Materialized Views

ORACLE

07/25/08

Yadav, Naresh

1

Materialized Views – Agenda
 What

is a Materialized View?

Advantages and Disadvantages

 How

Materialized Views Work

Parameter Settings, Privileges, Query Rewrite

 Creating

Materialized Views

Syntax, Refresh Modes/Options, Build Methods Examples What are they? Examples

 Dimensions
 
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What is a Materialized View?
A

database object that stores the results of a query
Marries the query rewrite features found in Oracle Discoverer with the data refresh capabilities of snapshots

 Features/Capabilities
    

Can be partitioned and indexed Can be queried directly Can have DML applied against it Several refresh options are available Best in read-intensive environments
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Advantages and Disadvantages
 Advantages

Useful for summarizing, pre-computing, replicating and distributing data Faster access for expensive and complex joins Transparent to end-users

MVs can be added/dropped without invalidating coded SQL

 Disadvantages

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Performance costs of maintaining the views Storage costs of maintaining the views
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Database Parameter Settings

init.ora parameter

COMPATIBLE=8.1.0 (or above) query_rewrite_enabled={true|false} query_rewrite_integrity= {enforced|trusted|stale_tolerated} alter session set query_rewrite_enabled=true; alter session set query_rewrite_integrity=enforced;

System or session settings
 

Can be set for a session using
 

Privileges which must be granted to users directly
 

QUERY_REWRITE - for MV using objects in own
schema

GLOBAL_QUERY_REWRITE - for objects in other
schemas
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Query Rewrite Details

query_rewrite_integrity Settings:

enforced – rewrites based on Oracle enforced constraints  Primary key, foreign keys trusted – rewrites based on Oracle enforced constraints and known, but not enforced, data relationships  Primary key, foreign keys  Data dictionary information  Dimensions stale_tolerated – queries rewritten even if Oracle knows the mv’s data is out-of-sync with the detail data  Data dictionary information
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Query Rewrite Details (cont’d)

Query Rewrite Methods

Full Exact Text Match  Friendlier/more flexible version of text matching Partial Text Match  Compares text starting at FROM clause  SELECT clause must be satisfied for rewrite to occur Data Sufficiency  All required data must be present in the MV or retrievable through a join-back operation Join Compatibility  All joined columns are present in the MV

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Query Rewrite Details (cont’d)

Grouping Compatibility

Allows for matches in groupings at higher levels than those defined MV query Required if both query and MV contain a GROUP BY clause Allows for interesting rewrites of aggregations

Aggregate Compatibility

If SUM(x) and COUNT(x) are in MV, the MV may be used if the query specifies AVG(x)

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Syntax For Materialized Views
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW <name> TABLESPACE <tbs name> <build option> REFRESH <refresh option> <refresh mode> [ENABLE|DISABLE] QUERY REWRITE AS SELECT <select clause>;
The

{<storage parameters>}

<build option> determines when MV is built – BUILD IMMEDIATE: view is built at creation time – BUILD DEFFERED: view is built at a later time – ON PREBUILT TABLE: use an existing table as view source Must set QUERY_REWRITE_INTEGRITY to TRUSTED

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Materialized View Refresh Options

Refresh Options

COMPLETE – totally refreshes the view

Can be done at any time; can be time consuming A materialized view log is required on each detail table Data changes are recorded in MV logs or direct loader logs Many other requirements must be met for fast refreshes The default refresh option

FAST – incrementally applies data changes
  

FORCE – does a FAST refresh in favor of a COMPLETE

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Materialized View Refresh Modes

Refresh Modes  ON COMMIT – refreshes occur whenever a commit is performed on one of the view’s underlying detail table(s)
  

Available only with single table aggregate or join based views Keeps view data transactionally accurate Need to check alert log for view creation errors

ON DEMAND – refreshes are initiated manually using one of the procedures in the DBMS_MVIEW package
 

Can be used with all types of materialized views Manual Refresh Procedures
 

DBMS_MVIEW.REFRESH(<mv_name>, <refresh_option>) DBMS_MVIEW.REFRESH_ALL_MVIEWS()

