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Adigrat University

Engineering and Technology Collage

Chemical Engineering Department
Process Industries-II
Lecture Note-1
Prepared By: Basha Mekonnen
Processing Line in Food Industry

Beer Production

Nuno Trindade; 2008

Raw Materials

Malt is one of the main ingredients
and is obtained from barley, which is
subjected to a process of
germination under controlled
conditions. This operation (called
malting) causes, towards the end of
the production process, the
development of carbohydrates and
nitrogenous substances by the
enzymes formed during the
germination process.
Varying conditions during the
malting process (temperature and
humidity) allows different types of
malt to be obtained, giving different
colours and flavours to the beer. 4
Other unmalted cereals
Of the unmalted cereals
normally used, corn is very
common; the oils are
extracted, then it is milled and
called grits. Barley, rice or
wheat may also be used.
These cereals are used to
reduce the percentage of
proteins in the wort. Unmalted
cereals give the beer a lighter
colour and specific
characteristics according to
the type of cereal chosen.
Hops (humulus lupulos)
The hop (humulus lupulos) is
an aromatic plant that gives beer
its flavour and bitterness. It
contributes to the formation of a
good froth and protects the beer
against contamination by
microorganisms. Today, extracts
from this plant are used
industrially, obtained in such a
way as to preserve its qualities.
Hop varieties are classified in
terms of bitterness and flavour,
which vary according to the
amount of resin and essential
oils they contain.
Production Process

Preparing the Wort

The first phase in the process of beer

production is the preparation of the wort. This
process has four stages: 8
Milling: In Mashing: The flour from the cereals
order for the (malt and other unmalted cereals) is
components mixed with water and subjected to
to be rapidly certain processes to obtain a wort of a
extracted and suitable composition for the kind of
converted, beer being produced (varying times,
the malt is
milled to temperatures and PH). These
obtain coarse conditions encourage the development
flour. The of complex starch molecules and
other proteins in other simpler ones by
cereals are means of enzymes formed during the
also milled to production of the malt. Mashing lasts 2
varying to 4 hours and finishes with a
degrees. temperature of approximately 75 ºC.
Filtration of the wort: After mashing, the whole volume is filtered in
order to separate the spent grains (which is an excellent animal feed)
from the wort itself. This is done by passing water through the mash at
the right temperature in a filter press or lauter tun, which lasts around 2-
3 hours, conducted at a temperature of 75-80 ºC.

Boiling the wort: The diluted and filtered wort is boiled for around 2
hours. Hops are added at this stage. The purpose of boiling is to:
Transform and make soluble the bitter substances in the hops;
•Eliminate undesirable volatile substances;
•Sterilise the wort;
•Provoke the precipitation of proteins of high molecular weight;
•Establish the final concentration of wort.

After boiling, it is necessary to separate the precipitated protein and the

insoluble hop components from the hot wort. Separation may be carried
out in a decanter using gravity or with centripetal force in a "whirlpool".

Before the hopped wort goes into the fermentation tanks, it is cooled
10 to
a temperature of around 9 ºC and aired in sterile conditions.

During fermentation, the wort sugars are converted by the

transformation of yeast into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Fermentation begins when yeast of a culture selected for the
type of beer being produced is added to the cooled oxygen-
saturated wort.
Fermentation takes place at controlled temperatures and lasts
around 7 days. At first it is quite violent, then slows down
gradually until the yeast is deposited on the bottom of the tank.
Maturation, the The next
phase after operation is
fermentation, is the stabilisation.
period in which the This consists
beer is allowed to of letting the
rest at suitable beer stabilise
temperatures in at
order for the temperatures
undesirable volatile of between
components, which 0ºC and - 2ºC,
might affect the final to permit
«bouquet» of the colloidal
beer, to be released. stabilisation. 12
Clarification of the Beer

Clarification is the operation that gives the beer its clear

limpid quality, eliminating the last remaining traces of
clouding still in suspension. It consists of pumping the
liquid through a suitable filter. The filtered beer is then
stored in tanks, now ready to be bottled.

The final stage of the beer production process is transferring

the beer into different kinds of containers (bottles, barrels, cans
Before or after bottling, the beer needs to be biologically
stabilised. This operation may be carried out cold (sterilising
filtration) or hot (using pasteurisation, which may be done either
immediately before - flash pasteurization - or after the drink is
introduced into its container - tunnel pasteurisation). At the
bottling stage, the beer is inserted into different forms (bottle,
barrel, can etc) to enable it to be appreciated with moderation.14
Raw Materials Preparation Transformation




and Yeast
Yeast Maturation


Mill Fermentation

Mashing Clarification

Filtration Bottling

Wort Boiling Wort Production