impuls
Dendron

 Menghantar impuls dari sistem saraf pusat ke otot atau kelenjar (efektor)
dalam badan.

 Badan sel berada pada hujung neuron.

 Akson lebih panjang daripada dendron.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

2.3 Nervous Coordination


Koordinasi Saraf

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Nervous Coordination
Nervous Coordination
Nerve impulse is a message conveyed along in the form of a weak
electrical pulse

Any changes that Sensory that


Transmit impulse
occur inside and detect stimuli and
to central nervous
outside of the convert it into
system
human body. electrical impulses

Sensory
Stimulus Receptors
neurones
Brain and
spinal
Central integrate
nervous system the
information.
Response Effector Motor neurones

Appropriate action
Muscles or glands Transmit impulse to
taken toward the
that respond the effectors
stimulus.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Koordinasi Saraf
Koordinasi Saraf
Impuls saraf adalah mesej yang disampaikan dalam bentuk denyut
elektrik yang lemah.
Sebarang Organ deria yang
perubahan yang mengesan dan Menghantar impuls
berlaku di dalam menukar ke sistem saraf
atau di luar badan rangsangan kepada pusat.
manusia. impuls elektrik. Otak dan saraf
tunjang
Rangsangan Reseptor Neuron deria mengintegrasi-
kan maklumat.

Sistem saraf
pusat

Tindak balas Efektor Neuron motor

Tindakan yang
Otot atau kelenjar
sesuai dengan Menghantar impuls
yang akan
rangsangan ke efektor.
bertindak balas.
dilakukan.
ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4
Topic 2 Body Coordination

Nervous Coordination

Nervous Coordination

The pathway of the nerve impulse of a student to copy note from


the white board
4. The brain interprets the
3. The nervous impulses
impulses from many relay
pass to relay neurones
neurones and you realise
in the brain
that the phone is ringing.
Your brain also decides
Sensory that you should copy the
neurone notes.
2. Receptors trigger Motor neurone
nerve impulses in 5. Impulses travel along motor
Relay
sensory neurones. neurones to the muscles
neurone
Muscles in the arm
Receptor in
the eye 6. Muscles in the arm carry out
1. Receptor in the eyes
the response and you take a
see the notes on the
pen and paper to copy the
blackboard.
note.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Koordinasi Saraf

Koordinasi Saraf

Perjalanan impuls saraf bagi seorang pelajar yang menyalin nota


dari papan putih.

3. Impuls saraf dihantar ke


4. Otak mentafsir impuls
neuron perantaraan
saraf dari neuron
Neuron dalam otak.
perantaraan dan memberi
perantaraan arahan supaya nota
disalin.
Neuron deria
2. Reseptor mencetus Neuron motor
impuls saraf dalam 5. Neuron motor menghantar
neuron deria. impuls ke otot.

Reseptor Otot dalam lengan


dalam mata
6. Otot dalam lengan menerima
1. Reseptor dalam mata
arahan lalu mengambil pen
melihat nota pada
dan kertas untuk menyalin
papan putih.
nota.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Nervous Coordination
Reflex Action

A reflex action is an immediate and automatic response toward a stimulus


without any conscious control.

Reflex action is involuntary.

The path taken by an impulse in reflex action is called reflex arc.

Sensory
Stimulus Receptors Synapse
neurones

Relay neurone in
spinal cord

Response Effector Motor neurones Synapse

Important of reflex action


Protect us from serious injuries or dangerous situation.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Koordinasi Saraf

Tindakan Refleks

Tindakan refleks adalah suatu gerak balas segera dan automatik terhadap
sesuatu rangsangan luar tanpa kawalan otak.

Tindakan refleks adalah di luar kawalan.

Laluan yang dilintasi oleh impuls dalam tindakan refleks dikenali sebagai arka
refleks.

Rangsangan Reseptor Neuron deria Sinaps

Neuron perantaraan
dalam saraf tunjang

Tindak balas Efektor Neuron motor Sinaps

Kepentingan tindakan refleks


Melindingi kita daripada tercedera atau keadaan bahaya.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Nervous Coordination

Reflex Action
Reflex Action

Example Of Reflex Action

i. Reflex arc in a human knee- ii. Reflex arc when a hand


jerk touches a hot object

iii. Blinking the eyes when sand


is blown by wind.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Koordinasi Saraf

Tindakan Refleks
Tindakan Refleks

Contoh Tindakan Refleks

i. Arka tindakan refleks semasa ii. Tindakan refleks semasa


sentakan lutut tangan tersentuh objek panas

iii. Mengerdipkan mata apabila


pasir ditiup oleh angin

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

2.4 The Role Of Proprioceptors In Maintaining Balance


And Coordination
Peranan Reseptor Regang Dalam Mengekalkan
Keseimbangan Dan Koordinasi

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Role Of Proprioceptors In Maintaining Balance And Coordination

Proprioceptors

 Proprioceptors are sense organs / receptors that are connected to sensory


neurones.
 Proprioceptors are found in muscles, tendons, Iigaments, and vestibular in
the inner ear.
Proprioceptors

Proprioceptors in the
muscle spindles,
tendons and ligament

Prioprioceptor Muscle fibre


Proprioceptor in the
Nerve inner ear
ending Semicircular
Tendon canals
Muscle
spindle

Ligament
ITeach – Science Form 4
Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Reseptor Regang

Reseptor Regang
 Reseptor regang adalah reseptor/ organ deria yang dihubungkan kepada
neuron deria.
 Reseptor regang terdapat di dalam otot, tendon, ligamen, dan vestibular di
dalam telinga.
Reseptor regang

Reseptor di otot, tendon


dan ligamen

Reseptor regang Gentian otot Reseptor regang di


Hujung saraf telinga dalam
Salur separuh
Tendon bulat
Otot

Ligamen
ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4
Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Role Of Proprioceptors In Maintaining Balance And Coordination

The Role Of Proprioceptors In Maintaining


Balance And Coordination

Proprioceptors respond to the changes, movement, pressure


and stretching felt within the body.