START WITH [NEXT] <date> - refreshes start at a specified date/time and continue at regular intervals
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Materialized View Example
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW items_summary_mv ON PREBUILT TABLE REFRESH FORCE SELECT AS GMS, NET_REV, BOLD_FEE, GLRY_FEE, QTY_SOLD, a.PRD_ID, a.SITE_ID, a.TYPE_CODE, a.CATEG_ID, sum(a.GMS) sum(a.NET_REV) sum(a.BOLD_FEE) sum(a.GLRY_FEE) sum(a.QTY_SOLD) FROM items a a.PRD_ID, a.SITE_ID, a.TYPE_CODE, a.CATEG_ID;

sum(a.BIN_PRICE) BIN_PRICE,

count(a.ITEM_ID) UNITS GROUP BY

ANALYZE TABLE item_summary_mv COMPUTE STATISTICS;

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Materialized View Example (cont’d)
-- Query to test impact of materialized view

select categ_id, site_id, sum(net_rev), sum(bold_fee), count(item_id) from items where prd_id in ('2000M05','2000M06','2001M07','2001M08') and site_id in (0,1) and categ_id in (2,4,6,8,1,22) group by categ_id, site_id

save mv_example.sql

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Materialized View Example (cont’d)
SQL> ALTER SESSION SET QUERY_REWRITE_INTEGRITY=TRUSTED; SQL> ALTER SESSION SET QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED=FALSE; SQL> @mv_example.sql CATEG_ID SITE_ID SUM(NET_REV) SUM(BOLD_FEE) COUNT(ITEM_ID) -------- ------- ------------ ------------- -------------1 22 0 0 -2.35 -42120.87 0 -306 1 28085

Elapsed: 01:32:17.93 Execution Plan ---------------------------------------------------------0 SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=HINT: FIRST_ROWS (Cost=360829 Card=6 Bytes=120) 1 0 SORT (GROUP BY) (Cost=360829 Card=6 Bytes=120) 2 1 PARTITION RANGE (INLIST 3 2 TABLE ACCESS (FULL) OF ‘ITEMS' (Cost=360077 Card=375154 Bytes=7503080)
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Materialized View Example (cont’d)
SQL> ALTER SESSION SET QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED=TRUE; SQL> @mv_example.sql CATEG_ID SITE_ID SUM(NET_REV) SUM(BOLD_FEE) COUNT(ITEM_ID) -------- ------- ------------ ------------- -------------1 22 0 0 -2.35 -42120.87 0 -306 1 28085

Elapsed: 00:01:40.47 Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

0 1 2 3 0 1 2

SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=HINT: FIRST_ROWS (Cost=3749 Card=12 Bytes=276) SORT (GROUP BY) (Cost=3749 Card=12 Bytes=276) PARTITION RANGE (INLIST) TABLE ACCESS (FULL) OF ‘ITEMS_SUMMARY_MV' (Cost=3723 Card=7331 Bytes=168613)

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Example of FAST REFRESH MV
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON ITEMS TABLESPACE MV_LOGS STORAGE(INITIAL 10M NEXT 10M) WITH ROWID; CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON CUSTOMERS TABLESPACE MV_LOGS STORAGE(INITIAL 1M NEXT 1M) WITH ROWID; CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW cust_activity BUILD IMMEDIATE REFRESH FAST ON COMMIT AS SELECT u.ROWID cust_rowid, l.ROWID item_rowid, u.cust_id, u.custname, u.email, l.categ_id, l.site_id, sum(gms), sum(net_rev_fee) FROM customers u, items l WHERE u.cust_id = l.seller_id GROUP BY u.cust_id, u.custname, u.email, l.categ_id, l.site_id;

