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Serviceability of RC members

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(Reinforced Concrete)

Chapter 6:

Serviceability

(Deflection and Crack Control)

1.

Introduction

Introduction

states philosophy. The term limit state is used to describe a condition at

which a structure or some part of a structure ceases to perform its intended

function. Basically, there are two categories of limit states, strength and

serviceability.

structures and include buckling, fracture, fatigue, overturning, and so on.

Serviceability limit states refer to the performance of structures under

normal service loads and are concerned with the uses and/or occupancy of

structures, including such items as deflections, cracking, and vibrations.

These items may disrupt the use of structures but do not involve collapse.

Introduction

Vertical vibration for bridge and building floors, as well as lateral and

torsional vibration in tall buildings, can be quite annoying to users of these

structures. Vibrations, however, are not usually a problem in the average size

reinforced concrete building, but we should be on the lookout for the situations

where they can be objectionable.

This chapter is concerned with serviceability limits for deflections and crack

widths. The NSCP concentrates on very specific requirements relating to the

strength limit states of reinforced concrete members but allows the designer

freedom of judgment in the serviceability areas.

2.

Importance of Deflection

Importance of Deflection

The adoption of the strength design method and with the use of higher-

strength concretes and steels has permitted the use of slender members. As a

result, deflections and cracking has become a problem.

concrete members

Sagging of floors

Ponding of water

Excessive vibration

Interference in the operation of machinery

These deflections may damage partitions and cause poor fittings of doors

and windows. Furthermore, they may be unappealing to the occupants even

though they are safe from the structural design viewpoint.

3.

Control of Deflection

Control of Deflection

the following:

Control of Deflection

Minimum Thickness

NSCP 407.3.1.1 and 409.3.1.1

provides a set of minimum

thicknesses for beams and one-way

slabs, unless actual deflection

calculations shows a lesser

thickness that is permitted. These

minimum thicknesses should be

used only for beams and slabs that

are not supporting or attached to

partitions or other members likely to

be damaged by deflections.

Control of Deflection

Minimum Thickness

NSCP 407.3.1.1.1 and 409.3.1.1.1. For fy other than 420 MPa, the expressions

in Table 407.3.1.1 and 409.3.1.1 shall be multiplied by (0.4 + fy/700).

of lightweight concrete having wc in the range of 1440 to 1840 kg/m3, the

expressions in Table 407.3.1.1 and 409.3.1.1 shall be multiplied by the greater

of:

a. 1.65 - 0.0003wc

b. 1.09

Control of Deflection

Minimum Thickness

slabs/beams made of a combination of lightweight and normal weight

concrete that are shored during construction, where the lightweight

concrete is in compression, the modifier of Section 407.3.1.1.2 or

409.3.1.1.2 shall apply.

Control of Deflection

Maximum Deflections

407.3.1.1 and 409.3.1.1 , then deflections must be computed. Deflections that

occur immediately on application of load shall be computed by usual methods

or formulas for elastic deflections, considering the effects of cracking and

reinforcement on member stiffness. The computed deflection may not exceed

the values specified in NSCP Table 424.2.2.

Control of Deflection

Control of Deflection

Camber

The deflection of reinforced concrete members may also be controlled by

cambering. The members are constructed of such a shape that they will

assume their theoretical shape under some service loading condition. A simple

beam would be constructed with a slight convex bend, so that under certain

gravity loads, it would become straight, as assumed in the calculations. Some

designers take into account both dead and full live loads in figuring the

amount of camber. Camber is generally used only for longer-span members.

4.

Calculation of Deflection

Calculation of Deflection

Deflections for reinforced concrete

members can be calculated with the usual

deflection expressions.

Calculation of Deflection

Regardless of the method used for calculating deflections, the question lies

in the determination of the moment of inertia to be used. It is uncertain

whether the amount of cracking involved is negligible or not.

If the flexural stress is less than the modulus of rupture, the full uncracked

section provides rigidity; the moment of inertia of the gross section Ig can be

used.

