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Subject: IRRIGATION ENGINEERING

Instructor:
Prof. Dr. Shafi Muhammad Kori MUET
Jamshor
o

Presentation 14 (1hr)

Theories of Seepage:
Bligh’s Creep Theory

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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Design of Irrigation Structures
Any hydraulic structure should be checked and designed
for:

1. Hydrostatic pressure

3. Surface flow conditions

For design of impervious floor on pervious soil strata, considering sub-surface
flow.
According to Bligh:
“percolating water creeps along the contact of the base profile of the weir with
sub-soil and looses head in proportion to creep resistance”.
Total Creep length = AB + BC + CD + DE + EF + FG + GH + HI
Creep length up to F
head loss upto F  H
Total creep length
LF
or head loss upto F  H
L

Now
Uplift pressure at F = H – Head loss up to F
or
L  L 
Uplift pressure upto F  H  f  H  H1  f 
L  L 
1. Hydrostatic pressure
p=wh
2. Sub-soil flow conditions
(i) Uplift pressure
◘ pressure exerted by seeping water tries to lift up the body of structure
◘ floor is ruptured – effective length is reduced
(ii) Piping / Undermining
◘ seeping water takes away the soil particles from the d/s end.
◘ erosion progress to u/s – forms a channel or pipe underneath.
3. Surface flow conditions
◘ for dynamic pressures
◘ two types of structures, viz.
(i) vertical drop type and (ii) hydraulic jump type
Above expression can be generalized as:
If
Hx = residual head at x = uplift pressure at x
Then
Hx L  Lx H.G.L

H

Hx
H L

 L 
or H x  H1  x  X

 L Lx L-Lx

L
 Floor is safe against uplift, if downward weight of the floor is equal to or greater
than uplift.
 Piping occurs along the line of creep
 It can be avoided if
H 1

L C
C – Bligh’s constant
Material C
Very fine silt 18
Fine sand 15
Coarse sand 12
Gravel and sand 9
Boulders, gravel and sand 4 to 6

 Sukkur barrage is designed as per Bligh’s theory. back

To Determine Thickness of Floor
At any point x, H H.G.L

Residual uplift pressure head = Hx Hx

Intensity of residual uplift pressure ↑ = w Hx
Total force due to uplift pressure on unit area X
= w Hx x 1 ↑ N Lx L-Lx
If t = thickness of floor
L
S1 = specific gravity of the floor material and
w1 = specific weight of floor material
Then, specific weight of floor material under water = w1 –w
Therefore, net downward force of floor per unit area = (w1 - w) x t x 1 ↓ N
For safety w 1  w   t  1   wH x  1 
w1  w
or  t  Hx
w

or S1
 1 t  H x (S1 = w1/w)
Hx
or t 
S1  1

4 Hx
t
3 S1  1 (4/3 is factor of safety)
Example
For the barrage shown in figure, find out the thickness
of floor required at point F using Bligh’s theory.
RL = 55.0 m

RL = 48.0 m

A C D F G I
2m

RL = 42.0 m
B RL = 40.0 m
H

12 m 24 m
Example
For the barrage shown in figure, find out the thickness of floor required at
point F using Bligh’s theory.

Solution:
Total creep length, L = 2(6+3+8)+10+20 = 64 m
Creep length up to F, LF = 2(6+3)+10 = 28 m
Hydraulic gradient = H/L = 6/64 = 1/10.7 < 1/9
Therefore, structure will be safe on gravel and sand.
L   L   28 
Uplift pressure at F, H F  H -  F  H   H1  F   61    3.375 m
L   L   64 
4 H 4 3.375
Thickness of floor at F, t F  * F  *  3.63 m
3 S1  1 3 2.24  1
THANKS