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Yadav, Naresh

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Getting Information About an MV
Getting information about the key columns of a materialized view:
SELECT POSITION_IN_SELECT CONTAINER_COLUMN DETAILOBJ_OWNER DETAILOBJ_NAME DETAILOBJ_ALIAS DETAILOBJ_TYPE DETAILOBJ_COLUMN FROM USER_MVIEW_KEYS WHERE MVIEW_NAME=‘ITEMS_SUMMARY_MV’; POS COLUMN 1 2 3 4 PRD_ID SITE_ID TYPE_CODE CATEG_ID OWNER TAZ TAZ TAZ TAZ SOURCE ITEMS ITEMS ITEMS ITEMS ALIAS TYPE A A A A TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE SRC_COLUMN PRD_ID SITE_ID TYPE_CODE CATEG_ID POSITION, COLUMN, OWNER, SOURCE, ALIAS, TYPE, SRC_COLUMN

--- ---------- ----- -------- ----- ------ -----------

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Getting Information About an MV
Getting information about the aggregate columns of a materialized view:
SELECT POSITION_IN_SELECT CONTAINER_COLUMN AGG_FUNCTION FROM USER_MVIEW_AGGREGATES WHERE MVIEW_NAME=‘ITEMS_SUMMARY_MV’; POSITION, COLUMN,

POSITION -------6 7 : 11 12

COLUMN ----------------GMS NET_REV : QTY_SOLD UNITS

AGG_FUNCTION -----------SUM SUM : SUM COUNT

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Dimensions

A way of describing complex data relationships
 

Used to perform query rewrites, but not required Defines hierarchical relationships between pairs of columns  Hierarchies can have multiple levels  Each child in the hierarchy has one and only one parent  Each level key can identify one or more attribute  Child join keys must be NOT NULL

Dimensions should be validated using the DBMS_OLAP.VALIDATE_DIMENSION package

Bad row ROWIDs stored in table: 07/25/08 mview$_exceptions Yadav, Naresh

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Syntax For Creating A Dimension
CREATE DIMENSION <dimension name> LEVEL [<level> IS <level_table.level_column> <level> IS <level_table.level_column>…] HIERARCHY <hierarchy_name> ( <child_level> CHILD OF <parent_level> <child_level> CHILD OF <parent_level>…] ATTRIBUTE <level> DETERMINES <dependent_column> <level> DETERMINES <dependent_column>,…);

To validate a dimension: exec dbms_olap.validate_dimension(<dim_name>,<owner>,FALSE,FALSE);

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Example of Creating A Dimension
CREATE DIMENSION time_dim LEVEL CAL_DATE IS calendar.CAL_DATE LEVEL PRD_ID LEVEL QTR_ID LEVEL YEAR_ID IS calendar.PRD_ID IS calendar.QTR_ID IS calendar.YEAR_ID

LEVEL WEEK_IN_YEAR_ID IS calendar.WEEK_IN_YEAR_ID HIERARCHY calendar_rollup (CAL_DATE CHILD OF PRD_ID CHILD OF QTR_ID CHILD OF YEAR_ID) HIERARCHY week_rollup (CAL_DATE CHILD OF WEEK_IN_YEAR_ID CHILD OF YEAR_ID) ATTRIBUTE PRD_ID DETERMINES PRD_DESC ATTRIBUTE QTR_ID DETERMINES QTR_DESC;

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Example of Validating A Dimension
SQL> exec dbms_olap.validate_dimension(‘time_dim’, USER, FALSE, FALSE); PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> select * from mview$_exceptions; no rows selected.

-- Main cause of errors is a child level having multiple parents -- If above query returns rows, the bad rows can be found as follows: select * from calendar where rowid in (select bad_rowid from mview$_exceptions);

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Example of Using Dimensions
-- Step 1 of 4 -- Create materialized view (join-aggregate type) CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW items_mv BUILD IMMEDIATE REFRESH ON DEMAND ENABLE QUERY REWRITE AS SELECT l.slr_id , c.cal_date, sum(l.gms) gms FROM items l, calendar c WHERE l.end_date=c.cal_date GROUP BY l.slr_id, c.cal_date;

