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# Project Management

Chapter 8 (Crashing)

## Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-1

Project Crashing
Basic Concept
In last lecture, we studied on how to use CPM and
PERT to identify critical path for a project
problem

## Question: Can we cut short its project completion

time?
If so, how!

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Chapter 8 - Project Management
8-2
Project Crashing
Solution!
Yes, the project duration can be reduced by
assigning more resources to project
activities. But, doing this would somehow
increase our project cost!
How do we strike a balance?
■ Project crashing is a method for shortening
project duration by reducing one or more
critical activities to a time less than normal
activity time.
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8-3
 We attempt to “crash” some “critical”
events by allocating more resources to them,
so that the time of one or more critical
activities is reduced to a time that is less than
the normal activity time.
 How to do that:
 Question: What criteria should it be
based on when deciding to crashing
critical times?
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8-4
Example – crashing (1)
Max weeks can be crashed
Normal weeks 2 6(3)
5 (1)
3
1
5(0)
The critical path is 1-2-3, the completion
time =11
How? Path: 1-2-3 = 5+6=11 weeks
Path: 1-3 = 5 weeks
Now, how many days can we “crash” it?
5
8-5
Example – crashing (1)

2 6(3)
5 (1)
3
1
5(0)

## The maximum time that can be crashed for:

Path 1-2-3 = 1 + 3 = 4
Path 1-3 = 0

## Should we use up all these 4 weeks?

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8-6
Example – crashing (1)

4(0) 3(0)
2 6(3)
5 (1)
3
1
5(0)
If we used all 4 days, then path 1-2-3 has
(5-1) + (6-3) = 7 completion weeks

Now, we need to check if the completion time for path 1-3 has lesser than 7
weeks (why?)
Now, path 1-3 has (5-0) = 5 weeks
Since path 1-3 still shorter than 7 weeks, we used up all 4 crashed weeks

## Question: What if path 1-3 has, say 8 weeks completion time?

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8-7
Example – crashing (1)
Such as
2 6(3)
5 (1)
3
1
8(0)
Now, we cannot use all 4 days (Why?)
Because path 1-2-3 will not be critical path anymore as
path 1-3 would now has longest hour to finish

Rule: When a path is a critical path, it will not stay as a critical path

So, we can only reduce the path 1-2-3 completion time to the same time
as path 1-3. (HOW?)

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8-8
Example – crashing (1)
Solution:
2 6(3)
5 (1)
3
1
8(0)
We can only reduce total time for path 1-2-3 = path 1-3,

that is 8 weeks

If the cost for path 1-2 and path 2-3 is the same then
We can random pick them to crash so that its completion
Time is 8 weeks
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8-9
Example – crashing (1)
Solution: 4(0) 4(1)
2 6(3)
5 (1)
3
1
8(0)

OR 3(0)
5 (1) 6(3)
2

1
3

8(0)
Now, paths 1-2-3 and 1-3 are both critical paths 10
8-10
The Project Network
AOA Network for House Building Project

Figure 8.6
Expanded Network for Building a
House Showing Concurrent Activities
Example Problem (1 of 5)

## Figure 8.19 The Project Network for Building a House

Example Problem (3 of 5)

Table 8.4
Example Problem (2 of 5)
Crash cost & crash time have a linear
relationship:
Total Crash Cost \$2000

Total Crash Time 5 weeks
 \$400 / wk

Figure 8.20
General Relationship of Time and Cost (2 of 2)

Figure 8.23
Example Problem (4 of 5)

Figure 8.21 Network with Normal Activity Times and Weekly Crashing Costs
Example Problem (5 of 5)
As activities are crashed, the critical path may change and
several paths may become critical.

Figure 8.22
Revised Network with
Activity 1 Crashed
Project Crashing with QM for Windows

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Exhibit 8.16 8-18
Formulating as a Linear Programming Model
AOA Network for House Building Project

Figure 8.6
Expanded Network for Building a
House Showing Concurrent Activities
Formulating as a Linear Programming Model
Example Problem Formulation and Data (1 of 2)

Figure 8.24

## Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-20

The CPM/PERT Network
Example Problem Formulation and Data (2 of 2)

Minimize Z = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + x6 + x7
subject to:
x2 - x1  12
x3 - x2  8
x4 - x2  4
x4 - x3  0
x5 - x4  4
x6 - x4  12
x6 - x5  4
x7 - x6  4
xi, xj  0

## Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-21

The CPM/PERT Network
Formulating as a Linear Programming Model
The objective is to minimize the project duration (critical path time).

## General linear programming model with AOA convention:

Minimize Z = xi
subject to: i
xj - xi  tij for all activities i  j
xi, xj  0

Where:
xi = earliest event time of node i
xj = earliest event time of node j
tij = time of activity i  j

## Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-22

Project Crashing with Linear Programming
Example Problem – Model Formulation
Minimize Z = \$400y12 + 500y23 + 3000y24 + 200y45 + 7000y46
+ 200y56 + 7000y67
subject to:
y12  5 y12 + x2 - x1  12 x7  30
y23  3 y23 + x3 - x2  8 xi, yij ≥ 0
y24  1 y24 + x4 - x2  4 Objective is to
y34  0 y34 + x4 - x3  0 minimize the
y45  3 y45 + x5 - x4  4
cost of crashing
y46  3 y46 + x6 - x4  12
y56  3 y56 + x6 - x5  4
y67  1 x67 + x7 - x6  4
xi = earliest event time of node i
xj = earliest event time of node j
yij = amount of time by which activity i  j is crashed