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Engineering Geology

CE226

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Contact Details

Engr. Muhammad Shahid Lecturer Department of Civil Engineering

Email: m.shahid@abasyn.edu.pk

OFFICE: Faculty offices Abasyn University Islamabad

OFFICE HOURS: Mon - Fri (9:00am-3:00pm)


COURSE OBJECTIVES

• To understand composition of various


minerals, rocks and their properties.
• To develop a solid base for application of
geology to engineering problems
COURSE OUTLINE
• Introduction to Geology: The Earth as a planet, Process of
external and internal origin (Volcanic, Metamorphic,
Sedimentary)
• Importance of Geology for Civil Engineering Projects:
Physical properties and identification of common rock forming
minerals
• Rocks formation and classification: According to the mode of
occurrences and their compositions
• Weathering and Erosion: Weathering classification: fresh,
slightly weathered, moderately weathered etc. Formation of
Meanders. Cycle of Erosion.
• Discontinuity classification: Joints, faults and other fractures,
micro structural features: lamination, cleavages, and foliations.
Spacing of discontinuities: close, wide, medium etc., Folds,
unconformities. Effects of folding, faulting and jointing on civil
engineering projects and their recognition in the field.
• Description of Rock masses as thickly bedded or thinly
bedded: Identification of filling in joints: sand, clay and breccias
etc. Color of grains, description with respect to the rock color,
identification as a coarse grained, hardness classification.
• Geological classification and identification of Rocks by
geological names: Identification and subordinate constitutions in
rock samples such as seams or branches of other types of minerals
for example, Dolomite, Lime stone, Calcareous sand stone, sand.
• Classification of Durability of Rocks in Dry and wet
condition with durability test:
Engineering and physical properties of rocks. Geological
technical properties of rocks used as building stones, as
decorative stones and as industrial rocks such as color, luster,
streak, specific gravity, water absorption and unit weight etc.
• Brief Introduction to structural Geology:
Plate Tectonics with respect to the global application,
earthquakes, causes of earthquakes, protective measures against
earthquakes zoning of earthquakes in Pakistan, Seismic Waves,
Classification of Earthquakes, Earthquake Intensity Scales
(modified Mercalli Scale), Geology of Aquifers, Wells, Springs
and Ground Water Conditions.
• Role of geology in selection of sites for dams,
reservoirs, tunnels, ports/harbors and other civil
engineering structures:
• Land Slides: Definition, Causes of land Slides, Types
of Land Slides, Protective Measures for Land Slides,
Engineering Considerations
• Glaciers and Glaciations: Origin of Glacial Ice,
Types of Glaciers, Movement of Glaciers, Glacial
Erosion, Engineering Considerations.
• Volcanoes: Formation of Volcanoes, Types of
Volcanoes, Nature and Types of Eruption, Products of
Eruptions, Engineering Considerations.
REFERENCE BOOKS
• Geology by K.M Banger Reprinted 1988
• Blyth, F. G. H. Geology for Engineers, Butterworth-
Heinemann, 7th Edition, 1984
• Bell, Engineering Geology, Butterworth-Heinemann,
2nd Edition, 2006
• Krynine, Principles of Engineering Geology &
Geotechnics, McGraw-Hills Inc. 1957
GRADING

a) Mid Semester Exam 30%


b) End Semester Exam 50%
c) 4 x Quizzes 10 – 15 Minutes 10%
d) 4 x AssignmentsOwn Time 10%

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GEOLOGY
Geology (from the GreeK "earth" and , logos, "study")
is the science and study of the solid Earth and the
processes by which it is shaped and changed. Geology
provides primary evidence for plate tectonics, the
history of life and evolution, and past climates.
In modern times, geology is commercially important
for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, is publicly
important for predicting and understanding natural
hazards, plays an essential role in geotechnical
engineering, and is a major academic discipline.
Different fields of geology
Physical Geology: It is concerned with the
work of natural process which bring about
changes upon the earth surface.
Petrology: Discussion of Different rocks
types, is known as petrology.
Mineralogy: It includes the study of minerals.
Structural Geology : It includes the study of
structures of the rocks in the earth crust.
Stratigraphy: it is concerned with the study
of stratified rocks and their correlation.
Engineering Geology: It includes the study
of application of geology to civil
Engineering.
Mining Geology : it is concerned with the
study of application of geology to mining
Engineering.
• Paleontology: it deals with fauna and flora
species and fossils.
• Economic Geology: Exploration of different
metallic and non-metallic resources, mode of
occurrence and their extraction, and different
investment opportunities i.e. Economic
importance .
• Geohydrology: Groundwater studies,
exploration, their mode of occurrence,
recovery and environmental issues, etc
• Sedimentology: Deals sediment/particles of
rocks and soils, and their transportation.
• Volcanogeology:it is about volcanoes,
igneous processes , and related issues.
• Oceanography: World seas,oceanic
pollutions, offshore structure stability,
Tsunamis etc.
• Astero-geology: Geology of other palnets
rather than Earth, Meteorite (shahaab-e-
saaqib) and Space geology etc.
Solar System

