You are on page 1of 13


Depth to refractor beneath each geophone rather than at shot points only as in the intercept method

Delay time: Delay-time is the time spent by a

wave to travel up or down through the V1
layer (slant path) compared to the time the
wave would spend if traveling along the
projection of the slant path on the refractor
(AB or CD in Fig.1)

Total delay time is

Where tR is the total time along EBCG or GCBE (these are reciprocal times).
(Note: lower case t refers to times that can be measured from time-distance plots; uppercase T refers to delay times.)
By definition,
Observe that there is no slant path in layer V1 for BC, and so it has no delay-time
Substituting, So,

Find delay-time at a geophone by solving for

By definition,
This equation shows that if one knows V1 , V2 , TG then
one can obtain the depth below geophone G
By trigonometry, we can demonstrate that But just a minute!
We cannot measure TG directly

The solution is to use forward and reverse profiles together to

Using the relationships, get TG
Consider Figure 2. A geophone, G, is located between forward If we assume that the refractor is planar,
source EF and reverse source ER

Because of the requirement of reciprocity,

Figure 2 and, therefore,


The traveltime from EF to G (tEG ) is measured on a field
seismogram and is plotted on a time-distance graph.
for a geophone situated between EF dan EG This gives delay-time entirely in terms of measurable
quantities that can be obtained from a plot of T(x).
Assumptions 4. distances traveled on refractor are approximately equal to
surface distances:
1. The drawing on the left, not the drawing on the right:

2. planar refractor below all G.

3. relief on reflector must be small compared with

average depth of reflector in order for ER to lie on
Note: depth (dash-dotted line below) is the Missing information:
perpendicular distance from G to the refractor:
The drawing on the left, not the drawing on the right: • If refractor is irregular, then its velocity isn’t given by the
slope of the traveltime plot.
• Obtain V2 by plotting ½ (tEFG – tERG ) vs geophone location
Summary of procedure for delay-time calculation

1. Plot forward and reversed traveltimes. Use only the geophone locations that record both forward and reverse

The corresponding forward and reverse raypaths to geophone G are shown below.
2. Calculate tEFG and tERG for locations in 2)

3. Calculate tEFG – tERG Vs position; the slope gives V1

4. calculate

5. calculate

6. plot circles of radius hG

7. find tangent to circles. This is the refractor boundary in cross-section