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May 10, 2019

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A presentation on Mean Value Theorem

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A presentation on Mean Value Theorem

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PRESENTATION OF

‘MEAN VALUE THEOREM’

What we actually mean by this theorem??

In mathematics, the mean value theorem states, roughly: that

given a planar arc between two endpoints, there is at least one

point at which the tangent to the arc is parallel to the secant

through its endpoints.

The theorem is used to prove global statements about a

function on an interval starting from local hypotheses about

derivatives at points of the interval.

More precisely, if a function f is continuous on the closed

interval [a, b], where a

< b, and differentiable on the open interval (a, b), then there

exists a point c in

(a, b) such that

For any function that is continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on

(a, b) there exists some c in the interval (a, b) such that the secant

joining the endpoints of the interval [a, b] is parallel to the tangent

at c.

PROOF OF THE ABOVE THEOREM-

y f(a)=b af(b) f(a)(x a) which we can rewrite as y=b af(b) f(a)(x

a)+f(a)

Let g(x)=f(x) b af(b) f(a)(x a)+f(a)

Note that g(a)=g(b)=0. Also, g is continuous on [ab] and

differentiable on (ab) since f is. So by Rolle's Theorem there exists c in

(ab) such that g(c)=0.

af(b) f(a) and the proof is complete.

There are different types of Mean

Value Theorem, such that 1. ROLLE'S

THEOREM, 2.LAGRANGE'S MEAN

VALUE THEOREM, 3.CAUCHY'S MEAN

VALUE

THEOREM, 4.TAYLOR'S

THEOREM(Generalised form of Mean

Value Theorem),

5.MACLAURIN'S THEOREM

Starting with the Rolle's theorem

we can understand what Mean

value theorem actually is-

APPROACH 1- GEOMETRICAL

INTERPRETATION OF ROLLE'S

THEOREM

IN CALCULUS, ROLLE'S THEOREM ESSENTIALLY STATES THAT ANY REAL-VALUED DIFFERENTIABLE

FUNCTION THAT ATTAINS EQUAL VALUES AT TWO DISTINCT POINTS MUST HAVE A STATIONARY POINT

SOMEWHERE BETWEEN THEM—THAT IS, A POINT WHERE THE FIRST DERIVATIVE (THE SLOPE OF THE

TANGENT LINE TO THE GRAPH OF THE FUNCTION) IS ZERO.

If a real-valued function ƒ is continuous

on a closed interval [a, b],

differentiable on the open interval (a,

b), and ƒ(a) = ƒ(b), then there exists a

c in the open interval (a, b) such that

f'(c) = 0.

STATEMENT OF THE THEOREM-

If a real-valued function f is

continuous on a proper closed

interval [a, b], differentiable on the

open interval (a, b), and f(a) = f(b),

then there exists at least one c in

the open interval (a, b) such that

f’(c)=0

First example-

For a radius r > 0, consider the function

Its graph is the upper semicircle centered at the origin. This function is

continuous on the closed interval [ r,r] and differentiable in the open interval

( r,r), but not differentiable at the endpoints r and r. Since f( r) = f(r), Rolle's

theorem applies, and indeed, there is a point where the derivative of f is zero.

Note that the theorem applies even when the function cannot be

differentiated at the endpoints because it only requires the function to be

differentiable in the open interval.

Second example-

Rolle's theorem may not hold. Consider the absolute value function

Then f(−1) = f(1), but there is no c between −1 and 1 for

which the derivative is zero. This is because that function,

although continuous, is not differentiable at x = 0. Note that

the derivative of f changes its sign at x = 0, but without

attaining the value 0. The theorem cannot be applied to

this function, clearly, because it does not satisfy the

condition that the function must be differentiable for every

x in the open interval. However, when the differentiability

requirement is dropped from Rolle's theorem, f will still have

a critical number in the open interval (a,b), but it may not

yield a horizontal tangent (as in the case of the absolute

value repress

ented in the graph).

Generalization-

The second example illustrates the following generalization of Rolle's

theorem:

Consider a real-valued, continuous function f on a closed interval

[a,b] with f(a) = f(b). If for every x in the open interval (a,b) the right-

hand limit

exist in the extended real line [−∞,∞], then there is some number c in

the open interval

(a,b) such that one of the two limits

Importance of Rolle's Theorem in

everyday life-

Since Rolle's theorem asserts the existence of a point where the derivative vanishes,

we assume that we already know basic notions like continuity and differentiability. One way to

illustrate the theorem in terms of a practical example is to look at the calendar listing the

precise time for sunset each day. One notices that around the precise date in the sumwhen

sunset is the latest, the precise hour changes very little from day to day in the vicinity of the

precise date. This is an illustration of Rolle's theorem because near a point where the derivative

vanishes, the function changes very little.

use it a lot on the job where we work. If we go through an oil analysis laboratory (Its kind of like

a pathology for trucks if you can imagine that.) We test oil samples to see if there is a problem

with the truck. Our lab tests generate a lot of data and there's a lot of opportunities to apply

mathematics and statistics to our work, and we do.

Detection of spot bubbles in oil

sample-

3. We also use robots in our lab to automate many of our tasks. We use image processing to

recognize bar codes and spot bubbles in oil. There's a LOT of calculus and mathematics

behind these tasks.As for specific applications, these theorems are used in developing

numerical methods of solving equations.

4.Probably the most useful application of these theorems is to give students a better

understanding of calculus which is used in so many different areas of our lives.

5.Image processing has lots of calculus and its used in many different fields such as medical

imaging (CT scans, MRI, diagnosing sick patients), industrial automation (quality control,

bubble detection etc ..) and security (I have a friend who worked in facial recognition

software for airports).

WE OFTENLY USE ROLLE'S THEOREM FOR IMAGE PROCESSING.

For those interested in computer games. Calculus is used in physics engines which keep track

of moving objects in game.

Its also used in computer graphics to give you very shiny

realistic looking modern computer games and scientific

visualization.

theory which are used for many things including

controlling industrial processes and more importantly ...

teaching robots to play soccer.

6.You can explain Rolle's theorem by saying that if your

average speed during a journey from A to B say 50km/hr

then there had to be a time when your instantaneous

speed was 50 kms/hour as well. Significance of Rolle's

theorem.

HERE IT ENDS……..

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