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KONSEP

PERMINTAAN DAN
2a
PENAWARAN
Model Perekonomian Tertutup Dua
Faktor
Demand…(1)
Demand Schedule is
a schedule of the quantities of a
good that buyers are willing and able to purchase at
each possible price during a period of time, [all
other things held constant]

Demand Curve is
the graphical representation of the demand
schedule
Demand…(2)
Demand Schedule for Cornflakes

Quantity Demanded (millions of boxes


Price ($ per box)
per year)
P
Q

A 5 9

B 4 10

C 3 12

D 2 15

E 1 20
Demand…(3)
Demand…(4)
Law of Downward-sloping demand :

When the price of a commodity is raised (and


other things are held constant or ceteris paribus),
buyers tend to buy less of the commodity.

When the price is lowered, other things being


equal, quantity demanded increases.
Demand…(5)
A Change in Demand (1)
A Change in Demand (2)
• Why does the demand curve shift ?
Because the influences other than the good’s
price change

• The shift means that more cars will be bought at


every price (even if the price does not change)

• A change in demand (demand shift) vs a change


in the quantity demanded
Behind The Demand Curve
Factors affecting the demand
Example for automobiles
curve
As income rise, people increase
1. Average income
car purchase
2. Population (size of the Larger population increase car
market) purchase
Lower gasoline prices raise the
3. Prices of related goods
demand for cars
Having a new car becomes a
4. Taste
status symbol
5. Another influence or Include availability of
Expectation subways,quality of road,etc
COMPLIMENTS AND
SUBSTITUTES
Substitutes (pengganti) :
• if the price of a substitute increases, the demand for
the good increases.
• if the price of a substitute decreases, the demand for
the good decreases.

Compliments (pelengkap) :
• if the price of a compliment increases, the demand for
the good decreases.
• if the price of a compliment decreases, the demand for
the good increases.
Supply…(1)

Supply Schedule (and Supply Curve) for a


commodity shows the relationship between its
market price and the amount of that commodity
that producers are willing to produce and sell,
all other things held constant
Supply…(2)
Supply Schedule for Cornflakes

Quantity Supplied (millions of boxes


Price ($ per box)
per year)
P
Q

A 5 18

B 4 16

C 3 12

D 2 7

E 1 0
Supply…(3)
Supply…(4)
Law of Upward-Sloping Supply

Kenaikan harga (price) barang dan jasa, dengan


asumsi faktor-faktor lain berada dalam kondisi
konstan, akan menyebabkan peningkatan kuantitas
(quantity) penawaran barang dan jasa.

Penurunan harga (price) barang dan jasa, dengan


asumsi faktor-faktor lain berada dalam kondisi
konstan, akan menyebabkan penurunan kuantitas
(quantity) penawaran barang dan jasa.
Supply…(5)
A Change in Supply (1)
A Change in Supply (2)
• Supply changes when any influences other than
the commodity’s own price changes

• Supply increases (or decreases) when the


amount supplied increases (or decrease) at each
market price
Supply…(5)
Factors determining the supply
Example for automobiles
curve
Computerized manufacturing lowers
1. Technology production cost and increase supply

A reduction in the wage paid to


2. Input price autoworkers lowers production costs
and increases supply

3. Prices of related goods If truck prices rise, supply of cars falls

Removing quotas and tariffs on


4. Government policy imported automobiles increases
automobile supply
If you expect the truck prices will rise
5. Expectation in the future, maybe you will keep
some trucks and reduce the supply
Equilibrium of Supply and Demand (1)

• Supply and demand interact to produce an equilibrium


price and quantity, or market equilibrium

• Market equilibrium comes at that price and quantity


where the forces of supply and demand are in balance

• When supply and demand are in balance, there is no


reason for price to rise or fall, as long as other things
remain unchanged
Equilibrium of Supply and Demand (2)
Combining Demand and Supply for Cornflakes

Quantity Quantity
Possible
demanded supplied State of Pressure on
prices ($
(millions of (millions of market price
per box)
boxes per year boxes per year
A 5 9 18 Surplus Downward ↓
B 4 10 16 Surplus Downward ↓
C 3 12 12 Equilibrium Neutral
D 2 15 7 Shortage Upward ↑
E 1 20 0 Shortage Upward ↑
Equilibrium of Supply and Demand (3)
Effect of a Shift in Supply or Demand (1)
Effect of a Shift in Supply or Demand (2)

Demand and Supply Effect on Price and


Shifts Quantity
If demand rises… The demand curve Price ↑, Quantity ↑
shifts to the right
If demand falls… The demand curve Price ↓, Quantity ↓
shifts to the left
If supply rises… The supply curve shifts Price ↓, Quantity ↑
to the right
If supply falls… The supply curve shifts Price ↑, Quantity ↓
to the left