Impulses are then initiated and sent to the brain to be


interpreted.

Impulses are transmitted back to body part muscle that is


stimulated for coordination.

Proprioceptors play an important role in kinaesthesis

Kinaesthesis is a sense that allow us to be aware of the


position of our body to maintain balance and detect the
body movement.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Reseptor Regang

Peranan Reseptor Regang

Reseptor regang bergerak balas terhadap perubahan,


pergerakan, tekanan dan regangan.

Impuls yang tercetus dihantar ke otak untuk ditafsirkan.

Impuls dihantar balik ke bahagian otot yang dirangsang


supaya penyelarasan dilakukan.

Reseptor regang penting dalam kinestesis.

Kinestesis adalah deria yang membantu kita mengesan


kedudukan dan pergerakan anggota badan demi menjaga
keseimbangan badan.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Role Of Proprioceptors In Maintaining Balance And Coordination

Walking in
Riding bicycle Playing piono Dancing
tight rope

Activities Involved Kinaesthesis

Using hand to
determine the heavier Tiding shoe lace Changing clothes in the
object between two
objects without seeing without looking at it dark
it

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Reseptor Regang

Menunggang Berjalan di
Main piano Menari
basikal atas tali

Contoh Penggunaan Reseptor


Regang

Menggunakan tangan
untuk menentukan Mengikat tali kasut Menukar baju dalam
berat di antara dua
objek tanpa melihat tanpa melihat keadaan gelap
objek.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

2.5 The Human Brain


Otak Manusia

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Human Brain


Human Brain

Medulla oblongata
Cerebrum •
At the bottom part of brain and
connected to the spinal cord.
• Controls involuntary action such as
Cerebellum heart beat.
• Coordinates reflex action such as
Medulla oblongata
coughing, vomiting.

Cerebrum Cerebellum
• Consist of two hemispheres. • Below and behind cerebrum.
• Biggest part of brain. • Two hemispheres and is folded.
• Made up of grey matter which is • Controls body balance .
highly folded to increase surface area
• Maintain posture.
and store more neurone.
• Controls mental, sensory and • Coordinates all body movement such
voluntary action. as cycling.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Otak Manusia
Otak Manusia

Medula oblongata
Serebrum • Terletak di bawah serebrum dan
bersambung dengan saraf tunjang.
• Mengawal aktiviti luar kawal seperti
Serebelum denyutan jantung.
• Mengawal tindakan refleks seperti
Medula oblongata
batuk dan muntah.

Serebrum Serebelum
• Terdiri daripada dua hemisfera. • Terletak di bawah dan belakang
• Bahagian otak yang paling besar. serebrum.
• Terdiri daripada jirim kelabu yang • Dua hemisfera yang berlipat-lipat.
berlipat-lipat untuk menambahkan • Mengawal keseimbangan badan.
luas permukaan dan menyimpan
lebih banyak neuron. • Mengekalkan postur badan.
• Mengawal pemikiran dan ingatan, • Menyelaraskan pergerakan seperti
aktiviti terkawal, serta deria. menunggang basikal.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Human Brain


The Specific Parts Of The Human Brain And Its
Effect Of Injuries

Memory : Thinking, learning,


Motor centre : Paralysis
loss of memory

Sense in skin and muscle :


Speech : Unable to interpret stimuli
Dumb from the skin

Smell and taste :


Unable to taste Vision :
Partially or completely blind.

Medulla oblongata

Hearing :
Explanation Partially or completely deaf.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Otak Manusia
Bahagian-bahagian Otak Dan Kesan Mengalami
Kecederaan

Ingatan:
Pusat motor :
Berfikir, belajar, kehilangan
Kelumpuhan
ingatan
Deria pada kulit dan otot:
Pertuturan: Hilang upaya mengesan
Bisu rangsangan di kulit

Deria bau dan rasa:


Penglihatan :
Hilang upaya merasa
Sebahagian atau seluruhnya
buta

Medula oblongata

Pendengaran :
Penjelasan Sebahagian atau seluruhnya
pekak

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Human Brain

Voluntary And Involving Action


Voluntary And Involving Action
Similarities : both involve centre nervous
system and peripheral nervous system
Voluntary Involuntary

Control by Cerebrum Medulla oblongata

Awareness
Yes No
during activities
Action can be
Yes No
controlled
Involves somatic nervous Involves automatic nervous
Impulses
system system
Speed of Can be slower down or
Fast
response speeded up

 Writing  Dancing  Heartbeat


Example  Singing  Constriction of pupil
 Excretion

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Otak Manusia

Tindakan Terkawal Dan Tindakan Luar Kawal


Tindakan Terkawal Dan Tindakan Luar Kawal
Persamaan : melibatkan sistem saraf pusat
dan sistem saraf periferi
Terkawal Luar Kawal

Dikawal oleh serebrum Dikawal oleh medula oblongata

Melakukan aktiviti yang disedari Melakukan aktiviti tanpa disedari

Aktiviti boleh dikawal Aktiviti tidak boleh dikawal

Melibatkan sistem saraf soma Melibatkan sistem saraf autonomi

Kadar tindak balas boleh dipercepat


Kadar tindak balas adalah cepat
atau diperlahan
 Menulis  Denyutan jantung
 Menari  Peristalsis
 Menyanyi  Perkumuhan

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

2.6 Hormonal Coordination In The Body


Koordinasi Hormon Dalam Badan

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Hormonal Coordination In The Body

Hormonal Coordination In The Body

Hormonal coordination or chemical coordination involves endocrine glands


and their secretions of hormones.

