Contents

• TDMoIP: Introduction • Clock Recovery & Measurement

v.1.0

1

1

1. TDMoIP: Introduction
v.1.0 2

2

Pseudowires
Pseudowire (PW): A mechanism that emulates the

essential attributes of a native service while transporting over a packet switched network (PSN)

v.1.0

3

3

Tunneling - interworking
Mating different network protocols is called interworking The protocol converter goes by various names :
interworking
Native Service

function (IWF) gateway (GW)
network

Simplest case is network interworking
v.1.0

Native Service

4

4

Emulating TDM
From PSTN to PSN

v.1.0

5

5

Classic Telephony
Access Network
analog lines

Core (Backbone) Network SONET/SDH NETWORK
Synchronous Non-packet network

T1/E1

CO SWITCH

CO SWITCH

extensions

P B X T1/E1

P B X

 Circuit  Very

switched ensures signal integrity High Reliability (“five nines”)
v.1.0 6

6

Access Network
analog lines

TDMoPSN
Packet Switched Network
Asynchronous network No timing information transfer
P B X

T1/E1/T3/E3

extensions

P B X T1/E1

The TDMoIP approach replaces the Network with a packet (IP or MPLS) network 7
v.1.0 7

A few G.XXX sayings …
 G.114
   

delay < 150 ms acceptable 150 ms < delay < 400 ms conditionally acceptable delay > 400 ms unacceptable G.126/G.131 echo control may be needed

(One-way transmission time)

 G.823/G.824
  

Primary vs. secondary clocks jitter masks wander masks

(timing)

 G.826

(error performance)
v.1.0 8

BER better than 2 * 10-4
8

TDMoIP vs. VoIP
Two ways to integrate TDM services into PSNs

VoIP

Voice centric!  Revolution - complete (forklift) CPE replacement  New signaling protocols (translation needed)  New functionality (e.g. video-phone, presence)

TDMoIP

v.1.0

9

9

TDMoIP as a Migration Path
VoIP has promising future but today’s installed base is still legacy TDM PSTN

is not going to be replaced overnight
compression, packet loss)
v.1.0

Voice

quality concerns (delay, can use new
10

TDMoIP

10

TDMoIP Protocol Processing
TDM frames IP Packets IP Packets TDM frames

PSN

Steps in TDMoIP  The synchronous bit stream is segmented  The TDM segments are adapted  TDMoIP control word is prepended  PSN (IP/MPLS) headers are prepended
v.1.0

11

11

TDMoIP Protocol Processing
TDM frames IP Packets IP Packets TDM frames

PSN

Traffic Types:
Structured

(framed) (unframed)
v.1.0 12

Unstructured

12

TDMoIP encap formats
- For Structured Traffic
(TDMoIP: IETF draft-Anavitdmoip-06)

encapsulation (encap) : process of adding protocol control information to data in order to build a packet for transport across an PSN
v.1.0 13

13

Functionality
Voice (telephony quality, low delay, echo-less) Tones (for dialing, PIN, etc.) Fax and modem transmissions “timeslots” Signaling (there are 1000s of PSTN CAS T1/E1 features!)
frame
SYNC  CCS TS1 TS2 TS3 (comon Channel (1 byte) (Channel Associated Signaling)

What needs to be transported from end to end?

… … Signaling), CAS
signaling bits
v.1.0

TSn

Timing

14

14

Why isn’t it easy
Why don’t we simply encapsulate the T1/E1 frame? 24 or 32 bytes
IP UDP RTP?

T1/E1 frame

Because a single lost packet would cause service interruption
 

CAS signaling uses a superframe (16/24 frames) Superframe integrity must be respected

Because we want to efficiently handle fractional T1/E1 Because we want a latency vs. efficiency trade-off
v.1.0 15

15

The basic idea
a packet sequence number  adding a pointer to the next superframe boundary  only sending timeslots in use T1/E1 frames (only timeslots in use) UDP/IP seqnum ptr  allowing CRC) (with multiple TDM frames per for example @ TS1 TS2 TS5 TS7 TS1 TS2 TS5 TS7 packet 7
Good idea!

