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Aspects of semantic

knowledge

4 TH MEETING
Definition of aspect
Aspect is a grammatical category associated with verbs that
expresses a temporal view of the event or state expressed by
the verb.
Aspect is often indicated by verbal affixes or auxiliary verbs.
Aspect is expressed primarily in the predicates of sentences.
Aspect is both grammatical and lexical ; it is expressed in
predicates, especially in verb inflections and collocations of
verbs.
Aspect…
Eg :
It’s beggining to break
It’s breaking
it broke
it’s Broken.
Aspect…
Generic and specific predications
Stative predicates and dynamic predicates
Durative and punctual
Telic and atelic
Ingressive, continuative, egressive aspect
Prospective and retrospective
Generic and Specific Predications
Generic is the statements about things that we can not change. (regularity)
A. Two and two make four.
B. Rabbits are rodents
C. The Atlantic Ocean separates Africa and South America
D. A stitch in time saves nine
Sentences a-d are ‘eternal truths,’ statements about things that we do not expect to change.
They report unbounded situation, or states.
Non generic predication
Non-Generic is statement about things or situation we can change.
a non generic sentence is one expressing an opposed of regularity
Examples
Stella seems happy.
I have a stomachache
the sentences are about temporary states, they are bounded
Stative Predicates
Stative Predicates is describe sentence that exist, whether permanent or temporary in nature
Stative : The sentences who never know how many time or the sentence that we do not know
how long the duration is running
Gregory arrived here
I recovered from my headache.
The company started manufacturing silicon chips
Stella lost her tired look
Dynamic Predicates
Dynamic is about explanation with duration who was determined and it was running in
accordance with the time that has been made / as usual
Dynamic : The sentences that we just know the timing from begin to ending.
Something moved
The sun came up
The boat drifted along
They discussed the plan
Employes are working 8 hours/day
Durative and Punctual
They sat in the last row” can be the equivalent of what is
more precisely expressed as
They sat down in the last row (punctual)
They were sitting in the last row (durative)
They were sitting in the last row every Saturday (habitual)
Next…
Durative is related to, or being the verbal aspect that expresses action continuing unbroken for a
period of time
Punctual is related to, or being the verbal aspect that expresses momentary action or action
considered as having no temporal duration.
A number of punctual verbs of this type can be used in the present tense to express an event
planned for a future time.
Titanic movie was shown in three hours. (Durative)
Titanic Movie is running on theater from 07.00 pm until 10.00 am (Punctual)
TELIC

Telic means "having an end”


Telic verbs describe actions with a clear, foreseeable end.
Here are sentences with telic verbs.

"She built a house. He drank a cup of coffee. I ran home.“


When she built the house, she was done when there was a
standing house.
ATELIC
George was waiting -Sandra was holding the baby.
Sandra was swimming-George was running
The predicates do not have an end or a goal; they are atelic.
Atelic is the sentence are carried out and have a result.
Actually, no sentence or activities that no results but here stated that
Atelic is something existing activities have goal but the goal like often
activity but that does not mean we do things that are included what
we like.
Ingressive, continuative, egressive aspect

Ingressive aspect: Donald gets to/arrives at/reaches the


door.
Continuative aspect: Donald stays at/remains at the door.
Egressive aspect : Donald leaves/departs from the door.
Aspect differs but thematic structure is the same:
Argument, -Predicate, - Argument Affected Status, Location
Donald Door
Prospective and retrospective

Prospective verbs; they are oriented toward later


happenings.
Tata is thinking of visiting her grandmother.
We asked Rizal to drive slower.

retrospective verbs are Verbs like apologize and deny.


Edgar apologized for missing the meeting. (or,…for having
missed the meeting)
We denied seeing the report. (or,…having seen the report)
Utterances, Sentences, and Propositions

An Utterance is any sound of talk, that human produce.


The characteristics of utterance are:
•It is spoken
•Physical event
•May be grammatical or not (REMEMBER, utterances do not focus on the grammatical aspect)
•Meaningful or meaningless
•By specific person (in particular accent)
•By specific time or on particular occasion
•A piece of language (a single phrase or even a single word)
Utterance
An utterance is the use of any piece of language by a particular
speaker on a particular situation. It can be in the form of a
sequence of sentences, a single clause, a single phrase, or just a
single word.
Examples:
Tina visits her niece and meets a new friend
Tina :”Hi”
Toni was sweeping the floor when a hot frying pan was fallen
Toni: “Ouch”
Sentence
A sentence is a string of words put together by the grammatical of rules of a
language expressing a complete thought. It is neither physical event nor a
physical object. A sentence can include words grouped meaningfully to express a
statement, question, exclamation, request or command.
Example:
After cooking, mother speaks to father softly
Mother : “I am tired
I am a student.
Proposition

A proposition is a sentence expressing something true or false .


It is an active declarative sentence either it s true or false.
Examples
The sun rises everyday.
William Shakespeare died in 1945
proposition
A proposition is that part of the meaning of a clause or sentence that is
constant, despite changes in such things as the voice or illocutionary force of the
clause.
Examples
The common content of each of the the following utterances is a proposition:
• Alec ate the banana.
• The banana was eaten by Alec.
• Did Alec eat the banana?
• Alec, eat the banana.
Next…
All these utterances may be analyzed as consisting of
a predicate naming an event or state and one or more arguments
naming referents that participate in that event or state.
•The activity is eat.
•The agent is Alec.
•The patient is a banana.