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the action of separating something

into parts, or the process of being


separated.

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Middle Class Upper Class
Lower Class

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 Define the meaning of cell division
 Identify the types of cell division
 Define the meaning of mitosis
 Describe the different stages of mitosis

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 Of how many cells are you composed?
 When an organism grows bigger do you get more
cells or just bigger cells or both?
 When do your cells divide the fastest? Slowest?
 Do cells ever stop dividing?

 Are all cells capable of division and


replacement?

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 As a cell absorbs nutrients and gets larger,
the volume of the cell increases faster than
the surface area.
 -Therefore, the demands of the cell (the
volume) exceed the ability of the cell to bring
in nutrients and export wastes.
Solution? Divide into two smaller cells

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 All cells die after a certain number of divisions
(programmed cell death-”apoptosis”). At any
given time some cells are dividing and some cells
are dying.
 Childhood Cell division > cell death

 Adulthood Cell division = cell death

 Aging Cell division < cell death


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100 µm 200 µm 20 µm

(a) Reproduction. An amoeba, (b) Growth and development. (c) Tissue renewal. These dividing
a single-celled eukaryote, is This micrograph shows a bone marrow cells (arrow) will
dividing into two cells. Each sand dollar embryo shortly after give rise to new blood cells .
new cell will be an individual the fertilized egg divided, forming
organism . two cells .

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Mitosis PROPHASE

A kind of
cell division METAPHASE
which
produces
two diploid ANAPHASE
identical
daughter
cells TELOPHASE
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DIPLOID CELL HAPLOID CELL

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Diploid cells

These are cells


which have a
complete set of
chromosomes (2n).

A human cell
contains 46
chromosomes which
has 23 pairs.

Cells that undergo


mitosis are the body Skin cells are diploid cells that undergo
cells/ somatic cells mitosis

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 Interphase
 G1 - primary growth
 S - DNA replicated
 G2 - secondary growth
 M - mitosis
 C - cytokinesis

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Interphase ~ 90% of the time.
 G1: Little new cell absorbs nutrients and
grows larger. Does protein synthesis, its job.
 S phase: Synthesis of new DNA (DNA
replication) for daughter cells in preparation
for mitosis.
 G2: Cell continues to grow, do protein
synthesis, do its job. Gets too large, needs to
divide. 19
 Deoxyribonucleic acid
 Packaged into chromosomes

Figure 12.3 20
Before replication, chromosomes
have one chromatid.
After replication, chromosomes
have 2 sister chromatids, held
together at the centromere.
Each chromatid is one piece of
DNA with its supporting
proteins.
Remember that diploid cells have
two copies of each
chromosome, one from each
parent. These pairs of
chromosomes are NOT
attached together.
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Structure of a eukaryotic chromosome

• unreplicated chromosome

arm arm
centromere
Prior to cell division:
• chromosomes (DNA) are replicated
(duplicated)
• duplicated chromosome
– attached at their centromeres
– as long as attached, known as
sister chromatids
duplicated
chromosome
How long is one cell cycle?
Depends. Eg. Skin cells every 24
hours. Some bacteria every 2 hours.
Some cells every 3 months. Nerve
cells, never. Cancer cells very short.
Programmed cell death: Each cell
type will only do so many cell cycles
then die. (Apoptosis)
Equal distribution of the 2 sets of DNA
amongst the 2 daughter cells.
4 Stages: “PMAT”
1. Prophase
2. Metaphase
3. Anaphase
4. Telophase 25
Prophase

-Chromatin condenses
(coils) into chromosomes.
Sister chromatids joined
by centromere.
Aster

Early mitotic
-Nuclear membrane
spindle Centromere
dissolves.
-Centrioles divide and
move to opposite poles
forming spindle between
Chromosome, consisting
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of two sister chromatids
chromatin condensing
nucleus chromosomes
nucleolus

centrioles
Metaphase
• Metaphase is the longest stage
of
mitosis, lasting about 20 minutes.
METAPHASE
• The centrosomes are now at Metaphase
opposite ends of the cell. plate

• metaphase plate form.

• For each chromosome, the


kinetochores of the sister
chromatids are attached to
kinetochore microtubules coming
from opposite poles. Centrosome at
Spindle
one spindle pole

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Anaphase

• Anaphase is the shortest stage of


mitosis, lasting only a few minutes.

• Anaphase begins when the two sister


chromatids of each pair suddenly part.
Each chromatid thus becomes a full-
ANAPHASE
fledged chromosome.
• The two liberated chromosomes begin
moving toward opposite ends of the cell,
as their kinetochore microtubules
shorten.

• The cell elongates as the


non kinetochore microtubules lengthen.

• By the end of anaphase, the two ends of


the cell have equivalent—and
Daughter
complete—set of chromosomes. chromosomes

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Telophase
• Two daughter nuclei begin to
form in the cell.

• Nuclear envelopes arise from


the fragments of the parent TELOPHASE AND CYTOKINESIS
cell’s nuclear envelope.
Cleavage Nucleolus
furrow
• The chromosomes become forming

less condensed.

• Mitosis, the division of one


nucleus into two genetically
Nuclear
identical nuclei, is now envelope
complete. forming

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• The division of the
cytoplasm of a
parental cell into
the two daughter
cells.

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Cell now returns to interphase . The
chromosomes uncoil back into
chromatin. The whole cell cycle
starts over again…..
 Cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell division. It
starts with a single cell that loses its control
mechanisms due to a genetic mutation. That cell starts
dividing without limit, and eventually kills the host.
 Normal cells are controlled by several factors. They
stay in the G1 stage of the cell cycle until they are given
a specific signal to enter the S phase, in which the DNA
replicates and the cell prepares for division. Cancer
cells enter the S phase without waiting for a signal.

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 Another control: normal cells are mortal. This means
that they can divide about 50 times and then they lose
the ability to die. This “clock” gets re-set during the
formation of the gametes. Cancer cells escape this
process of mortality: they are immortal and can divide
endlessly.
 A third control: cells that suffer significant
chromosome damage destroy themselves due to the
action of a gene called “p53”. Cancer cells either lose
the p53 gene or ignore its message and fail to kill
themselves.

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Many Mutations Lead to Cancer
All cancer is genetic, in that it is
triggered by altered genes. Genes
that control the orderly replication
of cells become damaged, allowing
the cells to reproduce without
restraint.

Cancer usually arises in a single cell.


The cell's progress from normal to
malignant to metastatic appears to
follow a series of distinct steps, each
controlled by a different gene or set
of genes.
Even though all cancer is
genetic, just a small portion—
perhaps 5–10% —is inherited.

Most cancers come from


random mutations that
develop in body cells during
one's lifetime—either as a
mistake when cells are going
through cell division or in
response to injuries from
environmental agents such as
radiation or chemicals.
 Cell division is the process in cells produces
new cells.
 Cell division has two kinds: Mitosis and
Meiosis
 Mitosis has 4 stages: prophase, metaphase,
anaphase, telophase
 Mitosis produces two identical daughter cells
 The two daughter cells are diploid (2n) which
contains a complete set of chromosome.
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“As we get bigger,
dividing yourself for others is a
must.”
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