By
Mark
Solar System
What is Solar System
• The Sun, its planets and all the objects
moving around them collectively are called
Solar System.
• The Solar System is entirely dependent on
Sun & the only one which is self- luminous
i.e which has its own light.
• Rest of the planets reflect the light received
from Sun
The Sun is huge. It makes up 98 percent of
the matter in the solar system.
 Because of its weight, it has the most
gravity. It pulls everything in the solar
system toward it.
At the same time, the planets pull against
that force. Because of this push-pull effect,
we don’t get too close to the sun or too far
away.
Instead, we orbit around the Sun at a
predictable pace and location.
Solar System
Sun
Sun –Star of the Solar System

• It ‘s the heaviest
among solar system
• It is a ball of hot
,burning gases.
• It is the nearest star to
the earth.
• The light from the Sun
takes appx. 8 minutes
to reach Earth.
Sun –Star of the Solar System
• It is the source of all energy for life on Earth.
• About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists
of hydrogen, while the rest is mostly helium.
• On the Sun’s surface ,there are dark patches
known as sunspots. These are patches of gas
that looks dark since they are cooler than their
surroundings.
Planets
Planets
• Planet word comes from Greek ,which means wandering
star.
• Planets are heavenly bodies ,which revolve around the Sun
in elliptical orbits.
• Earlier it was considered there were 9 planets in Solar
system but lately one planet called Pluto was de-classified
from being a planet.

• All planets fall in 2 groups


Inner Planets: Mercury , Venus, Mars and Earth are called
inner planets.
Outer Planets: These are Jupiter , Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
• Between Inner & Outer Planets ,there is a ring
of small bodies , which are made of rock &
metal, these are called Asteroids. They also
keep moving around the Sun .This ring is also
called Asteroids Belt.
Mercury
Mercury –The Innermost Planet

• It is named after
messenger of the
Roman gods
• It is the closest planet
to the Sun
• Large variations in day
(400 degree C) & night
(-180 degree C) time
temperatures.
Mercury –The Innermost
Planet
• It is also the smallest, and its orbit is the
most not fully circular.
• It does not have any satellite.
• There is no water or atmosphere
• It can be seen with naked eyes.
• It orbits the Sun once in about 88 Earth days
• There are no seasons on its surface
Venus
Venus –The Veiled Planet

• Venus is surrounded
by thick cloud cover
,that is why it is called
“Veiled Planet”.
• It is brightest &
hottest planet.
• It is named after
Roman goddess of
love & beauty .
Venus –The Veiled Planet
• It orbits the Sun once in about 225 Earth
days.
• Venus reaches its maximum brightness
shortly before sunrise or shortly after
sunset, so it is also known as the Morning
Star or Evening Star.
• Venus is also known as “Sister “ or “Twin”
planet to earth because of its similar size &
mass to earth.
Earth
Earth –The Blue Planet
• It is also known as
watery planet, because
70% of its surface is
covered by water.
• It reflects about 1/3rd of
sunlight it receives .The
earth’s atmosphere
scatters the light &
creates a blue effect, so
it is also called Blue
Planet..
• Only planet having life .
Earth –The Blue Planet
• It orbits the Sun once in about 365 Earth days.
• It rotates about its own axis, thus creating day
& night. It takes 24 hours to do that.
• It revolves around sun, due to its tilt ,seasons
are created.
• Due to gravity, the layer of gases remain
attached to it (which is known as atmosphere),
it prevents too much heat or UV rays from Sun
reaching earth.
• Moon is the only satellite of the Earth.
Moon
Not a Planet but the only satellite
of the Earth
Moon –The Earth’s Only
Satellite
• It’s diameter of only 1/4th
of the Earth
• It looks bigger to us as it
is very close to us.
• The moon has no
atmosphere ,so there is
huge difference between
day & night temperature.
(127 degree C in Day to -
173 degree C in Night)
Moon –The Earth’s Only
Satellite
• As there is no atmosphere, there is no
weather, no rain, no wind or clouds.
• Like everything else in Solar System, Moon
also does not have its own light . It shines
due to Sun’s light .
• There is no water on its surface.
• Moon’s gravity is 1/6th of Earth, so your
weight would be 1/6th of your weight on the
earth.
Moon –The Earth’s Only
Satellite
• The Moon is the
only astronomic body other
than Earth on which humans
have set foot.

