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# Central Tendency

## In Statistics, a central tendency is a

central or typical value for a probability distribution. It may
also be called a center or location of the distribution.
A measure of Central Tendency is a
single value that attempts to describe a set of data by identifying the
central position within that set of data.

## The measures or techniques that are used to determine the central

value are called Measures of Central Tendency.

## Measures of central tendency are often called averages.

The most common measures of central tendency are the :
 Arithmetic mean
 Median
 Mode

## Each of these measures describes a different indication of

the typical or central value in the distribution. The mode is the
most commonly occurring value in a distribution.
Mean(Arithmetic)
The mean (Average) is the most popular and well known
measure of central tendency.
The mean is equal to the sum of all the values in the data set
divided by the number of values in a data set.
It is usually denoted by
Ungrouped data
Ungrouped data is the data you first gather
from an experiment or study. The data is raw not grouped.
An ungrouped set of data is basically a list of numbers.
New technologies
Such as Web, digital video, sound, animations and interactivity
are providing tools that can make assessment design and
implementation more efficient , timely and sophisticated.
Grouped data
A data in the form of frequency distribution is
called grouped data.
Frequency distribution
It is the arrangement of scores according to
category of classes including the frequency.
Frequency
Frequency is the number of observations falling in
a category.
 Answer on online assessment can only be right or wrong. There is

##  Technology is not always reliable. Information can be lost if a

system breaks down.

##  Testing online is not suitable for essay writing and analysis or

cognitive thinking testing.

## While undertaking a test a student might take some help.

Median
The median is the value separating the higher half from
the lower half of a data sample. For a data set it maybe thought of
as a the ‘middle’ value.

## For example in the data set {1 , 3 , 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} the median is 6 the

fourth largest and also the fourth smallest number in a sample.
If ‘ n’ is odd number then
Example
Find the median score of 7 students in an English
class.
19
17 n+1 7+1 4
16 2 2
So the median score is 15
15
10
5
2
If ‘n’ is the even number
Example: Find the mean score of 8 students in an English
class.
1. 30 1. Find the value at position (n+1) 8+1 4.5
2. 19 2 2
15
17
2. Find the value at position n 8 4
16 2 2
15 16
10 3. Find the average of the two values .
5 16+15 15.5
2
2
Mode is defined as the most frequent occurring observation in
the data. It is the observation that occurs maximum number of
times in given data.

The mode of a set of data values is the value that appears most
often.
Example: In {6, 3, 9, 6 , 6, 6, 5, 9, 3} the mode is 6 it occurs
most often.
On a histogram it represents the highest bar in a bar or
histogram. An example of a mode is presented below.

15

10

0
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