Those problems can be solved by:
 adding

This is precisely AAL1 !
v.1.0 16

16

why AAL1 – For Static Structured Traffic

“AAL1” is the simplest method to transport structured TDM traffic (voice, sync, signaling)
ATM community has done the debugging for us!
v.1.0 Any alternative will either  fall apart upon packet loss 17

17

Isn’t that enough?
AAL1 is inefficient if the timeslots are not always in use Although we can configure which timeslots are used
we can not change this configuration in realtime!

To allow dynamic allocation of timeslots
we can use AAL2

AAL2 buffers each timeslot and
v.1.0

18

18

AAL2 for Dynamic BW Traffic
AAL1 is BW inefficient when timeslots are dynamic
Even with GB rates we should consider efficiency considerations

“AAL2” is the simplest method to transport dynamic structured TDM
v.1.0 Any alternative will either 19

19

Isn’t this just ATM?
AAL1 and AAL2 are adaptation protocols As we have shown, they are natural candidates for
originally designed to massage data into a format that can be readily used

any application which needs to multiplex timeslots

For TDMoIP we do not put the AAL1/2 into ATM cells (no 5 byte header)
v.1.0 20

20

Service Inter-working
TDMoIP is not the first TDM emulation technology We should also provide service interworking, existing ATM circuit emulation services (AAL1, AAL2)
E1/T1 E3/T3

TDMoMPLS GW

ATM-MPLS IWF
ATM/ AAL1

PSN
ATM-CES GW

AAL1 CBR

AAL2 VBR ATM layer

AAL5 n-rt
v.1.0

E1/T1 E3/T3
21

21

One More Payload type: HDLC
 Efficiently

transfer CCS traffic (such as SS7 embeded in TDM traffic)

Assume messages shorter than the MTU (no fragmentation)
  

monitor flags until frame detected test FCS if incorrect - discarded
v.1.0

22

22

TDMoIP layering structure – Structured Traffic
PSN / multiplexing Optional RTP header TDMoIP Encapsulation higher layers AAL2

AAL1

HDLC

AAL1 used for static (and transparent) allocation: NxAAL1 (N=1..31) AAL2 used for dynamic bandwidth: NxAAL2 (N=1..31)
v.1.0 HDLC used for CCS signaling and data (e.g frame relay) 23

23

TDMoIP Control Word
FORMID flags Res Length Sequence Number

For Structured Traffic:
FORMID (4 b)  indicates TDMoIP mode (AAL1, AAL1 - CAS, AAL2, HDLC)  ensures differentiation between IP and MPLS PSNs Flags (2 b)  L bit (Local failure)  R bit (Remote failure) Res (4 b): Length (6 b) used when packet may be padded Sequence Number (16 b) used to detect packet loss / v.1.0 miss-ordering
24

24

TDMoIP encap formats
- For UnStructured Traffic
(SATOP: Draft-ietf-pwe3-satop)
SATOP: Structue-agnostic TDM over Packet)
v.1.0 25

25

Payload Type of UnStructured Traffic
    

TDM traffic is treated as RAW data TDM bit stream is put into payload field

The payload size is defined during setup Payload size remains the same It should support the payload size:
  

T1: 192 bytes E1: 256 bytes T3 and E3: 1024 bytes
v.1.0 26

If RTP is used:

26

TDMoIP encap formats
Summary

v.1.0

27

27

TDMoIP layering structure
PSN / multiplexing Optional RTP header TDMoIP Encapsulation higher layers TDM Over IP Payload

v.1.0

28

28

TDMoIP Control Word
FORMID flags Res Length Sequence Number

For Structured Traffic:
FORMID (4 b)  indicates TDMoIP mode (AAL1 w/o CAS, AAL1 w/CAS, AAL2, HDLC)  ensures differentiation between IP and MPLS PSNs Flags (2 b)  L bit (Local failure)  R bit (Remote failure) Res (4 b): Length (6 b) used when packet may be padded Sequence Number (16 b) used to detect packet loss / v.1.0 miss-ordering
29