If larger moments are present, different size tension cracks occur. The

position of the neutral axis then varies. A more exact moment of inertia

value needs to be used.

Calculation of

Deflection

Effective Moment of Inertia

involved in selecting the moment of

inertia to be used for deflection

calculations. Although a reinforced

concrete beam may be of constant size (or

prismatic) throughout its length, for

deflection calculations, it will behave as

though it were composed of segments of

different-size beams.

Calculation of

Deflection

Effective Moment of Inertia

For the portion of a beam where the

moment is less than the cracking moment,

Mcr, the beam can be assumed to be

uncracked, and the moment of inertia can

be assumed to equal Ig.

the tensile cracks that develop in the beam

will cause the beam cross section to be

reduced, and the moment of inertia may be

assumed to equal the transformed value, Icr.

It is as though the beam consists of the

segments shown in figure (d).

Calculation of

Deflection

Effective Moment of Inertia

tension cracks are actually located, the

moment of inertia is probably close to the

transformed Icr, but in between cracks, it is

perhaps closer to Ig. Furthermore, diagonal

tension cracks may exist in areas of high

shear, causing other variations. As a result,

it is difficult to decide what value of I

should be used.

Calculation of Deflection

NSCP Section 424.2.3.5 gives an effective moment of inertia, Ie that will be

used for deflection calculations. This is an average value and can be used at

any point of the beam, regardless of the cracks present.

where:

Ig = gross amount of inertia (without considering the steel) of the section

𝐟𝐫 𝐈𝐠

Mcr = cracking moment =

𝐲𝐭

Ma = maximum service-load moment occurring for the condition under

consideration

Calculation of Deflection

where:

Icr = transformed moment of inertia of the cracked section, mm4 (using

Transformed Area Method for cracked section).

fr = modulus of rupture, MPa (NSCP 419.2.3.1).

for normal weight concrete, 𝐟𝐫 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟐𝛌 𝐟′𝐜

yt = distance from the neutral axis of the gross section (neglecting steel) to

the extreme tension fiber.

Ec = modulus of elasticity considering normal weight concrete, MPa (NSCP

419.2.2.

𝐄𝐜 = 𝟒, 𝟕𝟎𝟎 𝐟′𝐜

Calculation of Deflection

When lightweight concrete is used one of the following modifications shall

apply.

When the splitting tensile strength, fct is known and concrete is proportioned

in accordance with NSCP Section 426.4.3., fr shall be modified by substituting

1.80fct for f′c but the value of 1.80fct shall not exceed f′c .

When the splitting tensile strength, fct is not specified, fr shall be multiplied

by 0.75 for “all-lightweight concrete”, and 0.85 for “sand-lightweight

concrete”. Linear interpolation shall be permitted to be used when partial

sand requirement is used.

5.

Long-Term Deflection

Long-Term Deflection

factors that tend to increase deflections include:

Shrinkage and creep

Humidity

Temperature

Curing conditions

Compression steel content

Ratio of stress to strength

Age of concrete

Long-Term Deflection

deflection can only be estimated. The NSCP Section 424.2.4.1.1 states that to

estimate the increase in deflection due to the mentioned factors, the part of the

instantaneous deflection that is due to the sustained loads may be multiplied by the

factor, λ and the result added to the instantaneous deflection.

𝐷𝐿 + %𝑠𝑢𝑠 𝐿𝐿

∆𝑖 = ∗∆

𝐷𝐿 + 𝐿𝐿

Long-term deflection:

∆𝒍𝒕 = ∆ + 𝝀∆𝒊

Long-Term Deflection

where:

ρ’ = value at midspan for simple and continuous spans, and at the support

for cantilevers.

ρ’ = As’/bd, computed at midspan for simple and continuous spans, and at

the support for cantilevers, mm2

ξ = time-dependent factor as determined in NSCP Section 424.2.4.1.3.

Δ = instantaneous deflection, mm.

Δi = initial deflection, mm.

Δlt = long-term deflection, mm.

%sus = percentage of sustained load.

Long-Term Deflection

The deflections calculated should not exceed the limits depicted in NSCP Table

424.2.4.1.3.

