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ENG224

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY – Part II


5. Introduction to Networking

Introduction to Networking

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ENG224
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY – Part II
5. Introduction to Networking

What is a Network?

A network consists of 2 or more computers


connected together, and they can communicate and
share resources (e.g. information)

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ENG224
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY – Part II
5. Introduction to Networking

Why Networking?
• Sharing information — i.e. data communication

• Do you prefer these?

• Or this?

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY – Part II
5. Introduction to Networking

• Sharing hardware or software


• E.g. print document

• Centralize administration and support


• E.g. Internet-based, so everyone can access the same
administrative or support application from their PCs

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ENG224
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY – Part II
5. Introduction to Networking

Transmission Media
• Two main categories:
1. Guided ― wires, cables
2. Unguided ― wireless transmission, e.g. radio,
microwave, infrared, sound, sonar
• Three types of guided media here:
1. Twisted-Pair cables:
2. Coaxial cables
3. Fiber-optic cables

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ENG224
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY – Part II
5. Introduction to Networking

1) LAN
• Local Area Network (LAN)
• Small network, short distance
• A room, a floor, a building
• Limited by no. of computers and distance covered
• Usually one kind of technology throughout the LAN
• Serve a department within an organization
• Examples:
• Network inside the Student Computer Room
• Network inside your home
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ENG224
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY – Part II
5. Introduction to Networking

2) Wide Area Network (WAN)


• A network that uses long-range telecommunication links
to connect 2 or more LANs/computers housed in different
places far apart.
• Towns, states, countries Your home
• Examples:
• Network of our Campus
• Internet

WAN USA

Student
Computer
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ENG224
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY – Part II
5. Introduction to Networking

3) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)


• A network that uses short-range telecommunication links
to connect 2 or more LANs/computers housed in different
places far apart.
• Distributors, Franchises
Company B
• Examples:
• Extranet – Connecting different
companies together.

MAN Company C

Company A

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ENG224
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY – Part II
5. Introduction to Networking

4) Personal Area Network (PAN)


PAN is a computer network used
for communication among computerized devices,
including cellphones and personal digital assistants
through Bluetooth or Infrared technologies. PAN is
setup in low distance range.

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ENG224
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY – Part II
5. Introduction to Networking

5) Peer-to-Peer Networks
• Peer-to-peer network is also called workgroup
• No hierarchy among computers  all are equal
• No administrator responsible for the network

Peer-to-peer

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ENG224
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY – Part II
5. Introduction to Networking

Topology ― 3 basic types


• How so many computers are connected together?
Bus Topology Ring Topology

Star Topology

Hub

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