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ENERGY AUDIT AND

PLC BASED
AUTOMATIC POWER
FACTOR CORRECTION By,
Guided by,
AKESH JOHN KOSHY
Ms. C. SOJY RAJAN
ARYA.A.V
Assistant professor MERIN THOMAS
EEE,MBCET Roll no: 8,14,31

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1.ENERGY AUDIT

2.ENERGY FLOW

3.AUTOMATED POWER
CONTENTS FACTOR CONTROL

4.COMPONENTS

5.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

6.FLOWCHART 2/26
 The verification, monitoring, and analysis of use of
ENERGY energy including submission of technical report
AUDIT containing recommendations for improving energy
efficiency with cost benefit analysis and an action plan
to reduce energy consumption (Energy Conservation
Act, 2001).

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UNITS CONSUMED (KWh) 2018
DECEMBER
JANUARY
7%
NOVEMBER 9%
10% FEBRUARY
10%

OCTOBER
10%
MARCH
ELECTRICITY 10%

SEPTEMBER
9% APRIL
9%

AUGUST
6% MAY
JULY JUNE 8%
6% 6% 4/26
Transportation (Diesel)Energy in KWh 2018
DECEMBER JANUARY
8% 11%

NOVEMBER
14% FEBRAURY
10%

Diesel
used for MARCH
transportation 11%

OCTOBER
15%
APRIL
5%

MAY
3%

SEPTEMBER JULY JUNE


12% AUGUST 2% 0%
9%
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(DIESEL IN DG SET) ENERGY CONSUMED KWh
2018
DECEMBER JANUARY
13% 12%

OCTOBER FEBRUARY

Diesel 13% 12%

used in DG
sets
AUGUST MARCH
13% 12%

JUNE APRIL
13% 12%
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25000 KWhh
ENERGY PRODUCTION IN KWh

20000

15000

Solar 10000
production
5000

MONTHS
MONTH
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KWh UTILITY ELECTRICITY-SOLAR COMPARISON
50000

45000

40000

35000

30000

Comparison 25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Total units savings MONTH


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STANDARD
LOCATION AREA m² LUX LUX

STAFF ROOM 150 200


CLASS ROOM 79.181 90 200

ILLUMINATION FARADAY HALL 113.004 120 150

MENS TOILET 25 26 70

MEASUREMENT
LAB 76.65 120 150

OFFICE ROOM 40.7 250 300

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 Co2 produced due to electrical consumption =254142.4 kg

 Co2 produced due to diesel consumption = 552346.7 kg

 Co2 produced due to LPG consumption = 122063.96 kg

CARBON • Tons of Co2 produced per year=929 tons


FOOTPRINT
 Specific carbon footprint per student= 0.422 tons/yr

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Sl. Suggestions Quantity Watts Operating Energy Financial Simple
no. saved(W) hours(hrs) saved(KWhr) saving(Rs) payback(yrs)

1 Energy Saving in Lighting 38 22 8 2006 18054 0.5


by replacing existing T12
Lamps to 18W LED Tube in
staffroom
2 Energy Saving in Lighting 36 22 2 317 2853 3
by replacing existing T12
Lamps to 18W LED Tube in
classrooms
3 Energy Saving in Lighting 42 22 2 277 2495 4
by replacing existing T12
Lamps to 18W LED Tube in
labs
4 Energy Saving in Lighting 8 22 4 141 1267 2
by replacing existing T12
Lamps to 18W LED Tube in
office

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Sl. Suggestions Quantity Watts Operating Energy Financial Simple
no. saved(W hours(hrs) saved(KWhr saving(Rs) payback(yrs
) ) )

1 Energy Saving in fans by 24 35 8 2016 18144 4


replacing in-efficient ceiling
fans with Energy Efficient
Five star fans in staffrooms
2 Energy Saving in fans by 29 35 8 2184 19656 4
replacing in-efficient ceiling
fans with Energy Efficient
Five star fans in classrooms

3 Energy Saving in fans by 26 35 8 1456 13104 6


replacing in-efficient ceiling
fans with Energy Efficient
Five star fans in labs

4 Energy Saving in fans by 4 35 8 336 3024 4


replacing in-efficient ceiling
fans with Energy Efficient
Five star fans in offices
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Power factor = real power
Power Factor apparent power
correction