Examples

(Long-Term Deflection)

Examples – Long-Term Deflections

425 mm with a 75 mm steel covering. It is reinforced with 3-28mm f

rebars. The beam has a simple span of 6m and carries a service dead

load including its own weight of 14 kN/m and service live load of 10 kN/m.

f‘c = 20.7 MPa and modular ratio is 10.

b. Compute the instantaneous deflection for dead load + live load;

c. Compute the deflection for the same loads after one year assuming

that 30% of the live load is sustained.

Examples – Long-Term Deflections

carries a uniform dead load of 15 kN/m

including its own weight and a concentrated

live load of 60 kN at its free end. The beam has 100

the given cross-section shown in the figure.

f‘c = 20.7 MPa, fr = 2.832 MPa, Ec = 21650 MPa

Es = 200 GPa, fy = 344.80 MPa, n = 9

b. Compute the instantaneous deflection;

c. Compute the long term deflection after 5

years if 20% of the live loads are sustained.

6.

Cracks

Types of Cracks

Types of Cracks

a. Flexural cracks are vertical cracks that extend from the tension sides of

beams up to the region of their neutral axes. Should beams have very deep

webs, the cracks will be very closely spaced, with some of them coming

together above the reinforcing and some disappearing there. These cracks

may be wider up in the middle of the beam than at the bottom.

b. Inclined cracks due to shear can develop in the webs of reinforced concrete

beams either as independent cracks or as extensions of flexural cracks.

Occasionally, inclined cracks will develop independently in a beam, even

though no flexural cracks are in that locality. These cracks are called web-

shear cracks.

Types of Cracks

c. The usual type of inclined shear cracks are the flexure-shear cracks. They

commonly develop in both prestressed and nonprestressed beams.

d. Torsion cracks are quite similar to shear cracks except that they spiral

around the beam. Should a plain concrete member be subjected to pure

torsion, it will crack and fail along 45° spiral lines due to the diagonal

tension corresponding to the torsional stresses. Although torsion stresses

are very similar to shear stresses, they will occur on all faces of a member.

As a result, they add to the shear stresses on one side and subtract from

them on the other.

Types of Cracks

e. Bond cracks are due to bond stresses between the concrete and the

reinforcement which will lead to a splitting along the bars

change, settlements, and so on.

7.

Control of Cracks

Control of Cracks

For members with low tensile stresses, cracks may be very small and might

not be visible except upon scrutiny. These are called hairline cracks or micro

cracks.

When steel stresses are high at service conditions, cracks are visible. These

cracks should be limited to certain maximum sizes so that the appearance of

the structure is not spoiled and so as corrosion of the reinforcing bars does

not occur.

Control of Cracks

Definite data are not available as to the sizes of cracks above which bar

corrosion becomes apparent. Tests reveal that the following affect crack sizes:

Type of structure

Reinforcement size

Concrete quality

Cover thickness

Amount of concrete vibration

Shrinkage and creep

Exposure and environment factors

Other time-dependent factors

Control of Cracks

sizes vary. Nevertheless, the ACI Committee 224 (1972), in a report on cracking

presented a set of approximately permissible maximum crack widths for

reinforced concrete members subject to different exposure situations.

Control of Cracks

Although cracks cannot be avoided,

they can be limited to acceptable sizes by

spreading out or distributing the

reinforcement. This means that smaller

cracks will result if several small bars are

used with moderate spacing rather than a

few large bars with wide spacing.

reinforcement must not exceed that

specified in NSCP 424.3.2. This section

prescribes the rules for the distribution of

flexural reinforcement in beams and one-

way slabs.

Control of Cracks

Where:

- cc = least distance from surface of

reinforcement or prestressing steel to the

tension face.

- fs = 2/3 of fy

Examples

(Control of Cracks)

Examples – Control of Cracks

1. Is the spacing of the bars shown in the figure within the requirements

of the NSCP 424.3.2 from the standpoint of cracking, if fy = 420 MPa?

5-28mm

Any questions?

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