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GAUSS-SEIDEL METHOD

Consider the solution of the nonlinear equation:

f x =0
The above function is rearranged and written as

x=g x

If x (k) is an initial estimate of the variable x, the following iterative sequence is formed

x (k+1) = g x k
A solution is obtained when the difference between the absolute value of the successive iteration
is less than a specified accuracy, i.e.,

x (k+1) − x k ≤ ϵ

𝐸𝑥𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 1:

Use the Gauss-Seidel Method to find a root of the following equation

𝑓 𝑥 = 𝑥 3 − 6𝑥 2 + 9𝑥 − 4 = 0

Solving for x, the above expression is written as

1 3 6 2 4
𝑥 = − 𝑥 + 𝑥 + = g(x)
9 9 9

2
Vi

GAUSS-SEIDEL POWER FLOW SOLUTION

V1
yi1
V2
yi2
Ii

Gauss-Seidel:
Vn
yin

𝑃𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ − 𝑗𝑄𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ
yi0

𝑛 (𝑘)
𝑛 𝑛
∗(𝑘) + σ 𝑦 𝑉
𝑗=1 𝑖𝑗 𝑗
𝑃𝑖 − 𝑗𝑄𝑖 (𝑘+1) 𝑉𝑖
= 𝑉𝑖 ෍ 𝑦𝑖𝑗 − ෍ 𝑦𝑖𝑗 𝑉𝑗 𝑗 ≠1 𝑉𝑖 = 𝑗≠𝑖
𝑉𝑖∗ σ𝑛𝑗=0 𝑦𝑖𝑗
𝑗=0 𝑗=1
𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑠 𝑢𝑠𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑦 𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑜𝑓𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑏𝑢𝑠 𝑎𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑥.
Since the off-diagonal elements of the bus admittance matrix 𝑌𝑏𝑢𝑠 , are 𝑌𝑖𝑗 = 𝑦𝑖𝑗 and the diagonal elements are
𝑌𝑖𝑖 = ෍ 𝑦𝑖𝑗

Becomes:
𝑃𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ − 𝑗𝑄𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ (𝑘)
∗(𝑘) − σ𝑗≠𝑖 𝑌𝑖𝑗 𝑉𝑗
(𝑘+1) 𝑉𝑖
𝑉𝑖 =
𝑌𝑖𝑖

(𝑘+1) 𝑘 𝑘 𝑘
And 𝑃𝑖 = ℜ {𝑉𝑖∗ [𝑉𝑖 𝑌𝑖𝑖 + σ𝑛𝑗=𝑖 𝑌𝑖𝑗 𝑉𝑗 ]} 𝑗≠𝑖
𝑗≠𝑖
(𝑘+1) 𝑘 𝑘
𝑄𝑖 = −ℑ {𝑉𝑖∗ [𝑉𝑖 𝑌𝑖𝑖 + σ𝑛𝑗=𝑖 𝑌𝑖𝑗 𝑉𝑗 𝑘 ]} 𝑗≠𝑖
𝑗≠𝑖 3
1 2

256.6
0.02  j 0.04
MW

110.2
0.01  j 0.03 0.0125  j 0.025
Mvar
Slack Bus 3
V1  1.050 o

138.6 45.2
MW Mvar

Example 2:
Shows the one-line diagram of a simple three-bus power system with generation at bus 1. The magnitude of voltage
at bus 1 is adjusted to 1.05 per unit. The scheduled loads at buses 2 and 3 are as marked on the diagram. Line
impedances are marked in per unit on a 100-MVA base and the line charging susceptances are neglected.
(a) Using the Gauss-Seidel method, determine the phasor values of the voltage at the load buses 2 and 3 (P-Q
buses) accurate to four decimal places.
(b) Find the slack bus real and reactive power.
(c) Determine the line flows and line losses. Construct a power flow diagram showing the direction of line flow.
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1 2

256.6
0.02  j 0.04
MW
Gauss-Seidel:
𝑃𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ − 𝑗𝑄𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ 𝑛 (𝑘)
∗(𝑘) + σ 𝑗=1 𝑦𝑖𝑗 𝑉
𝑗 0.01  j 0.03 0.0125  j 0.025
110.2
(𝑘+1) 𝑉𝑖 Mvar
𝑉𝑖 = 𝑗≠𝑖
σ𝑛𝑗=0 𝑦𝑖𝑗 Slack Bus 3
V1  1.050 o

138.6 45.2
MW Mvar

𝑃2𝑠𝑐ℎ − 𝑗𝑄2𝑠𝑐ℎ (0) 𝑃3𝑠𝑐ℎ − 𝑗𝑄3𝑠𝑐ℎ (0)

∗(𝑘) + 𝑦12 𝑉1 + 𝑦23 𝑉3 ∗(𝑘) + 𝑦13 𝑉1 + 𝑦23 𝑉2
(𝑘+1) 𝑉2 (𝑘+1) 𝑉3
𝑉2 = 𝑉3 =
𝑦12 + 𝑦23 𝑦13 + 𝑦23

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END