29

TDMoIP packet format
IP header (5*4bytes) UDP header * (2*4bytes) Optional RTP header (3*4bytes) TDMoIP header (4bytes) TDMoIP payload

Notes

* The UDP source port number is used as a bundle identifier
v.1.0 30

30

IP/UDP/RTP Encapsulation
32 Bit
IPVER IHL IP TOS Flags Protocol Total Length Fragment Offset IP Header Checksum Identification Time to Live

IP Header
20 Bytes

Source IP address Destination IP address VER Circuit Bundle Number

CBID
M

Destination Port Number 0x 085E or 2142 UDP Checksum

UDP Length RTV P X CC PT Timestamp SSRC Identifier FORMID L R Z Length

UDP Header
8 Bytes

RTP Sequence Number

RTP Header

Sequence Number

Control Word Payload

UDP Source Port Number is used as the bundle number designator , UDP Destination port number 31 v.1.0 set to hex 085E (2142) assigned by IANA for TDMoIP. 31

Ethernet

IP Header TOS Src adr Dst adr

TDMoIP Payload UDPHeader TDMoIP Src Bundle# Control Dst= 0x085E Word

Adapated Payload (AAL1,AAL2, HDLC, RAW)

CRC-32

TDMoMPLS packet format
outer label inner label control word TDM Payload

• Inner and outer labels specify TDM routing and multiplexing • Inner Label contains TDMoMPLS circuit bundle number • The control word • enables detection of out-of-order and lost packets • indicates critical alarm conditions • The TDM payload may be adapted • to assist in timing recovery and recovery from packet loss • to ensure proper transfer of TDM signaling • to provide an efficiency vs latency trade-off v.1.0

32

32

MPLS Encapsulation
• Example of MPLS Header :

Outer Label Inner Label = FORMID

EXP

S S

TTL TTL

CBID
Length

MPLS Header
8 Bytes

EXP Sequence Number

L R Z

Control Word Payload

TDMoIP Payload

MPLS Outer Labels

MPLS Inner Label

TDMoIP Control Word

Adapated Payload (AAL1,AAL2, HDLC, RAW)

Ethernet

CRC-32

v.1.0

33

33

TDM o L2TPv3
IP header (5*4 B) Session ID (4 B) Optional cookie (4 or 8 B) TDMoIP header (4 B) TDMoIP payload higher layers

Note : No UDP header
v.1.0 34

34

TDMoIP in Ethernet Frame
TDMoIP Frame EhterNet Header IP/UDP or MPLS header Control Word TDM Payload FCS

• Structured

TDM Payload

• Multiple AAL1: NxAAL1 • Multiple AAL2: NxAAL2 • HDLC • UnStructured TDM Payload: • Bit stream, fixed bytes
v.1.0 35

35

TDMoIP Frame w QoS Support
TOS -Type of Service Field (Diffserv) Priority TDMoIP Control Word

MAC Layer

IP Layer

UDP

TDM AAL1 Payload

CRC

VLAN Tagging Priority Labeling IEEE 802.1p&Q

Typical 48 Octet Payload AAL1/AAL2 1 Octet Header 47 Octet payload Up to 30 AALn Frames in Payload UDP Source & Destination Field Ports 2142 (Given by IANA) Level 4 priority

• Header Compression can be used to decrease the header down to a few bytes • Ethernet Packet Min 64 bytes Max 1536 bytes

v.1.0

36

36

TDM Timing Recovery

v.1.0

37

37

Introduction

PSN (e.g. IP) have no clock distribution mechanism For TDM over PSN receiver must recover clock

In Band: timing information is transferred over PSN, (e.g., RTP)

Required high quality reference clock

Timing information is provided in some means independend of PSN, (e.g., adaptive clock mechanism)
v.1.0 38

38

Introduction cont.

