Power Plant- Introduction Steam Power Plant

By

Mr.B.Ramesh, M.E.,(Ph.D),
Research Scholar, CEG, Anna University, Chennai. Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph¶s College of Engineering, Jeppiaar Trust, Chennai-119

Unit III ± Power plant engineering
INTRODUCTION
Sources of energy: Primary energy sources
Coal, Oil, Nuclear fuels, Water Wood Candles, Oil lamps Conventional sources of energy Non-conventional sources of energy Fossil fuels
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Secondary energy sources
Electricity Heat Light Non-renewable sources of energy Renewable sources of energy

Coal, Oil, Natural gas
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INTRODUCTION «
1 kg of Uranium U235 releases as much energy as the burning of 4,500 tonnes of coal or 2000 tonnes of oil. Power generated in India : 1947 2007 1360 MW 4,25,000 MW

Total energy consumption in the world : Coal accounts for 32.5 % Oil accounts for 38.3 % Coal fed steam power plants : Neyveli 1000 MW North Chennai 630 MW
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INTRODUCTION «
Gas based plants : Narimanam 10 MW Basin bridge 120 MW Hydro-electric power plants : Mettur Kundah Basin development project Periyar hydro-electric project Kodayar hydro-electric project Nuclear power plants : Kalpakkam Kundankulam (Tirunelveli, TN)
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360 130 145 100

MW MW MW MW

470 MW 2000 MW

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Classification of Power plants
Power plants using conventional (nonrenewable) sources of energy 
   Steam power plant Nuclear(Atomic) power plant Diesel power plant Gas power plant

Power plants using Nonconventional(renewable) sources of energy 
Hydro electric(Hydel) power plant  Solar thermal power plant  Wind powered generation(aerogeneration)  Wave power plant  Tidal power plant  Geothermal power plant  Bio-mass power plant  Oceanthermal power plant

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Steam (Thermal) Power Plant
Fuel : Coal or Oil Main parts : Boiler, Turbine, Generator

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Steam (Thermal) Power Plant«
Coal and Ash circuit 
Pulverised coal from the storage area (called stack) is taken to the boiler by means of coal handling equipment such as belt conveyors, bucket elevators etc. Note : A thermal power plant of 400 MW capacity requires 5000 to 6000 tonnes of coal per day.  After the pulverised coal is burnt at 15000C to 20000C by combustion it gets collected in the ash pit.  It is removed from the ash pit by ash handling systems like belt conveyors, screw conveyors etc. Note : A thermal power plant of 400 MW capacity requires 10 hectares area per year if ash is damped to a height of 6.5 metres.
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Steam (Thermal) Power Plant«
Air and flue gas circuit 
The air from the atmosphere gets heated in the air preheater. The air receives its heat from the hot flue gases passing to the chimney.  The hot air enters the boiler and helps in combustion of fuel in the boiler.  The flue gases, after combustion in the boiler furnace, pass around the boiler tubes, heating the water present in the tubes.  The flue gases then pass through a dust collector which removes any dust or solid particles.  The filtered flue gas passes through the economiser and preheater and is forced out through the chimney by a draught fan.
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Steam (Thermal) Power Plant«
Feed water and steam circuit 
The superheated steam from the boiler enters the steam turbine. The superheated steam temperature is about 6000C at a pressure of 30 Mpa(300 kg/cm2) The steam expands in the turbine causing the turbine blades to rotate. After doing mechanical work on the blades and loosing its energy, the steam becomes wet and the pressure of steam becomes less. The wet steam passes through a condenser where it completely becomes water. The condensed water that has a temperature of 300C to 400C is collected in a tank called hot well. The water from the hot well is fed into the boiler through the economiser. The economiser preheats the water before entering the boiler. The economiser receives its heat from the flue gases leaving the boiler . Preheating the feed water in the economiser increases the boiler efficiency and helps quicker production of steam.   

 

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Steam (Thermal) Power Plant«
Cooling water circuit Water is circulated around the condenser to condense the steam coming out of the turbine. Cooling water enters the condenser at 100C to 150C and leaves at 200C to 250C. Plenty of water is required for condensing the steam in the condenser. The water may be taken from sources such as river or lake.

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Steam (Thermal) Power Plant«
Advantages of thermal power plant : 
Low initial cost  Since located near the load centre, the cost of transmission and the losses due to transmission are considerably reduced.  The construction and commissioning of thermal power plant takes lesser period.

Disadvantages of thermal power plant:
Fuel is a non-renewable source of energy. Efficiency decreases with decreasing load. Cost of power generation is high. Smoke produced by burning the fuel causes air pollution. Life of thermal power plant is 25 years. The efficiency decreases to less than 10% after its life period.  Turbines has a high running speed of 3000 to 4000 rpm.
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D.C. Transformer

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Electrostatic Precipitator

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Videos and Animations
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
6 transformer.swf

Boiler Condenser

7.
7 Steam power plant.swf

3 Cooling tower condenser.swf

8.

8 Steam power plant.swf

Steam turbine disassembly Steam turbine

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Thank You

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