Hormones

secreted by

Endocrine glands

Pituitary Thyroid Adrenal


Pancreas Ovary Testis
glands gland glands

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Hormon

Koordinasi Hormon

Koordinasi hormon atau koordinasi kimia melibatkan kelenjar endokrin yang


merembeskan hormon.

Hormon

Dirembes oleh

Kelenjar endokrin

Kelenjar Kelenjar Kelenjar


Pankreas Ovari Testis
Pituitari Tiroid Adrenal

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Hormonal Coordination In The Body

Hormone

 Hormones are chemical substances secreted by the


endocrine gland directly into the bloodstream.

 A kind of protons.

 Secreted in small quantities.

 Has specified effect on target organ.

 slow to respond but the response lasts long.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Hormon

Hormon

 Hormon adalah bahan kimia yang dirembes oleh kelenjar


endokrin terus ke dalam aliran darah.

 Merupakan sejenis protein.

 Dirembeskan dalam kuantiti yang sedikit.

 Memberi kesan yang khusus terhadap organ sasaran.

 Bergerak balas lambat tetapi gerak balas kekal lama.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Hormonal Coordination In The Body

Endocrine Gland

Endocrine gland is a ductless gland that secretes


hormone directly into the bloodstream.

Endocrine
hormone gland

bloodstream

Blood vessel

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Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Hormon

Kelenjar Endokrin

Kelenjar endokrin adalah kelenjar tanpa duktus yang


merembes hormon terus ke dalam aliran darah.

Kelenjar
Hormon endokrin

Aliran darah

Salur darah

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Hormonal Coordination In The Body

Endocrine System

Consists of endocrine glands and their secretions of hormone.

Response to stimuli
from internal and Endocrine Glands Ductless glands
external environment.
secrete
Effect is
long
Small amount lasting
Hormones

Directly into
Slow to
Kind of proteins bloodstream
respond
Specific target organs in
another part of body.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Hormon

Sistem Endokrin

Terdiri daripada kelenjar endokrin yang merembeskan hormon

Bergerak balas terhadap


rangsangan dari dalam Kelenjar Endokrin Kelenjar tanpa duktus
dan luar.
merembes
Tindak
balas
Kuantiti sedikit kekal
Hormon lama

Terus ke dalam Tindak


Sejenis Protein aliran darah balas
lambat
Organ sasaran spesifik di
bahagian badan lain.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Hormonal Coordination In The Body

Main Endocrine Glands In Human Body

At the base of the


Pituitary gland
cerebrum gland.

lies in the neck region


Pituitary Thyroid gland
gland
in front of trachea.
Thyroid
gland Adrenal gland above the kidneys.
Female
Adrenal
gland
Pancreas below the stomach.
Pancreas
Ovary
Male Ovary in the abdomen.
Testis

Testis protected by scrotum.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Hormon

Kelenjar Endokrin Utama Dalam Badan Manusia

Terletak di bahagian
Kelenjar
bawah kelenjar
Pituitari
serebrum.
Terletak di kawasan
Kelenjar Kelenjar Tiroid leher di hadapan
Pituitari trakea.
Kelenjar
Tiroid Kelenjar
Terletak di atas ginjal.
Adrenal
perempuan
Kelenjar
Adrenal Terletak di bawah
Pankreas
Pankreas
perut.
Ovari
lelaki Terletak di dalam
Ovari
Testis abdomen.

Dilindingi oleh
Testis
skrotum.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Hormonal Coordination In The Body

Pituitary

Main gland because it


Gland Pituitary stimulates other
endocrine glands.
Secrete
Antidiuretic hormone
Hormone Growth hormone
(ADH)

To control water
Stimulates growth of
Function absorption from the
muscles and bones
kidneys.

 Kidney absorbs a lot of water


Excessive Hormonal
 Gigantism causing urine to be in a small
Secretions
quantity and concentrated.

 Less water is absorbed by the


Deficient Hormonal  Dwarfism kidney causing urine to be in
Secretion
large quantity and dilute.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Hormon

Pituitari

Kelenjar utama kerana


Kelenjar Pituitari ia merangsang kelenjar
endokrin yang lain.
merembes
Hormon Hormon Antidiuretik
Hormon
Pertumbuhan (ADH)

Merangsang Mengawal
Fungsi pertumbuhan otot dan penyerapan air dari
tulang. ginjal.

 Lebih air diserap di ginjal


Berlebihan hormon  Kegergasian menyebabkan urin yang
sedikit dan pekat dihasilkan.

 Kurang air diserap di ginjal


 Pertumbuhan
Kekurangan hormon menyebabkan urin yang
terbantut
banyak dan cair dihasilkan.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Hormonal Coordination In The Body

Thyroid

Gland Thyroid
Secrete
Hormone Thryoxine

Controls the body’s Control mental


Function metabolic rate and development in
stimulates growth. children.