Result of RTP can not meet the G.823, G.824
  

Due to time stamp quantization error, packet loss, .. Use 12 bytes for RTP Require reference clock in both side (expensive for high accurate reference clock)

Conventional adaptive clock slaves local clock to jitter buffer level

initial frequency discrepancy is eventually v.1.0 compensated

39

39

Introduction cont.
TXC PacketTrunk-4 chip's innovative clock recovery scheme  retains robustness of conventional scheme  improved capabilities  Two phases
 

acquisition phase

rapid frequency lock is attained.
v.1.0 the achieved frequency lock is sustained 40

tracking phase
 
40

Frequency Hold-over
Rx buffer starvation (under-run) can be caused by:  Network congestion  packet loss  In dynamic application when there is no activity  While shifting to an alternate bundle, in redundancy mode
-

Last frequency is frozen, until data flow is resumed. No need for re-acquisition!
v.1.0

41

41

Why TDMoIP?
Complementary to VoIP. Provides high voice quality with low latency. Can support all applications that run over E1/T1 circuits, not just voice. Can be made transparent to protocols and signaling. An evolutionary – not revolutionary – approach, so investment protection is maximized.

v.1.0

42

42

Voice Evolution
Circuit Packet Switching Switching PSTN ATM IP/MPLS TDMoIP/MPLS Leased-Line Circuit (CBR) Service Emulation Switched VoATM (ATM TDMoIP/MPLS Service (VBR) Voice LES) VoIP Service

v.1.0

43

43

TDM over GbE MAN
TDM Leased Lines
TDMoIP GW

PSTN

CLASS Switch

Central Office

TDMoIP GW

POP
PBX TDMoIP GW 100 Mbps

GbE

IP
GbE

Customer Premise
100 Mbps

TDMoIP GW

PBX

Customer Premise
Public INTERNET v.1.0

44

44

TDM Concentration
Features:  TDM concentration (grooming multiple T1/E1 into OC-3/STM-1 trunks)  E3/T3 Carrier Trunking With:  GbE Network I/F  OC-3/STM-1 TDM interface
ADM

PBX
TDMoIP GW

PBX

CLASS Switch
SS7

SDH/ SONET
TDMoIP GW ADM

TDMoIP GW

IP IP
TDMoIP GW

PSTN
v.1.0

PBX

45

45

Metro MTU Application
Office Level Integration
TDMoIP GW PBX PBX

Building Level Integration
PBX

Corporate Site A

Corporate Site B

TDMoIP GW
POTS

PBX PBX

Switch
Switch/Router

TDMoIP GW

Switch

PBX Switch TDMoIP GW

TDMoIP GW

IP/MPLS Network

PSTN

v.1.0

46

46

IP/Ethernet Fixed Wireless, Coax, or Fiber Access
/Cell sites w TDMoIP blade retrofits /Switch site w TDMoIP GW

Fiber
T1/ T3/ E1
100 Mbps CMTS

FT1/T1/n*T1

GW

Metro (GbE, IP, RPR, HFC, EoS)

Coax
GW

FT1/T1/n*T1

Fixed Wireless
FT1/T1/n*T1
v.1.0 47

47

SS7 over IP
User’s needs: • Transparent SS7 forwarding over IP • Voice transferred as VoIP • Cross Connect functionality Potential customers: • Voice carriers • Satellite providers • Cellular operators • MAN providers

Intelligent Network PSTN
TDMoIP-based signaling GW SS#7 Server

TDMoIP-based signaling GW

GbE Switch

TDMoIP-based signaling GW

IP Network

GbE Switch Public Voice Switch

Public Voice Switch

VoIP GW v.1.0

VoIP GW

48

48

TDMoIP Summary
 IP

and Ethernet network technologies will be dominant in the future.  Revolutionary VoIP may take more time to mature. Evolutionary solutions that offer a careful migration path are now preferred.  TDMoIP provides simplicity, transparency, and affordable cost, and that’s actually what the market is looking for.  PacketTrunk-4 allows the implementation of multi-T1/E1 TDMoIP gateways with enhanced cost/performance for a variety
v.1.0

49

49

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful