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Radiation

is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant

thermal resistance for convection

temperature at x =0

be T1 and at x =L be T2

Heat Conduction

Cartesian (Rectangular) Coordinate:

X direction

Rate of heat conduction

Into control volume

Out from control volume Accumulated Heat Conduction = In minus Out:

X, Y and Z direction

Accumulated Heat Conduction:

Cartesian Coordinate:

Cylindrical Coordinate:

Spherical Coordinate:

Cylindrical and Spherical Shapes without Heat Generation

temperatures are Ti and To, respectively

Steady Heat Conduction

Case-2

An experimental device that produces excess heat is passively cooled. The addition of pin

fins to the casing of this device is being considered to augment the rate of cooling. onsider

a copper pin fin 0.25 cm in diameter that protrudes from a wall at 95°C into ambient air at

25°C as shown in Fig. 2.19. The heat transfer is mainly by natural convection with a

coefficient equal to 10 W/m2 K. Calculate the heat loss, assuming that (a) the fin is

“infinitely long” and (b) the fin is 2.5 cm long and the coefficient at the end is the same as

around the circumference. Finally, (c) how long would the fin have to be for the infinitely

long solution to be correct within 5%?

1. Thermal conductivity does not change with temperature.

2. Steady state prevails.

3. Radiation is negligible.

4. The convection heat transfer coefficient is uniform over the surface of

the fin.

5. Conduction along the fin is one dimensional.

Unsteady or Transient Heat Conduction

where h is the average heat transfer coefficient, L is a significant length dimension obtained by dividing the

volume of the body by its surface area, and k, is the thermal conductivity of the solid body

Semi-Infinite Solid

An infinite plate of width 2L

An infinitely long cylinder of radius r0

A sphere of radius r0

cylinder with finite length

Semi-infinite plate

Semi-infinite cylinder

Finite cylinder

Semi-infinite rectangular bar

Rectangular parallelepiped

The heat conduction equation in cylindrical coordinates is

(a) Simplify this equation by eliminating terms equal to zero for the case of steady-state heat

flow without sources or sinks around a right-angle corner such as the one in the

accompanying sketch. It may be assumed that the corner extends to infinity in the direction

perpendicular to the page.

(b) (b) Solve the resulting equation for the temperature distribution by substituting the

boundary condition.

(c) Determine the rate of heat flow from T1 to T2. Assume k 1 W/m K and unit depth.

Calculate the rate of heat loss per foot and the

thermal resistance for a 6-in. schedule 40 steel pipe

covered with a 3-in.-thick layer of 85% magnesia.

Superheated steam at 300°F flows inside the pipe (h

= 30 Btu/h ft2 °F), and

still air at 60°F is on the outside (h = 5 Btu/h ft2 °F).

Steam having a quality of 98% at a pressure of 1.37 105 N/m2 is flowing at a velocity of

1 m/s through a steel pipe of 2.7-cm OD and 2.1-cm ID. The heat transfer coefficient at

the inner surface, where condensation occurs, is 567 W/m2 K. A dirt film at the inner

surface adds a unit thermal resistance of 0.18 m2 K/W. Estimate the rate of heat loss

per meter length of pipe if (a) the pipe is bare, (b) the pipe is covered with a 5-cm layer

of 85% magnesia insulation. For both cases assume that the convection heat transfer

coefficient at the outer surface is 11 W/m2 K and that the environmental temperature

is 21°C. Also estimate the quality of the steam after a 3-m length of pipe in both cases.

A cylindrical liquid oxygen (LOX) tank has a diameter of 4 ft, a length of 20 ft, and

hemispherical ends. The boiling point of LOX is 297°F. An insulation is sought that will

reduce the boil-off rate in the steady state to no more than 25 lb/h. The heat of

vaporization of LOX is 92 Btu/lb. If the thickness of this insulation is to be no more than

3 in., what would the value of its thermal conductivity have to be?

Two large steel plates at temperatures of 90°C and 70°C are separated by a steel rod

0.3 m long and 2.5 cm in diameter. The rod is welded to each plate. The space

between the plates is filled with insulation that also insulates the circumference

of the rod. Because of a voltage difference between the two plates, current flows

through the rod, dissipating electrical energy at a rate of 12 W. Determine the

maximum temperature in the rod and the heat flow rate at each end. Check your

results by comparing the net heat flow rate at the two ends with the total rate of heat

generation.

One end of a 0.3-m-long steel rod is connected to a wall at 204°C. The other end is

connected to a wall that is maintained at 93°C. Air is blown across the rod so that a

heat transfer coefficient of 17 W/m2 K is maintained over the entire surface. If the

diameter of the rod is 5 cm and the temperature of the air is 38°C, what is the net rate

of heat loss to the air?

The addition of aluminum fins has been suggested to increase the rate of heat

dissipation from one side of an electronic device 1 m wide and 1 m tall. The fins are to

be rectangular in cross section, 2.5 cm long and 0.25 cm thick, as shown in the figure.

