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Department

SDM INSTITUTE OFofTECHNOLOGY,


ISE, SDMIT, Ujire
Ujire - 574240
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MANAGEMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP


DIRECTING AND CONTROLLING
DEEKSHITH RAO
14 May 2019 Assistant Professor , Department of information science and Engineering
Syllabus
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 Meaning and nature of directing.


 Leadership styles.
 Motivation Theories.
 Communication - Meaning and importance .
 coordination, meaning & importance and Techniques of
Coordination.
 Meaning and steps in controlling .
 Essentials of a sound control system .
 Methods of establishing control.

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Meaning and nature of directing.
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 Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by


which subordinates are led to understand and
contribute effectively and efficiently to the
attainment of enterprise objectives.
 The direction has two major activities namely
1.Giving orders to employees.
2.Leading and motivating them to accomplish the
goals.

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Definition of direction
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“ Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by


which subordinates are led to understand and
contribute effectively to the attainment of enterprise
objectives.”

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Principles of Direction
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 Harmony of objectives.
 Unit direction of command
 Efficiency

 Direct supervision
 Effective communication
 Effective control
 Follow -through

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Leadership
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 It is defined as

“ Influence, that is, the art or process of influencing


people so that they will strive willingly and
enthusiastically towards the achievement of group
goals”

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Leadership Styles
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 Traits approach
 Behavioral approach
 Contingency approach

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Traits Approach
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 Traitis a basically a character and early notions


about leadership dealt with personal abilities.
 It was believed that some people have leadership
qualities by birth or god’s gift.
 The traits that associate with leadership are
identified as:
 Mental and physical energy.
 Emotional stability.

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Continued…
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 Knowledge of human relations


 Empathy

 Objectivity

 Personal motivation
 Communication skills

 Teaching ability

 Social skills

 Technical competence

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


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 Friendliness and affection


 Integrity and faith
 Intelligence.

Note: The quality of being honest and having strong


moral principles

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Behavioral Approach
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 Style based on authority.


 Linkert’s four systems of management.
 The managerial grid.
 Leadership involving a variety of styles.

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Style based on authority.
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1.Autocratic leader
2.Democratic or Participative Leader
3.Free-Rein Leader

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Comparision of leadership styles
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Factor Autocratic Participative Free-rein


Decision maker Leader only Leader in Subordinates only
consultation with
subordinates
Discipline Obey the leader Cooperative Self-imposed
Delegation of Rare Good Complete
authority
Responsibility Leader Leader& Individuals
Subordinates
Initiatives By leader By team Only by
individuals
Communication One way and Both ways Free flow
downward
Motivation Punishments Rewards Self motivated
Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019
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Factor Autocratic Participative Free-rein


Hierarchy of Physiological and Mixed Self attenuation
needs safety
Focus Task oriented People oriented people

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Linkert’s four systems of management
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 System1: “exploitative-authoritative”
 System2: “benevolent authoritative”(rewards& some
fear & punishment)
 System3: “Consultative” (substantial confidence)
 System4:”Participative type”(Complete confidence)

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Managerial grid
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 To define leadership styles is the managerial grid


developed by Robert Blake.
 X-axis – “Concern for production”
 Quality of policy decisions
 Procedures
 Creativeness
 Staff services
 Work efficiency etc..
Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019
Managerial grid
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 Y-axis – “Concern for people”


 Personal commitment
 Maintenance of self esteem etc..

 Leadership involving a variety of styles.


 Autocratic to democratic

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Contingency approach to leadership
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 The best style of leadership is one that combines


both autocratic and democratic.
 There is no one best style of leadership under all
condition.

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Motivation Theories
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 Maslow’s theory of motivation


 Theory X and theory Y
 Immaturity – Maturity theory
 Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Maslow’s theory of motivation
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Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Theory X and theory Y
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 Douglas Mc Gregor proposed this theory


 Theory X assumed that most people are not willing
to assume responsibility. They do not like to work
and they like to be directed.
 Basing his analysis on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs,
he concluded that the theory X is wrong. Therefore
he developed another theory this is called theory-Y

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


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 This assumed that people are not lazy by nature. The


work is as natural as play and people can work
naturally if motivated properly.

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Immaturity – Maturity theory
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 This theory was developed by chris Argyrious of the


Harward University.
 According to him, a person will develop from
immaturity to maturity in the following seven stages.

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Immaturity – Maturity theory
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Maturity Theory Immaturity Theory

Active Passive

Independence Dependence

Capable of behaving in many ways Behave in a few ways

Deeper and stronger interest Erratic shallow interests

Long time perspective Short time perspective

Equal or super ordinate position Subordinate position

Awareness and control over self Lack of awareness of self

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Motivation-Hygiene Theory
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 This theory was developed by Frederick Herzberg


 People can be divided into two categories
dissatisfied and satisfied.
 When people are satisfied they are concerned with
work itself he called this as motivation factor.
 While when they were dissatisfied, they were
concerned about the environment in which they
were working. He called this as hygiene factor.

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


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Hygiene Factors Motivating Factors


Environment The job it self
Policies and administration Achievement
Supervision Recognition for accomplishment
Working Conditions Challenging conditions
Inter-Personal relations Increased responsibility
Money, status, and security Growth and development

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Communication
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 Communication is the process of transmitting ideas


or thoughts from one person to another, for the
purpose of creating understanding in the thinking of
the person receiving the ideas or information.

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Systems of communication
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 According to organizational structure


1. Formal
2. Informal
 According to direction of expression
1. Downward
2. Upward
3. Horizontal

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


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 According to the way of expression


1. Oral or verbal
2. Written

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Barriers to successful communication
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 More levels in organization structure through which


an information has to pass.
 Long and instructured channels of communication.
 Heavy work loads at certain level of organization.
 Prestige and superiority complex.
 Sender unable to symbolize the information
correctly.
 Receiver ignoring conflicting information.
Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019
Coordination
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“Coordination is regarded as the essence of


managerialship for the achievement of harmony of
individual effort towards the accomplishment of
group goals as the purpose of management. Each of
the managerial function is an exercise in
coordination”

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Characteristics of coordination
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 Not a separate function of management


 Managerial responsibility
 Unity of action
 Coordination is part of all levels of organization
 It is relevant to group efforts.
 Continuous and dynamic process.
 System concept

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Importance of coordination
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 Unity in diversity
 Specialization

 Team work

 Large number of employees

 Empire building

 Functional differences

 Recognition of goals

 Communication

 Interdependency

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Techniques of coordination
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 Effective chain of command or hierarchy


 Harmonious rules , policies and procedures

 Clearly defined objectives

 Coordination through liaison officer

 Effective communication

 Sound organizational structure

 Coordination through committees

 Incentives

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Controlling
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Definition:
“Control is checking current performance against
predetermined standards in the plans with a view to
ensure adequate progress and satisfactory
performance”

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Steps in controlling
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 Establishing standards
 Measuring and comparing actual results against
standards
 Taking corrective action

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Essentials of a Sound Control System
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 Feedback
 Objective
 Suitability
 Prompt reporting
 Forward looking:(how future actions will conforms to
plan)
 Flexible
 Economical
 Effective and operational
 Motivation

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


Methods of Establishing Control
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 Personal Observation
 Budgeting

 Cost accounting and cost control

 Break-Even analysis

 Standard Costing

 Return on investment(ROI)

 Responsibility accounting

 Management audit

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019


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 Internal audit
 External audit
 Statistical control reports
 Gantt milestone chart
 Production control
 Programme Evaluation and Review Techniques(PERT)
 Critical Path Method(CPM)

Department of ISE, SDMIT, Ujire 14 May 2019