 Metabolic rate
increases, heart-beat
Excessive
accelerate, blood  Sweating  Protruding
Hormonal
pressure and body occur. eyeballs
Secretions
temperature
increases.

Deficient  Metabolic  Stunted physical and


 Causes
Hormonal rate become retarded mental
goitre.
Secretion slow. development in children.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Hormon

Kelenjar Tiroid

Kelenjar Tiroid
Merembes
Hormon Tiroksin

Mengawal kadar Mengawal


metabolisme dan perkembangan
Fungsi
merangsang minda kanak-
pertumbuhan. kanak.
 Kadar metabolisme
tinggi, denyutan
Berlebihan  Banyak  Bebola mata
jangtung laju, tekanan
hormon berpeluh. menonjol.
darah dan suhu badan
meningkat.

 Pertumbuhan terbantut
 Kadar
Kekurangan dan perkembangan minda
metabolisme  Goiter.
hormon terencat di kalangan
rendah.
kanak-kanak.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Hormonal Coordination In The Body


Pancreas

Controls blood
Gland Pancreas
sugar level.
Secrete
Hormone Insulin Glucagon

 Converts glucose to  Converts glycogen to


glycogen in the liver. glucose in the liver.
Function  Controls blood sugar
level  Increases blood sugar
 Decreases blood sugar level.
level.
 Blood sugar level drop,
Excessive Hormonal
which may lead to shock
Secretions
and coma.
 Blood sugar level
increases in blood and
Deficient Hormonal
urine.
Secretion
 May cause diabetes
mellitus.
ITeach – Science Form 4
Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Hormon
Pankreas

Mengawal aras
Kelenjar Pankreas
glukosa dalam darah.
Merembes
Hormon Insulin Glukagon

 Menukar glukosa ke  Menukar glikogen ke


glikogen dalam hati. glukosa dalam hati.
 Mengawal aras gukosa  Mengawal aras gukosa
Fungsi
dalam darah. dalam darah.
 Menurunkan aras  Menaikkan aras glukosa
glukosa dalam darah. dalam darah.
 Aras glukosa dalam
Berlebihan hormon darah menurun dan
menyebabkan koma.

 Aras glukosa dalam


darah meningkat dan
Kekurangan hormon
menyebabkan penyakit
kencing manis.
ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4
Topic 2 Body Coordination

Hormonal Coordination In The Body

Adrenal

Gland Adrenal
Secrete
Hormone Adrenaline

 Increase the  Increases


 Prepare
Function rate of breathing blood glucose
muscle action.
and heartbeat. concentrations

Excessive  Blood sugar level and salt


Hormonal  Blood pressure increases. concentration in blood
Secretions increases.

Deficient
 Lack of ability to
Hormonal  Muscle become weak.
overcome stress.
Secretion

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Hormon

Kelenjar Adrenal

Kelenjar Adrenal
Merembes
Hormon Adrenalin

 Menaikkan kadar  Menaikkan


pernafasan dan kepekatan  Menyediakan
Fungsi
denyutan glukosa dalam tindakan otot.
jantung. darah.

 Kandungan glukosa dan


Berlebihan
 Menaikkan tekanan darah. garam dalam darah
hormon
meningkat.

Kekurangan  Kurang upaya mengatasi


 Otot menjadi lemah.
hormon tekanan.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Hormonal Coordination In The Body

Ovary

Gland Ovary
Secrete
Hormone Oestrogen

 Stimulates
 Controls  Prepares
female’s
Function menstrual uterus lining
secondary sex
cycle. for pregnancy.
characteristics.

Excessive
Hormonal  Extreme feminine characteristics.
Secretions

 Incomplete
Deficient  Menstrual development of
Hormonal  Infertility. cycle secondary sex
Secretion interrupted. characteristics in
females.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Hormon

Ovari

Kelenjar Ovari
Merembes
Hormon Estrogen

 Merangsang
perkembangan  Menyediakan
 Mengawal
Fungsi ciri-ciri seks uterus untunk
kitaran haid.
sekunder kehamilan.
perempuan.

Berlebihan
 Berlebihan ciri-ciri kewanitaan.
hormon

 Ketidaksempurnaan
Kekurangan  Ketidak-  Kitar haid perkembangan ciri-ciri
hormon suburan terjejas. seks sekunder
perempuan.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Hormonal Coordination In The Body

Progesterone

Gland Progesterone
Secrete
Hormone Progesterone

 Stimulates development of  Prevent contraction of


Function milk gland during uterus in pregnant woman
pregnancy. to avoid a miscarriage.

Excessive
Hormonal -
Secretions

Deficient  Miscarriage
Hormonal  Menstrual problems
Secretion

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Hormon

Progesteron

Kelenjar Progesteron
Merembes
Hormon Progesteron

 Mengelakkan pengecutan
 Merangsang
uterus semasa kehamilan
Fungsi perkembangan kelenjar
bagi mencegah
susu semasa kehamilan.
keguguran.

Berlebihan
-
hormon

Kekurangan  Keguguran  Masalah kitaran haid


hormon

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Hormonal Coordination In The Body

Testis

Gland Testis
Secrete
Hormone Testosterone

 Control males secondary  Stimulates the production


Function
sex characteristic. of sperms.

Excessive
Hormonal  Extreme masculine characteristic
Secretions

Deficient  Incomplete development


Hormonal of secondary sex  Low sperms count.
Secretion characteristics in males.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Hormon

Testis

Kelenjar Testis
Merembes
Hormon Testosteron

 Mengawal perkembangan
 Merangsang penghasilan
Fungsi ciri-ciri seks sekunder
sperma.
lelaki.