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Yadav, Naresh

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Example of Using Dimensions (cont’d)
-- Step 2 of 4: (not really required, for demonstration only) -- Execute query based on “quarter”, not “date”, without a time dimension -- Note that the detail tables are accessed SQL> 2 3 4 select c.qtr_id, sum(l.gms) gms from items l, calendar c where l.end_date=c.cal_date group by l.slr_id, c.qtr_id;

Execution Plan ---------------------------------------------------------SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=CHOOSE (Cost=16174 Card=36258 Bytes=1160256) SORT (GROUP BY) (Cost=16174 Card=36258 Bytes=1160256) HASH JOIN (Cost=81 Card=5611339 Bytes=179562848) TABLE ACCESS (FULL) OF ’CALENDAR' (Cost=2 Card=8017 Bytes=128272) TABLE ACCESS (FULL) OF ’ITEMS' (Cost=76 Card=69993 Bytes=1119888)

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Example of Using Dimensions (cont’d)
-- Step 3 of 4: Create time dimension (see slide #21 for SQL) @cr_time_dim.sql Dimension Created -- Step 4 of 4: Rerun query based on “quarter” with time dimension SQL> 2 3 4 select c.qtr_id, sum(l.gms) gms from items l, calendar c where l.end_date=c.cal_date group by l.slr_id, c.qtr_id;

Execution Plan ---------------------------------------------------------SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=CHOOSE (Cost=3703 Card=878824 Bytes=44820024) SORT (GROUP BY) (Cost=3703 Card=878824 Bytes=44820024) HASH JOIN (Cost=31 Card=878824 Bytes=44820024) VIEW (Cost=25 Card=8017 Bytes=128272) SORT (UNIQUE) (Cost=25 Card=8017 Bytes=128272) TABLE ACCESS (FULL) OF ‘CALENDAR’ (Cost=2 Card=8017 Bytes=128272) TABLE ACCESS (FULL) OF ‘ITEMS_MV’ (Cost=3 Card=10962 Bytes=383670)

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Summary

Materialized Views

    

reduce system cpu/io resource requirements by pre-calculating and storing results of intensive queries allow for the automatic rewriting of intensive queries are transparent to the application have storage/maintenance requirements can understand complex data relationships can be refreshed on demand or on a schedule

Dimensions

26

allow you to “tell” Oracle about complex data relationships which can be used to rewrite 07/25/08 Yadav, Naresh queries

Requirements for FAST REFRESH
Requirement Must be based on detail tables only Must be based on a single table Each table can appear only once in the FROM list Cannot contain nonrepeating expressions (ROWNUM, SYSDATE, etc) Cannot contain references to RAW or LONG RAW Cannot contain the GROUP BY clause The SELECT list must include the ROWIDs of all the detail tables Expressions can be included in the GROUP BY and SELECT clause as long as they are the same in each Aggregates are allowed but cannot be nested If SELECT clause contains AVG, it must also contain COUNT If SELECT clause contains SUM, it must also contain COUNT If SELECT clause contains VARIANCE, it must also contain COUNT and SUM If SELECT clause contains STDDEV, it must also contain COUNT and SUM The join predicates of the WHERE clause can included AND but not OR The HAVING and CONNECT BY clauses are not allowed Joins Only X X X X X X Joins & Single Table Aggregates Aggregates X X X X X X X X X

X X X X

X X X X X X

X X

X

X

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Rqmts For FAST REFRESH (cont’d)
Requirement Sub-queries, inline views, or set functions such as UNION are not allowed A WHERE clause is not allowed COUNT(*) must be present MIN and MAX are not allowed Unique constraints must exist on the join columns of the inner table, if an outer join is used A materialized view log must exist that contains all column referenced in the materialized view, and it must have been created with the LOG NEW VALUES clause A materialized view log containing ROWID must exist for each detail table Any non aggregate expressions in the SELECT and GROUP BY clauses must be non-modified columns DML allowed on detailed tables Direct path data load allowed Joins Only X Joins & Single Table Aggregates Aggregates X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

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Materialized Views

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