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is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant
thermal resistance for convection
temperature at x =0
be T1 and at x =L be T2
Heat Conduction
Cartesian (Rectangular) Coordinate:
X direction
Rate of heat conduction
Into control volume

Rate of heat conduction

Out from control volume Accumulated Heat Conduction = In minus Out:

X, Y and Z direction
Accumulated Heat Conduction:

Generated Heat: Sensible Heat:

Cartesian Coordinate:

Cylindrical Coordinate:

Spherical Coordinate:
Cylindrical and Spherical Shapes without Heat Generation

inner- and outer-surface

temperatures are Ti and To, respectively
Steady Heat Conduction
An experimental device that produces excess heat is passively cooled. The addition of pin
fins to the casing of this device is being considered to augment the rate of cooling. onsider
a copper pin fin 0.25 cm in diameter that protrudes from a wall at 95°C into ambient air at
25°C as shown in Fig. 2.19. The heat transfer is mainly by natural convection with a
coefficient equal to 10 W/m2 K. Calculate the heat loss, assuming that (a) the fin is
“infinitely long” and (b) the fin is 2.5 cm long and the coefficient at the end is the same as
around the circumference. Finally, (c) how long would the fin have to be for the infinitely
long solution to be correct within 5%?

Make the following assumptions:

1. Thermal conductivity does not change with temperature.
2. Steady state prevails.
3. Radiation is negligible.
4. The convection heat transfer coefficient is uniform over the surface of
the fin.
5. Conduction along the fin is one dimensional.
Unsteady or Transient Heat Conduction
where h is the average heat transfer coefficient, L is a significant length dimension obtained by dividing the
volume of the body by its surface area, and k, is the thermal conductivity of the solid body
Semi-Infinite Solid
An infinite plate of width 2L
An infinitely long cylinder of radius r0
A sphere of radius r0
cylinder with finite length
Semi-infinite plate

Infinite rectangular bar

One-quarter infinite solid

Semi-infinite cylinder

Finite cylinder
Semi-infinite rectangular bar

Rectangular parallelepiped

One-quarter infinite plate

One-eighth infinite plate

The heat conduction equation in cylindrical coordinates is

(a) Simplify this equation by eliminating terms equal to zero for the case of steady-state heat
flow without sources or sinks around a right-angle corner such as the one in the
accompanying sketch. It may be assumed that the corner extends to infinity in the direction
perpendicular to the page.
(b) (b) Solve the resulting equation for the temperature distribution by substituting the
boundary condition.
(c) Determine the rate of heat flow from T1 to T2. Assume k 1 W/m K and unit depth.
Calculate the rate of heat loss per foot and the
thermal resistance for a 6-in. schedule 40 steel pipe
covered with a 3-in.-thick layer of 85% magnesia.
Superheated steam at 300°F flows inside the pipe (h
= 30 Btu/h ft2 °F), and
still air at 60°F is on the outside (h = 5 Btu/h ft2 °F).

Steam having a quality of 98% at a pressure of 1.37 105 N/m2 is flowing at a velocity of
1 m/s through a steel pipe of 2.7-cm OD and 2.1-cm ID. The heat transfer coefficient at
the inner surface, where condensation occurs, is 567 W/m2 K. A dirt film at the inner
surface adds a unit thermal resistance of 0.18 m2 K/W. Estimate the rate of heat loss
per meter length of pipe if (a) the pipe is bare, (b) the pipe is covered with a 5-cm layer
of 85% magnesia insulation. For both cases assume that the convection heat transfer
coefficient at the outer surface is 11 W/m2 K and that the environmental temperature
is 21°C. Also estimate the quality of the steam after a 3-m length of pipe in both cases.
A cylindrical liquid oxygen (LOX) tank has a diameter of 4 ft, a length of 20 ft, and
hemispherical ends. The boiling point of LOX is 297°F. An insulation is sought that will
reduce the boil-off rate in the steady state to no more than 25 lb/h. The heat of
vaporization of LOX is 92 Btu/lb. If the thickness of this insulation is to be no more than
3 in., what would the value of its thermal conductivity have to be?
Two large steel plates at temperatures of 90°C and 70°C are separated by a steel rod
0.3 m long and 2.5 cm in diameter. The rod is welded to each plate. The space
between the plates is filled with insulation that also insulates the circumference
of the rod. Because of a voltage difference between the two plates, current flows
through the rod, dissipating electrical energy at a rate of 12 W. Determine the
maximum temperature in the rod and the heat flow rate at each end. Check your
results by comparing the net heat flow rate at the two ends with the total rate of heat
One end of a 0.3-m-long steel rod is connected to a wall at 204°C. The other end is
connected to a wall that is maintained at 93°C. Air is blown across the rod so that a
heat transfer coefficient of 17 W/m2 K is maintained over the entire surface. If the
diameter of the rod is 5 cm and the temperature of the air is 38°C, what is the net rate
of heat loss to the air?
The addition of aluminum fins has been suggested to increase the rate of heat
dissipation from one side of an electronic device 1 m wide and 1 m tall. The fins are to
be rectangular in cross section, 2.5 cm long and 0.25 cm thick, as shown in the figure.
There are to be 100 fins per meter. The convection heat transfer coefficient, both for
the wall and the fins, is estimated to be 35 W/m2 K. With this information determine
the percent increase in the rate of heat transfer of the finned wall compared to the
bare wall.
A circumferential fin of rectangular cross section, 3.7-cm OD and 0.3 cm thick,
surrounds a 2.5-cm-diameter tube as shown below. The fin is constructed of mild steel.
Air blowing over the fin produces a heat transfer coefficient of 28.4 W/m2 K. If the
temperatures of the base of the fin and the air are 260°C and 38°C, respectively,
calculate the heat transfer rate from the fin.
A long, 1-cm-diameter electric cable is embedded in a concrete wall (k 0.13 W/m K)
that is 1 m by 1 m, as shown in the sketch below. If the lower surface is insulated, the
surface of the cable is 100°C, and the exposed surface of the concrete is 25°C, estimate
the rate of energy dissipation per meter of cable.
A 30-cm-OD pipe with a surface temperature of 90°C carries steam over a distance of
100m. The pipe is buried with its centerline at a depth of 1 m, the ground surface is
6°C, and the mean thermal conductivity of the soil is 0.7 W/m K. Calculate the heat
loss per day, and the cost of this loss if steam heat is worth $3.00 per 106 kJ. Also
estimate the thickness of 85% magnesia insulation necessary to achieve the same
insulation as provided by the soil with a total heat transfer coefficient of 23 W/m2 K on
the outside of the pipe.
Calculate the rate of heat transfer between a 15-cm-OD pipe at 120°C and a 10-cm-OD
pipe at 40°C. The two pipes are 330 m long and are buried in sand (k 0.33
W/m K) 12 m below the surface (Ts 25°C). The pipes are parallel and are separated by
23 cm (center to center).
A stainless steel cylindrical billet (k 14.4 W/m K, 3.9 106 m2/s) is heated to 593°C
preparatory to a forming process. If the minimum temperature permissible
for forming is 482°C, how long can the billet be exposed to air at 38°C if the average
heat transfer coefficient is 85 W/m2 K? The shape of the billet is shown in the sketch.