Berlebihan
 Berlebihan ciri-ciri kelelakian.
hormon

 Ketidaksempurnaan
Kekurangan  Jumlah sperma
perkembangan ciri-ciri
hormon berkurang.
seks sekunder lelaki.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

2.7 Coordination Between The Nervous System And The


Endocrine System
Koordinasi Antara Sistem Saraf Dengan Sistem
Endokrin

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Coordination Between The Nervous System And The Endocrine System

Similarities Between Nervous Coordination And


Endocrine Coordination

 To control and regulate activities of organs in the


body.

 Ensure survival of life.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Antara Sistem Saraf Dengan Sistem Endokrin

Persamaan Antara Koordinasi Saraf Dengan Koordinasi


Endokrin

 Untuk mengawal atur dan menyelaras aktiviti


organ dalam badan.

 Menjamin kemandirian hidup.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Coordination Between The Nervous System And The Endocrine System


Differences Between
Nervous Coordination And Endocrine Coordination

Nervous Coordination Endocrine Coordination

 brain, spinal cord and  endocrine glands and


Consists of
neurones (nerves) hormone
 chemicals called
 electrical impulses
Form of impulse hormones through
through nerves
bloodstream
Speed of
 fast  slow
transmission
 widespread and
 specific organ or
Affected area covers the whole
gland
body

Effect  temporary  long-lasting

 immediate and short-


Response  slow and long-lasting
lived

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Antara Sistem Saraf Dengan Sistem Endokrin

Perbezaan Antara Koordinasi Saraf


Dengan Koordinasi Endokrin

Koordinasi saraf Koordinasi endokrin

 Otak, saraf tunjang dan  Kelenjar endokrin dan


Terdiri daripada
neuron (saraf) hormon
 Bahan kimia yang
 Impuls elektrik melalui
Jenis impuls dikenali sebagai hormon
saraf
melalui aliran darah
Kelajuan
 Cepat  Perlahan
penghantaran

Kawasan yang  Organ atau kelenjar  Meluas dan merangkumi


terjejas spesifik seluruh badan

Kesan  Tidak kekal lama  Kekal lama

 Perlahan dan
Tindak balas  Cepat dan sementara
berkekalan

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Coordination Between The Nervous System And The Endocrine System

Importance Of Coordination
Between Nervous System
And Endocrine System

 Both nervous system and endocrine


system can detect changes in the
environment simultaneosly

 Both system respond in their own way to


bring about appropriate reaction.

 This enable our body’s function such as


physical, chemical and physiological
responses occur at their optimum level.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Antara Sistem Saraf Dengan Sistem Endokrin

Kepentingan Koordinasi
Antara Sistem Saraf
Dengan Sistem Endokrin

 Kedua-dua sistem saraf dan sistem


endokrin mengesan perubahan
persekitaran secara serentak.

 Kedua-dua sistem bergerak balas


terhadap rangsangan dengan cara
tersendiri.

 Membolehkan fungsi badan mencapai


optimum dari segi tindak balas fizikal,
kimia dan fisiologi.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Coordination Between The Nervous System And The Endocrine System


Example Of The Coordination Between The Nerous System And The
Endocrine System In Rsponse To A Specific Stimulus (Fright And Flight)
 Stimulus = Source of danger (House on Five)

 Receptor = Sense of organ (Ear, Eye, Nose)


Impulse is sent to
Parts of body
Effect of hormonal system Effect of nervous system
affected
Interpret the impulse and send to
1. Brain Blood supply to brain increases
receptive organs
2. Adrenal Secretes adrenaline and transmit Impulse sent through autonomic
gland through bloodstream. nervous system.
Heart rate increases to supply more
Medulla oblongata controls involuntary
3. Heart blood and oxygen to every parts of
action to increase heartbeat rate.
body
Bronchioles dilate to increase Medulla oblongata controls involuntary
4. Lungs
breathing rate to intake more oxygen. action to increase breathing rate.
Secretes glucagon to convert
5. Liver
glycogen to glucose.
-
Blood supply increases to supply Impulse receive by muscle, causing it to
6. Muscle
more energy to muscle. contract to do action.

Response – Run away from danger / call for help!


ITeach – Science Form 4
Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Koordinasi Antara Sistem Saraf Dengan Sistem Endokrin


Contoh Koordinasi Antara Sistem Saraf Dengan Sistem Endokrin Terhadap
Rangsangan Tertentu (Fright And Flight)
 Rangsangan = Sumber kecemasan (Rumah terbakar)

 Reseptor = Organ deria (Telinga, mata,hidung)


Impuls dihantar ke
Bahagian Sistem endokrin Sistem saraf
Mentafsir dan menghantar impuls ke
1. Otak Peningkatan bekalan darah ke otak
organ tertentu
2. Kelenjar Hormon adrenalin dirembes dan Impuls dihantar melalui sistem saraf
Adrenal dihantar melalui aliran darah autonomi
Kadar denyutan jantung bertambah Aktiviti luar kawal dikawal oleh medula
3. Jantung untuk membekal lebih banyak darah dan oblongata bagi meningkatkan kadar
oksigen kepada seluruh badan denyutan jantung
Bronkiol memperluas untuk menaikkan Aktiviti luar kawal dikawal oleh medula
4. Peparu kadar pernafasan dan mengambil masuk oblongata bagi meningkatkan kadar
lebih oksigen pernafasan
Glukagon dirembes bagi menukar
5. Hati
glikogen ke glukosa
-
Peningkatan bekalan darah bagi
Otot menerima impuls lalu mengecut dan
6. Otot membekal lebih banyak tenaga kepada
bertindak
otot
Tindak balas – Melarikan diri / Minta tolong
ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4
Topic 2 Body Coordination