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 Improved voltage.
Why power  Reduced losses.
factor  Reduction of cable size.
correction?  Increased load carrying capacity in existing circuits.
 Avoid power factor penalty.
 To improve energy efficiency

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ZERO CROSSING
SUPPLY PLC
Block Diagram DETECTOR

of the
proposed
power factor Capacitor Thyristor
correction banks switched
capacitor

Load

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List of components
Sl COMPONENT NAME SPECIFICATION QUANTITY PRICE Rs
no

1 OPTOCOUPLER MOC3021 3 60

2 THYRISTOR BT136 3 60

3 MICROCONTROLLER PIC 16F877A 1 1000


Components 4 CT CT107 1 100

5 PT 12012 1 100

6 PLC DVP-14SS2R 1 4650

7 CAPACITORS 440V 3 100

8 LCD DISPLAY 16*2 1 100

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Interfaced the following with microcontroller

1. LCD display
2. CT
3. PT
Interfacing

CT AN4

PT AN3

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 User friendly, microprocessor based specialized
computer.

 East to setup and program


.
Flexible
Programmable  8 digital inputs and 6 digital outputs.
logic controller
Vcc supply 24V

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START

Measure V & I

Measure phase
difference btw V & I

NO YES Calculate KVAR ,


Is
FLOW CHART Pf<0.9 to improve the pf

Switch the
required
capacitors

NO Is YES
Pf>0.9

STOP
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For example,
Initial power factor (cosØ1) = .75
Voltage= 233V
I= 2.1 A
P=400W
Designing of Pf to be improved (cosØ2)=.9
capacitor Q=P(tanØ1-tanØ2)
banks. =400(.88-.48)
=160 KVAR
Q= 2×3.14×f×C×V×V
C= 9.3µF

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Potential transformer
Capacitor
banks

Scr switches Current


transformer

PLC

PIC microcontroller

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RESULT
SL NO. TYPE OF LOAD POWER FACTOR BEFORE POWER FACTOR AFTER
IMPROVEMENT IMPROVEMENT
1 INDUCTIVE LOAD (MIXER 0.68 0.95
GRINDER)
2 3 KVA TRANSFORMER AT 0.3 0.7
NO LOAD
3 MIXER GRINDER AND 0.6 0.9
PEDESTAL FAN

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CONCLUSION
• Energy Audit was completed & suggestions were
recommended to improve energy efficiency
• Power factor was improved efficiently

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AUTHOR AND YEAR TITLE AND JOURNAL REMARKS

Yasin Kabir,Yusuf Automated Power Factor Design of APFC using


Mohammed Mohsin and Correction and Energy microcontroller and relay.
Mohammed Monirujjan Monitoring System(research
Literature Khan
2017
gate)

Survey
Rishabh Jain, Shashank PLC Based Power Factor o PLC as a power factor
Sharma, Mini Sreejeth and Correction Of 3-Phase controller.
Madhusudan Singh 2016 Induction Motor,(IEEE
International Conference on o improvement of pf
Power Electronics, intelligent through
Control and Energy Systems) capacitor switching.

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AUTHOR AND YEAR TITLE AND JOURNAL REMARKS

Andreas Androutsopoulos, The Importance Of o energy profile of the


Eleftheria Alexandri,2008 Energy Audit In The building
Literature Energy Certification Of
Buildings, (Research
survey Gate).
(conti…..)
Muhammad Bilal Khan, Automatic Power Factor o algorithms for
Muhammad Owais,2016 Correction Unit(IEEE measurement of ac
Xplore) current and ac voltage

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[1] Yasin Kabir,Yusuf Mohammad Mohsin and Mohammad
Monirujjaman Khan, “Automated Power Factor Correction and
Energy Monitoring System,” Research Gate, February 2017.
[2] Rishabh Jain,Shashank Sharma, Mini Sreejeth and Madhusudan
Singh,“PLC Based Power Factor Correction Of 3-Phase Induction
Reference Motor,” IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics,
Intelligent Control and Energy Systems, July 2016.
[3] Andreas Androutsopoulos,Eleftheria Alexandri “The Importance
Of Energy Audit In The Energy Certification Of Buildings”,
Research Gate , November 2008.

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