A long copper cylinder 0.6 m in diameter and initially at a uniform temperature of 38°C
is placed in a water bath at 93°C. Assuming that the heat transfer coefficient between
the copper and the water is 1248 W/m2 K, calculate the time required to heat the
center of the cylinder to 66°C. As a first approximation, neglect the temperature
gradient within the cylinder; then repeat your calculation without this simplifying
assumption and compare your results.
Numerical Method
A turbine blade 5 cm long with a cross-
sectional area A 4.5 cm2 and a perimeter P
12 cm is made of a highalloy steel (k 25
W/m K). The temperature of the blade
attachment point is 500°C, and the blade is
exposed to combustion gases at 900°C. The
heat transfer coefficient between the blade
surface and the combustion gases is 500
W/m2 K. Using the nodal network shown in
the accompanying sketch, (a) determine the
temperature distribution in the blade, the
rate of heat transfer to the blade, and the
fin efficiency of the blade and, (b) compare
the fin efficiency calculated numerically
with that calculated by the exact method.
Determine the temperature at the four nodes shown
in the sketch. Assume steady conditions and two-
dimensional heat conduction. The four faces of the
square shape are at different temperatures as shown.

In the long, 30-cm-square bar shown in the

accompanying sketch, the left face is maintained at
40°C and the top face is maintained at 250°C. The
right face is in contact with a fluid at 40°C through a
heat transfer coefficient of 60 W/m2 K, and the
bottom face is in contact with a fluid at 250°C
through a heat transfer coefficient of 100 W/m2 K. If
the thermal conductivity of the bar is 20 W/m K,
calculate the temperature at the nine nodes shown
in the sketch.
A long, steel beam with a rectangular cross section of 40 cm 60 cm is mounted on an
insulating wall as shown in the following sketch. The rod is heated by radiant heaters
that maintain the top and bottom surfaces at 300°C. A stream of air at 130°C cools the
exposed face through a heat transfer coefficient of 20 W/m2 K. Using a node spacing
of 1 cm, determine the temperature distribution in the rod and the rate of heat input
to the rod. The thermal conductivity of the steel is 40 W/m K
A long concrete beam is to undergo a thermal test to determine its loss of strength in
the event of a building fire. The beam cross section is triangular as shown in the
sketch. Initially, the beam is at a uniform temperature of 20°C. At the start of the test,
one of the short faces and the long face are exposed to hot gases at 400°C through a
heat transfer coefficient of 10 W/m2K, and the other short face is insulated. Produce a
graph showing the highest and lowest temperatures in the beam as a function of time
for the first hour of exposure. For the concrete properties, use k = 0.5 W/m K and a = 5
* 10-7m2/s. Use a node spacing of 4 cm and use an explicit difference scheme.
Consider two-dimensional steady conduction near a curved boundary. Determine the
difference equation for an appropriate control volume near the node (i, j). The
boundary experiences convection heat transfer through a coefficient h to ambient
temperature Ta. The surface of the boundary is given by ys = f(x).