2.8 Effects Of Drug Abuse On Body Coordination And


Health
Kesan Penyalahgunaan Dadah Terhadap Koordinasi
Badan Dan Kesihatan

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Effect Of Drug Abuse On Body Coordination Health

Drugs

chemical substance that can influence the function of


the nervous system

Beneficial Of Drug
Beneficial Of Drug

Antibiotics Pamkiller Steriod

• Use to treat diseases • Use to relieve pain. • To treat disease under


cause by bacteria. doctor’s prescription.
• Example :
• Eexample : Penicillin Paracetamol Aspirin

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Kesan Penyalahgunaan Dadah Terhadap Koordinasi Badan Dan Kesihatan

Dadah

Bahan kimia yang mempengaruhi fungsi sistem saraf

Kebaikan dadah
Kebaikan dadah

Antibiotik Ubat menahan sakit Steriod


• Untuk merawat • Untuk melegakan • Untuk merawat
penyakit yang kesakitan. penyakit dengan
disebabkan oleh • Contoh : Parasetamol adanya preskripsi
bakteria. dan Aspirin doktor.
• Contoh : Penicillin

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Effect Of Drug Abuse On Body Coordination Health

Drug Abuse And Its Effect On Body Coordination

Drug abuse is the taking of drug excessively not for medical


purposes.

Stimulation
 Brain becomes active.
 Increase metabolic rate.
 Becomes active, cannot sleep and
aggresive.

Effects Of Drug Abuse On


Body Coordination

Slow down body response Hallucination


 Slow down response to stimuli.  Affect the function of brain.
 Poor muscular coordination.  Wrong perception of distance,
 Feel sleepy and less aware of his space and time.
surrounding.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Kesan Penyalahgunaan Dadah Terhadap Koordinasi Badan Dan Kesihatan


Penyalahgunaan Dadah Dan Kesannya Terhadap Koordinasi
Badan

Penyalahgunaan dadah adalah pengambilan dadah secara


berlebihan dan bukan untuk tujuan perubatan.

Stimulasi
 Otak menjadi aktif.
 Kadar metabolisme bertambah.
 Aktif, agresif dan tidak boleh tidur.

Kesan penyalahgunaan dadah


terhadap koordinasi badan

Gerak balas badan menjadi perlahan Halusinasi


 Kurang peka terhadap  Fungsi otak terjejas.
rangsangan.
 Koordinasi otot yang kurang baik.  Salah persepsi terhadap jarak,
 Mengantuk dan kurang sedar akan ruang dan masa.
persekitaran.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Effect Of Drug Abuse On Body Coordination Health


Types Of Drug

Types of drug Example Effect

• • Stimulate reaction
Cocaine
• Increase metabolism rate
Stimulants • Amphetamines
• Make a person more active, aggressive,
• Nicotine loss appetite and is unable to sleep
• Morphine • Slow down reaction
• Barbiturate • Calm a person’s mind and less anxious.
Depressants
• Tranquiliser • Excessive amount may cause drowsiness
• Heroin and may result in coma
• Morphine
• Help to relieve pain
Opiates / Narcotics • Heroin
• Opium • Induce sleep
• Marijuana • Cause hallucination
Hallucinogens • LSD • Change the thought and emotion of the
• Cannabis user.
• Glue • Cause hallucination and damage brain,
Inhalants lungs and kidneys.
• Paint thinner

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Kesan Penyalahgunaan Dadah Terhadap Koordinasi Badan Dan Kesihatan


Jenis Dadah

Jenis Contoh Kesan

• • Merangsang tindakan
Kokaine
• Menaikkan kadar metabolisme
Stimulan • Amfetamin
• Seseorang menjadi aktif, agresif, hilang
• Nikotin selera makan, dan tidak dapat tidur
• Morfin • Memperlahan tindakan
• Barbiturat • Menenangkan minda dan mengurangkan
Depresen perasaan cemas seseorang
• Tranquiliser
• Pengambilan berlebihan menyebabkan
• Heroin seseorang mengantuk lalu koma
• Morfin
• Melegakan kesakitan
Opiat / Narkotik • Heroin
• Opium (candu) • Menyebabkan seseorang boleh tidur
• Marijuana (ganja) • Menyebabkan khayalan
Halusinogen • LSD • Mempengaruh fikiran dan emosi seseorang
• Kanabis
• Gam • Menyebabkan khayalan dan kerosakan
Inhalan otak, peparu dan ginjal
• Pelarut cat

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Effect Of Drug Abuse On Body Coordination Health

Low immune system Loss of appetite


 Susceptible to disease  Causes malnutrition

Effects
EffectsOf
Of Weaken respiratory system
Poor physical and mental Drug
Drug
Abuse  Causes bronchitis and
health AbuseOnOn
Health flu.
Health

Withdrawal symptom High risk to contract


without drug HIV and Hepatitis B

 Vomiting, diarrhoea  Due to sharing of


hallucination. injection needles

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Kesan Penyalahgunaan Dadah Terhadap Koordinasi Badan Dan Kesihatan

