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central or typical value for a probability distribution. It may

also be called a center or location of the distribution.

A measure of Central Tendency is a

single value that attempts to describe a set of data by identifying the

central position within that set of data.

value are called Measures of Central Tendency.

The most common measures of central tendency are the :

Arithmetic mean

Median

Mode

the typical or central value in the distribution. The mode is the

most commonly occurring value in a distribution.

Mean(Arithmetic)

The mean (Average) is the most popular and well known

measure of central tendency.

The mean is equal to the sum of all the values in the data set

divided by the number of values in a data set.

It is usually denoted by

Ungrouped data

Ungrouped data is the data you first gather

from an experiment or study. The data is raw not grouped.

An ungrouped set of data is basically a list of numbers.

New technologies

Such as Web, digital video, sound, animations and interactivity

are providing tools that can make assessment design and

implementation more efficient , timely and sophisticated.

Grouped data

A data in the form of frequency distribution is

called grouped data.

Frequency distribution

It is the arrangement of scores according to

category of classes including the frequency.

Frequency

Frequency is the number of observations falling in

a category.

Disadvantages

Answer on online assessment can only be right or wrong. There is

no room for explaining your answer or getting credit.

system breaks down.

cognitive thinking testing.

Median

The median is the value separating the higher half from

the lower half of a data sample. For a data set it maybe thought of

as a the ‘middle’ value.

fourth largest and also the fourth smallest number in a sample.

If ‘ n’ is odd number then

Example

Find the median score of 7 students in an English

class.

19

17 n+1 7+1 4

16 2 2

So the median score is 15

15

10

5

2

If ‘n’ is the even number

Example: Find the mean score of 8 students in an English

class.

1. 30 1. Find the value at position (n+1) 8+1 4.5

2. 19 2 2

15

17

2. Find the value at position n 8 4

16 2 2

15 16

10 3. Find the average of the two values .

5 16+15 15.5

2

2

Mode is defined as the most frequent occurring observation in

the data. It is the observation that occurs maximum number of

times in given data.

The mode of a set of data values is the value that appears most

often.

Example: In {6, 3, 9, 6 , 6, 6, 5, 9, 3} the mode is 6 it occurs

most often.

On a histogram it represents the highest bar in a bar or

histogram. An example of a mode is presented below.

15

10

0

Car Train Truck Bus

Column1 Series 2 Series 3

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