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Moulding Defect Description Causes Countermeasures
Flow lines are streaks, patterns, or • Caused by the varying speed at • Increase injection speeds and
lines - commonly off-toned in color which the molten plastic flows as it pressure to the optimal level
changes direction through the • Locate the gate at a spot in the
contours and bends inside the tool cavity with thin walls
mold tool
• The injection speed is too low
causing the plastic to solidify at
different speeds.
Flow Lines
Sink marks are small craters or • Sink marks are often caused when • Mold temperatures should be
depressions that develop in thicker the cooling time or the cooling lowered, holding pressure
areas of the injection molded mechanism is insufficient for the increased, and holding time
prototype when shrinkage occurs in plastic to fully cool and cure while prolonged to allow for more
the inner portions of the finished in the mold adequate cooling and curing.
product • Caused by inadequate pressure in • Reducing the thickness of the
the cavity, or by an excessive thickest wall sections
temperature at the gate
Sink Mark
Vacuum voids are pockets of air • Caused by uneven solidification • Locate the gate at the thickest part
trapped within or close to the surface between the surface and the inner of the molding
of an injection molded prototype. sections of the prototype • Increase holding pressure as well
as holding time.
• Ensure that mold parts are
perfectly aligned.

Vacuum Voids
Moulding Defect Description Causes Countermeasures
A moulded product that is incomplete • Insufficient injection-moulding • Select a less viscous plastic with
because the mould cavity was not machine performance (shot higher flowability
filled completely. capacity, plasticizing capacity, etc.) • Increase mold or melt
• Poor material flowability temperature so as to increase
• Gate cross-section surface area is flowability.
too small. Moulded product • Increase the material feed in the
thickness is too thin. molding machine
• Poor gas venting.
Shot short
Streaks of a silvery white colour • Material is absorbing water. • Slow down injection speed.
appear in the material flow direction. • Material is contaminated with • Increase the mould temperature.
another type of material. • Change the gate locations.
• Aeration is occurring during
• Too much additive is present.

Silver streaking
The material splits off and flows in • Material splits and flows in • Raise the resin temperature
two or more directions.This results in separate directions, then • Increase the injection pressure.
reduced strength, as well as burn- converges again. • Increase the injection speed.
mark and bubble defects. • Polymer temperature is too low. • Change the gate locations
Polymer is not fully melted.
• Difficulties in venting gas and air

Poor weld line

Moulding Defect Description Causes Countermeasures
The presence of holes inside moulded • Change in density as the material • Increase the injection pressure
products changes from a molten to a • Increase the size of the gates
coagulated state. • Make the runners shorter.
• The surface of the moulded • Choose a highly viscous grade
product loses heat rapidly through
the mould wall and the polymer
• Air gets trapped within the molten
Void polymer.
The surface of the moulded product • Same as what causes voids, but • Increase the injection rate and
collapses somewhat-something that sink marks arise when the surface speed
is particularly common in thicker cools too slowly. • Change the gate locations.
products. • Make the gates larger.
• Choose a highly viscous grade.

Sink Mark
Moulding Defect Description Causes Countermeasures
The moulded product warps • Residual stress from the moulding • Decrease the injection pressure.
immediately following or at some process is released, causing • Change the gate locations.
time following moulding where the deformation. • Lower the mould temperature.
mould cavity should be straight.

Ordinarily a moulded product is • The mould draft is too small • Decrease injection pressure.
removed from the mould by having • There is too much residual • Lower the cylinder temperature
the product stick to the moving side pressure from the moulding setting.
of the mould when the mould opens process • Increase the mould draft.
• Too much shrinkage occurred • Improve the mould finish.
• The mould finish is perpendicular
to the part release direction.

Sink Mark