Sistem imun rendah Kehilangan nafsu makan


 Terdedah kepada  Menyebabkan malnutrisi
pelbagai penyakit

Kesan
Kesan
Penyalah-
Penyalah- Sistem pernafasan lemah
Kesihatan fizikal dan gunaan
gunaan
mental terjejas Dadah  Menyebabkan bronkitis
Dadah
Terhadap
Terhadap dan selesema
Kesihatan
Kesihatan

Gejala berhenti Berisiko menghidapi HIV


pengambilan dadah dan Hepatitis B

 Muntah, cirit birit,  Pengkongsian jarum


berkhayal suntikan

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Effect Of Drug Abuse On Body Coordination Health

Factors The Cause Drug Abuse


Factors The Cause Drug Abuse

Factors That Cause


Drug Abuse

Run away from


Peer influence. Curiousity to try. personal problem Pleasure seeking.
and daily pressure.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Kesan Penyalahgunaan Dadah Terhadap Koordinasi Badan Dan Kesihatan

Faktor Menyebabkan Penyalahgunaan Dadah


Faktor Menyebabkan Penyalahgunaan Dadah

Faktor Menyebabkan
Penyalahgunaan Dadah

Melarikan diri dari


Pengaruh rakan Keinginan untuk Mencari
masalah peribadi
sebaya mencuba keseronokan
dan tekanan harian

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Effect Of Drug Abuse On Body Coordination Health

Ways To Prevent Drug Abuse

 Parental guidance and love for the young.

 Education to prevent drug abuse and anti drug campaigns through mass
media.

 Strict enforcement of low by authorities.

 Rehabilitation of drug addicts.

 Emphasis on religious and moral education.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Kesan Penyalahgunaan Dadah Terhadap Koordinasi Badan Dan Kesihatan

Cara Mencegah Penyalahgunaan Dadah

 Bimbingan dan kasih sayang ibu bapa.

 Pendidikan bagi mencegah penyalahgunaan dadah dan kempen anti dadah


melalui media masa.

 Memgetatkan undang-undang.

 Pemulihan penagih dadah.

 Penekanan atas pendidikan agaman dan moral.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

2.9 Effects Of Excessive Consumption Of Alcohol On


Body Coordination And Health
Kesan Alkohol Terhadap Koordinasi Badan Dan
Kesihatan

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Effects Of Excessive Consumption Of Alcohol On Body Coordination And Health


Alcoholic Drinks

All alcoholic drinks contain ethanol.

Ethanol is a psychoactive substance which can affect the efficiency of the body
coordination and health.

Tapai, sake and rice wine


 From fermented rice.

Wine and brandy Toddy


Example Of Alcoholic  From fermented
 From fermented Drinks fresh juice of
grape. coconuts flower.

Whisky, Beer, Ale And Gin Cider


 From fermented grain  From fermented apple.
such as barley wheat.

Different alcoholic drinks differ in the percentage of ethanol contain.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Kesan Alkohol Terhadap Koordinasi Badan Dan Kesihatan
Minuman Keras

Semua minuman keras mengandungi etanol.

Etanol adalah bahan psikoaktif yang boleh menjejas kecekapan koordinasi


badan dan kesihatan.

Tapai, Sake dan Wain beras


 Diperbuat dari nasi yang ditapai

Wain dan Brendi Todi


 Diperbuat dari  Diperbuat dari jus
Contoh minuman keras
anggur yang bunga kelapa
ditapai yang ditapai

Wiski, Bir, Ale dan Gin Cider


 Diperbuat dari bijiran  Diperbuat dari epal
yang ditapai seperti yang ditapai
gandum dan barli

Minuman keras yang berbeza mengandungi peratusan etanol yang berbeza.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Effects Of Excessive Consumption Of Alcohol On Body Coordination And Health


Effects Of Excessive Consumption Of Alcohol On
Body Coordination

Alcohol is a depressant that slows down the nervous system and the brain functions.

Effects Of Alcohol In Different Dosages

Doses Effect On Body Coordination


• Relaxing effect.
• Reduces tension.
• Reduces concentration.
Low • Slows down body’s reaction time.
• Poor judgement of distance.
• Walk clumsy and unsteady.
• Blurred vision.
• Slurred speech.
Medium
• Drowsiness.
• Altered emotions.
• Vomiting.
• Breathing difficulties.
High
• Unconsciousness.
• Coma.
ITeach – Science Form 4
Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Kesan Alkohol Terhadap Koordinasi Badan Dan Kesihatan

Kesan Alkohol Terhadap Koordinasi Badan

Alkohol adalah depresen yang meperlahankan fungsi sistem saraf dan otak.

Kesan Alkohol Pada Dos Berlainan

Dos Kesan Pada Koordinasi Badan


• Mengurangkan ketegangan.
• Mengurangkan tekanan.
• Mengurangkan penumpuan.
Rendah • Badan bertindak lambat.
• Anggaran jarak kurang tepat.
• Berjalan secara bergoyah-goyah.
• Penglihatan kabur.
• Pertuturan terjejas.
Sederhana
• Mengantuk.
• Emosi terjejas.
• Muntah.
• Sesak nafas.
Tinggi
• Ketidaksedaran.
• Koma.
ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4
Topic 2 Body Coordination

Effects Of Excessive Consumption Of Alcohol On Body Coordination And Health


Effects Of Excessive Consumption Of Alcohol On
Body Coordination
 Alcohol is a small molecule  Alcohol is soluble in liquid and water solution
 Alcohol easily gets into the bloodstream.

