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STAT 114Probability&Statistics
Week- 11 Lecture-20
Semester- Fall 2018
Prepared by:
Ms Iram Sarwar
Assistant Professor
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Preambles

 Sampling
 Central limit theorem
 Concept of Normal Distribution

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Statistical Inference

The process of drawing inferences about population on the basis of information


contained in sample taken from the population is called Statistical Inference. statistical
inference is traditionally divided into two following major areas:
 Estimation of parameters
 Testing of hypothesis

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Estimation

 Estimation is a procedure by which we obtain an estimate of true but unknown value of


a population parameter by using the sample observations from the population. For
example, we may estimate the mean and variance of population by computing the
mean and variance of a sample drawn from population.
 Estimation is further divided into two types”
i. Point estimation
ii. Interval estimation

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Graphicaly
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Symbols:
parameters of population: , 2,
, generally Q Sample
with size n
sample chracteristics :
Population – size N,
2 resp.  (infinity)
x , s ,s
Generally:un

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Point Estimation and interval estimation

A point estimation is a process of estimating a single numerical value of unknown population


parameter by using sample information.
A confidence interval estimate of the unknown parameter is an interval computed from a random
sample of n values with a statement of how confident ( e.g 90 %,95% or 99 %) we are that the
interval contains the unknown parameter.

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Interval estimate of parameter Q 7

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Testing of Hypothesis

Testing of hypothesis is a procedure which enables us to decide on the basis of information


obtained by sampling whether to accept or reject any specified statement or hypothesis
regarding the value of the parameter in a statistical problem.

Note: Detailed discussion on testing of hypothesis will be done in later lectures

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(1- )% Confidence interval for population
mean µ

 Case1: When (Population variance) is known

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(1- )% Confidence interval for
population mean µ

Case2: When (Population variance) is unknown, n 30

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(1- )% Confidence interval for
population mean µ

Case3: When (Population variance) is unknown, and n < 30

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Class Task
 Question #1:
Find a 95% confidence interval for population mean of a normal population which has
=10 , consider a sample size n=25 with a sample mean of 67.53 .
 Question #2:
A random sample of 65 bolts from a shipment had a mean diameter of 0.51 inches and a standard
deviation of 0.16 inches. Construct a 99% confidence interval for the population mean ?
 Question #3:
A sample size 16 from a normal population with unknown standard deviation , gave = 14.5 and
s=5.find 90% confidence interval for population mean .
 Question #:4:
A random sample of 10 boys had the following I.Q’s:70,120,110,101,88,83,95,107,100,98.Find the 95%
confidence interval for population mean .assume that I.Q’s are normally distributed and variance of
population
Lahore is not known.
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Home Assignment.

 Attempt following question from exercise Page #316 & 317


 Q#1to Q#3
 Q#5 part a, Q#4 part a
 Q#10
 Q#11
 Q#12
 Q#13
Reference book: Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists by Ronald E. Walpole, Raymond H.
Myers, Sharon L. Myers and Keying E. Ye, Pearson; 9th Edition (January 6, 2011). ISBN-10: 0321629116 2

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Q&A

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References

 Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists by Ronald E. Walpole,


Raymond H. Myers, Sharon L. Myers and Keying E. Ye, Pearson; 9th Edition
(January 6, 2011). ISBN-10: 0321629116 2
 Walpole, P.E., Myers R.H., Myers S.L. (1998), “Probability and Statistics for
Engineers and Scientists”, 7th Ed. Prentice Hall.
 Introduction to Statistical Theory Part 2,Prof Sher Muhammad Chaudhry

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