• Neil Armstrong became the


first person to walk on the
Moon as the commander of the
American mission Apollo 11by
first setting foot on the Moon
on 21 July 1969.
Mars
Mars –The Red Planet

• It is named after
the Roman god of war.
• It is often described as
the "Red Planet", as
the iron oxide prevalent
on its surface gives it
a reddish appearance
Mars –The Red Planet
• Mars has approximately half the diameter of Earth
• It has two satellites.
• The gravity of Mars is half of the earth .
• The atmosphere of Mars consists of about
95% carbon dioxide, 3% nitrogen,1.6% argon
and contains some oxygen and water
• Mars also has the largest dust storms in the Solar
System
Jupiter
Jupiter –The Giant Planet
• It is named after
the Roman god Jupiter
(ruler of Roman gods)
• Jupiter is the largest
planet within the Solar
System
• It has a great Red Spot
,it is rotating storm
system inside the planet.
Jupiter –The Giant Planet
• Jupiter rotates faster than any other planet.
• It completes one rotation in 10 hours
• Jupiter has a faint ring system, these rings
appear to be made of dust.
• This is also a windy planet as the fast
rotation causes high winds.
• It has 16 planets.
Saturn
Saturn –The Jewel Planet

• Saturn is the
sixth planet from
the Sun and the second
largest planet in
the Solar System,
after Jupiter.
• It is named after
the Roman god Saturn
• Saturn is classified as
a gas giant planet

It is the most beautiful planet in solar system because of its spectacular rings
Saturn-The Jewel Planet

• Saturn rings are made up of ice & ice covered


particles
• It has 22 known satellites .
• It can be seen by naked eye
• Saturn is 95 times heavier than earth
• it takes Saturn 10,759 Earth days (or about
29½ years), to finish one revolution around
the Sun
Uranus
Uranus –A planet on its

• Uranus appears to lie


on its side.
• It is named after
the Roman god of the
sky.
• The only planet which
rotates on its axis from
east to west.
Uranus –A planet on its
• It has at least ten thin uniform black rings
,which are made of dust.
• It has 27 known satellites
• It is a very cold planet ,it receives 370 times
less sunlight than Earth as it is far away
from sun as compared to Earth.
• Its core is very rocky.
Neptune
Neptune –The Last Giant

• Most distant gas


planet.
• It is named after
the Roman god of the
sea .
• Most windy planet
Neptune –The Last Giant
• Can’t be seen with naked eye
• It has 8 known satellite
• As it is very far from Sun,it completes an
orbit on average every 164.79 years.
• The average distance between Neptune and
the Sun is 4.50 billion km.
• Neptune was the first planet found by
mathematical prediction.
Pluto was considered as
ninth planet from the
sun, but now it is not in
nine planets of solar
system. It was the
smallest planet. Each day
on Pluto takes 6.39 Earth
days. Pluto is 39 times
farther from the sun than
the Earth is.
How Stars revolve??
As the Earth orbits around the Sun, it also spins
on its own axis; which is tipped, like a globe’s.
At any time, half of the Earth faces the sun and therefore
receives light.

This part is in day.

This part is in night.

The other half faces away from the Sun,


and so receives very little light.
What causes the Earth’s seasons?

As the Earth orbits the Sun, when its axis tips towards the
Sun, the weather gets warmer. When it tips away, the
weather gets colder, causing the Earth’s seasons.
So, when the Sun ‘rises’ in Great Britain, on
the other side of the world, it’s about to
‘set’.
Great Britain

New Zealand
spring here
In the northern
hemisphere:
winter here

autumn here

summer here

summer here

autumn here
winter here
In the southern
hemisphere:

spring here
Continents and Oceans

Our Earth is made up of seven continents and four


oceans.

The continents include


The oceans include
 North America,
 The Arctic,
South America,
The Atlantic,
Europe,
The Indian, and
Asia,
 The Pacific.
Africa,
Australia, and
Antarctica.
The Seven Continents

North America
Europe
Asia
Africa
South America Australia

Antarctica
The land on Earth may be divided into 7
continents.
The Four Oceans

Arctic Ocean

Atlantic
Pacific Ocean
Ocean Indian
Ocean
North Europ Asia
e
America

Africa

South
America Australi
a

Antarcti
ca
Hemispheres

Our Earth is also divided into four hemispheres. A hemisphere is

half of a globe. Two imaginary lines are used to create these

hemispheres. These imaginary lines are the equator and the

prime meridian. The equator is a line around the middle of the

earth that divides the globe into the northern and southern

hemispheres. The prime meridian is a line around the middle of

the earth that divides the globe into the eastern and western

hemispheres.
In our minds, we can divide the Earth into
sections to help us study the planet.

The equator slices The prime


the Earth into a meridian slices the
top and bottom Earth into a left
(North and South). and right (East
and West).
You can not see the equator or the prime
meridian when you look down at the ground.
They are imaginary lines that help us to discuss
the Earth and where places are located.

Northern Hemisphere

Southern Hemisphere
How do we find all these places on a map?

We are able to locate places on maps because


they use grid systems.
Grid systems use letters and numbers to
identify the exact location of a place.

9
R
A D
1
8
Find Virginia and North Carolina on the map.
They are located at D 7.
A

1 2 3 4 5 6
Latitude and
Longitude
Lines of
longitude only

Equator added Other lines of


latitude added
Cross-section
through line of
longitude

Cross-
sections
through
lines of
latitude
Orange cut
through
lines of
longitude

Orange cut through lines of latitude


latitude

longitude