Effect Of Alcohol On Health

Organs Damages caused by excessive consumption of alcohol


• Slow down brain function.
Brain • Unconscious.
• Damage brain cells causing brain size to shrink.
• Hardening of liver or Cirrhosis.
Liver
• Inflammation of the liver.

• Heart muscles may deteriorate.


Heart
• Causes high blood pressure.

Stomach • Causes gastric and ulcers.

• Kidney tend to reabsorbs less water.


Kidney
• Cause dehydration.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Kesan Alkohol Terhadap Koordinasi Badan Dan Kesihatan
Kesan Alkohol Terhadap Kesihatan

 Alkohol adalah molekul kecil  Alkohol mudah masuk ke dalam aliran


 Alkohol melarut dalam cecair dan air darah

Kesan Alkohol Terhadap Kesihatan

Organ Kerosakan yang disebabkan oleh pengambilan berlebihan


• Melambatkan fungsi otak.
Otak • Tidak peka.
• Kerosakan sel otak menyebabkan saiz otak menyusut.
• Pengerasan hati atau Sirosis.
Hati
• Keradangan hati.

• Kerosakan otot jantung.


Jantung
• Tekanan darah tinggi.

Perut • Menyebabkan gastrik dan ulser.

• Kurang air diserap balik di ginjal.


Ginjal
• Menyebabkan dehidrasi.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

Effects Of Excessive Consumption Of Alcohol On Body Coordination And Health

Excessive Consumption Of Alcohol

Is harmful to

Drinkers Families Society


 Cannot work properly.  Become aggressive  Alcohol slows down
easily and cause reaction time and
spousal or children cause rood accident.
abuse.
 Affects drinkers’  Family breakdown.  Alcohol abuse may
health. cause crime.

 Loss of job and turn  Broken family may


to crime. cause social
problems.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan
Kesan Alkohol Terhadap Koordinasi Badan Dan Kesihatan

Pengambilan Alkohol Berlebihan

Berbahaya bagi

Individu Keluarga Masyarakat


 Tidak boleh bekerja  Menjadi agresif lalu  Melambatkan masa
dengan baik. mendera isteri atau bergerak balas dan
anak. menyebabkan
kemalangan jalan
raya.
 Menjejas kesihatan  Keluarga berpecah
 Menyebabkan
seseorang. belah.
berlakunya jenayah.
 Ketidaksempurnaan
 Kehilangan kerja lalu
keluarga
melakukan jenayah.
menyebabkan
pelbagai masalah
sosial.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

2.10 The Importance Of A Sound And Healthy Mind


Kepentingan Minda Yang Waras Dan Sihat

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Important Of A Sound And Healthy Mind


Mind is define as the
Mind ability of brain to
think and reason

Sound and health mind Unsound and unhealth mind

Enables a person to think


A person cannot reason properly.
rationally.

Characteristic of sound and Characteristic of unsound and


healthy mind. unhealthy mind

 Caring and loving.  Bad tempered.

 Positive thinking.  Easily being stress up.

 Fair when making judgement.  Make unfair judgement.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Kepentingan Minda Yang Waras Dan Sihat


Minda adalah
Minda kebolehan otak
seseorang berfikir.

Minda yang kurang waras dan


Minda yang waras dan sihat
kurang sihat

Membolehkan seseorang berfikir Seseorang tidak boleh berfikir


secara rasional. secara betul.

Ciri-ciri: Ciri-ciri:

 Prihatin dan berkasih sayang.  Tidak dapat mengawal perasaan.

 Berfikiran positif.  Sentiasa berasa tertekan.

 Wajar semasa membuat  Tidak wajar semasa membuat


penilaian. penilaian.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Important Of A Sound And Healthy Mind

Factors That Influence The Mind


Factors That Influence The Mind

External Factor Internal Factor

Mental stress Brain injury


(Examination and sad experieces) (Disease or accident)

Social factor Hormone imbalance


(Family and peers) (Lack or excess hormone secretion)

Enviromenalt condition Drug abuse


(Weather and temperature) (Hallucination)

Excessive consumption of alcohol


(Central nervous system affected)

Disease
(Gastric or body ache)

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Kepentingan Minda Yang Waras Dan Sihat

Faktor-faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Minda


Faktor-faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Minda

Faktor Luaran Faktor Dalaman

Tekanan minda Kecederaan otak


(peperiksaan atau pengalaman sedih) (penyakit atau kemalangan)

Faktor sosial Ketidakseimbangan hormon


(keluarga dan rakan sebaya) (kekurangan/berlebihan rembesan hormon)

Keadaan persekitaran Penyalahgunaan dadah


(cuaca dan suhu) (berkhayal)

Pengambilan alkohol secara


berlebihan
(sistem saraf pusat terjejas)

Penyakit
(Gastrik atau kesakitan badan)

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


Topic 2 Body Coordination

The Important Of A Sound And Healthy Mind

Importance Of
Importance Of
Healthy Mind
Healthy Mind

Enable a person to
Make a person cheerful
make logical judgement
and positive thinking.
before action.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Bab 2 Koordinasi Badan

Kepentingan Minda Yang Waras Dan Sihat

Kepentingan Minda Yang Sihat


Kepentingan Minda Yang Sihat

Membolehkan individu
Supaya individu selalu
membuat penilaian
ceria dan berfikiran
yang logik sebelum
positif.
bertindak.

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 4


The End

i - Teach