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- [Phillip C. Wankat] Instructor's Solution Manual -(BookZa.org)
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You are on page 1of 13

Depth to refractor beneath each geophone rather than at shot points only as in the intercept method

wave to travel up or down through the V1

layer (slant path) compared to the time the

wave would spend if traveling along the

projection of the slant path on the refractor

(AB or CD in Fig.1)

Figure.1

Where tR is the total time along EBCG or GCBE (these are reciprocal times).

(Note: lower case t refers to times that can be measured from time-distance plots; uppercase T refers to delay times.)

By definition,

Observe that there is no slant path in layer V1 for BC, and so it has no delay-time

component

Substituting, So,

By definition,

This equation shows that if one knows V1 , V2 , TG then

one can obtain the depth below geophone G

By trigonometry, we can demonstrate that But just a minute!

We cannot measure TG directly

Using the relationships, get TG

Consider Figure 2. A geophone, G, is located between forward If we assume that the refractor is planar,

source EF and reverse source ER

Summing,

Rewrite

and

The traveltime from EF to G (tEG ) is measured on a field

seismogram and is plotted on a time-distance graph.

for a geophone situated between EF dan EG This gives delay-time entirely in terms of measurable

quantities that can be obtained from a plot of T(x).

Assumptions 4. distances traveled on refractor are approximately equal to

surface distances:

1. The drawing on the left, not the drawing on the right:

average depth of reflector in order for ER to lie on

refractor.

Note: depth (dash-dotted line below) is the Missing information:

perpendicular distance from G to the refractor:

The drawing on the left, not the drawing on the right: • If refractor is irregular, then its velocity isn’t given by the

slope of the traveltime plot.

• Obtain V2 by plotting ½ (tEFG – tERG ) vs geophone location

Summary of procedure for delay-time calculation

1. Plot forward and reversed traveltimes. Use only the geophone locations that record both forward and reverse

refractions.

The corresponding forward and reverse raypaths to geophone G are shown below.

2. Calculate tEFG and tERG for locations in 2)

4. calculate

5. calculate

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