There are to be 100 fins per meter. The convection heat transfer coefficient, both for

the wall and the fins, is estimated to be 35 W/m2 K. With this information determine

the percent increase in the rate of heat transfer of the finned wall compared to the

bare wall.

A circumferential fin of rectangular cross section, 3.7-cm OD and 0.3 cm thick,

surrounds a 2.5-cm-diameter tube as shown below. The fin is constructed of mild steel.

Air blowing over the fin produces a heat transfer coefficient of 28.4 W/m2 K. If the

temperatures of the base of the fin and the air are 260°C and 38°C, respectively,

calculate the heat transfer rate from the fin.

A long, 1-cm-diameter electric cable is embedded in a concrete wall (k 0.13 W/m K)

that is 1 m by 1 m, as shown in the sketch below. If the lower surface is insulated, the

surface of the cable is 100°C, and the exposed surface of the concrete is 25°C, estimate

the rate of energy dissipation per meter of cable.

A 30-cm-OD pipe with a surface temperature of 90°C carries steam over a distance of

100m. The pipe is buried with its centerline at a depth of 1 m, the ground surface is

6°C, and the mean thermal conductivity of the soil is 0.7 W/m K. Calculate the heat

loss per day, and the cost of this loss if steam heat is worth $3.00 per 106 kJ. Also

estimate the thickness of 85% magnesia insulation necessary to achieve the same

insulation as provided by the soil with a total heat transfer coefficient of 23 W/m2 K on

the outside of the pipe.

Calculate the rate of heat transfer between a 15-cm-OD pipe at 120°C and a 10-cm-OD

pipe at 40°C. The two pipes are 330 m long and are buried in sand (k 0.33

W/m K) 12 m below the surface (Ts 25°C). The pipes are parallel and are separated by

23 cm (center to center).

A stainless steel cylindrical billet (k 14.4 W/m K, 3.9 106 m2/s) is heated to 593°C

preparatory to a forming process. If the minimum temperature permissible

for forming is 482°C, how long can the billet be exposed to air at 38°C if the average

heat transfer coefficient is 85 W/m2 K? The shape of the billet is shown in the sketch.

A long copper cylinder 0.6 m in diameter and initially at a uniform temperature of 38°C

is placed in a water bath at 93°C. Assuming that the heat transfer coefficient between

the copper and the water is 1248 W/m2 K, calculate the time required to heat the

center of the cylinder to 66°C. As a first approximation, neglect the temperature

gradient within the cylinder; then repeat your calculation without this simplifying

assumption and compare your results.

Numerical Method

A turbine blade 5 cm long with a cross-

sectional area A 4.5 cm2 and a perimeter P

12 cm is made of a highalloy steel (k 25

W/m K). The temperature of the blade

attachment point is 500°C, and the blade is

exposed to combustion gases at 900°C. The

heat transfer coefficient between the blade

surface and the combustion gases is 500

W/m2 K. Using the nodal network shown in

the accompanying sketch, (a) determine the

temperature distribution in the blade, the

rate of heat transfer to the blade, and the

fin efficiency of the blade and, (b) compare

the fin efficiency calculated numerically

with that calculated by the exact method.

Determine the temperature at the four nodes shown

in the sketch. Assume steady conditions and two-

dimensional heat conduction. The four faces of the

square shape are at different temperatures as shown.

accompanying sketch, the left face is maintained at

40°C and the top face is maintained at 250°C. The

right face is in contact with a fluid at 40°C through a

heat transfer coefficient of 60 W/m2 K, and the

bottom face is in contact with a fluid at 250°C

through a heat transfer coefficient of 100 W/m2 K. If

the thermal conductivity of the bar is 20 W/m K,

calculate the temperature at the nine nodes shown

in the sketch.

A long, steel beam with a rectangular cross section of 40 cm 60 cm is mounted on an

insulating wall as shown in the following sketch. The rod is heated by radiant heaters

that maintain the top and bottom surfaces at 300°C. A stream of air at 130°C cools the

exposed face through a heat transfer coefficient of 20 W/m2 K. Using a node spacing

of 1 cm, determine the temperature distribution in the rod and the rate of heat input

to the rod. The thermal conductivity of the steel is 40 W/m K

A long concrete beam is to undergo a thermal test to determine its loss of strength in

the event of a building fire. The beam cross section is triangular as shown in the

sketch. Initially, the beam is at a uniform temperature of 20°C. At the start of the test,

one of the short faces and the long face are exposed to hot gases at 400°C through a

heat transfer coefficient of 10 W/m2K, and the other short face is insulated. Produce a

graph showing the highest and lowest temperatures in the beam as a function of time

for the first hour of exposure. For the concrete properties, use k = 0.5 W/m K and a = 5

* 10-7m2/s. Use a node spacing of 4 cm and use an explicit difference scheme.

Consider two-dimensional steady conduction near a curved boundary. Determine the

difference equation for an appropriate control volume near the node (i, j). The

boundary experiences convection heat transfer through a coefficient h to ambient

temperature Ta. The surface of the boundary is given by ys = f(x).

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