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Fundamentals Of

What is Communication ??

Exchange Of
What is Communication??

Exchange Of
Transfer of information from one place to another

Audio Video I get it !!!!!!!!!!!!

Data Signal My Information.

Transmission Medium

Free Space Destination

Fiber Optic
How to transfer information??

Through Some Carrier

Some carrier is required to carry information

over long distances….


Limitation: Information cannot go beyond

certain distance without the aid of a carrier

•Should be capable of carrying information

•Can take it through long distance
•Should have good speed

•Which is the most suitable carrier??

Electromagnetic Wave

•Highest Known speed 3x108m/s

• Can carry any information through
•Energetic - Can go through long distance
•Supports multiple media Eg: Free
space/Copper/Fiber etc..
Electromagnetic Wave

In electromagnetic wave electrical and magnetic fields vary

Harmonic oscillations at atomic level gives oscillating
electric field
Electromagnetic wave generation

Relation between
electric and magnetic field
Changing electric field gives rise to changing
magnetic field & vise versa


So in electromagnetic wave electric and magnetic

fields oscillate perpendicular to each other and
electromagnetic energy transmits perpendicular to

Figure of a wave

Wavelength = distance travelled in one cycle(λ)

Frequency = Number of cycles per second(ν)
Velocity(v) = λ x ν
Electro Magnetic Spectrum

Velocity of all the electromagnetic wave is

same, 3 x 108m/s
Block Diagram of a
Telecommunication System

What is the other thing required apart

from carrier for transmitting signals over
longer distances??

Some medium for carrying signals from

transmitter to the receiver
Different types of media used for transmitting
•Wired : Twisted Pair
Co-axial cable
Optical fiber

Tx Rx


•Wireless(Free space/air):Microwave
Twisted Pair
Twisted Pair

 Twisted pair is made of two copper wires which are

covered by plastics or materials that are similar

 The insulated wires are twisted to form the

communication line,the purpose of twisting the wires
is to avoid electrical interference

 Twisted pair can be combined into a cable that may

consist of two,four,fifty or hundreds of pairs

 Twisted pair is the basis of transmission

Coaxial Cable
Coaxial Cable
 Coaxial cable contains two conductors which are
insulated from one another

 The inner conductor is covered by the dielectric and

the outer conductor is covered by a shield

 Coaxial cable has many applications,for instance

cable TV,local networks,short run computer system
links and long distance telephone transmission

 In local network coaxial cable can support different

type of traffic and data

 By using FDM,it can carry more than 10,000

channels at a time
Optic Fiber
Optic Fiber(Physical Appearance)
Optic Fiber
Optic fiber is made up of 3 parts :

Core,Cladding and jacket

 The inner most part is the core which contains one

or more thin fibers that are made up of plastic or

 Each of the fiber in the core is covered by a cladding

which has different optical properties from the core

 The outer most part of the optical fiber is made up of

plastic or other materials ,which is called the jacket
Optic Fiber

 Because of greater performance and higher data rate,the

application of optic fiber has dramatically increased in
long distance communication and military applications

 In terrestrial microwave transmission a pair of towers

mounted on top of the towers will transmit signals
through air

 Microwave antennas are equipped in higher place in

order to achieve better transmission effect

 Voice transmission,television transmission and the

short point to point links will be the major application
of microwave transmission
Satellite Communication
 A satellite consists of several transponders which
receive signal from one frequency band,this action is
called uplink

 The satellite will amplify or repeat the signal to other

frequency band,this action is called downlink

 A satellite link is called a microwave link

 The most application of satellite communication will

be long distance telephone transmission

 Private business networks and television distribution

Comparison of Twisted Pair,Coaxial
Cable and Optic fiber

Twisted Pair Coaxial Cable Optic Fiber

Data Rate/ 4Mbps 500Mbps Upto

Bandwidth 100Gbps

Repeater Spacing 1-10Km 1-10Km 10-100Km

Electromagnetism Affected Affected Not affected

Comparison of Satellite and Optic Fiber

Optic Fiber Satellite

Reconfiguration Not possible Possible

Bandwidth Practically upto 36-72MHz

10 GHz

Weather Condition Affected by storm Not affected by


Electromagnetic Not affected Affected