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Vascular System Anatomy
• Is a sac formed by
dilation of an
artery secondary
to weakness and
stretching of the
arterial wall.
• The dilation may
involve one or all
layers of the
arterial wall
Risk Factors
• Atherosclerosis
• Age: 50-70 years old
• Hypertension
• Trauma
• Syphilis
• Infectious process
• Fusiform
• Saccular
• Dissecting
• False
• Early stage: often asymptomatic
• Deep diffuse chest pain
• Hoarseness, dysphagia, dyspnea
• Pallor, diaphoresis
• Distended neck veins, edema or hand and arms
• Feeling of “heart-beating” in the abdomen (if
abdominal aortic aneurysm)
Nursing Intervention
• Monitor and improve client’s cardiopulmonary state
• Record baseline BP (lying, sitting and standing)
in both arms
• Provide dependent and other collaborative nursing
• Give meds: antihypertensive drugs
• Prepare for UTZ
• Surgery: Resection of Aneurysm and
replacement with a Teflon/Dacron graft
Buerger’s Disease
(Thromboangitis Obliterans)
and Raynaud’s Disease
Buerger’s Disease Raynaud’s Disease
• Vasculitis of the small and • Vasospastic condition of
medium size veins and arteries of hands that occurs
arteries, usually in the lower with exposure to cold or
extremities. stress
• More common in WOMEN
• More common in MEN
• S&Sx: Cyanosis of fingers or
• S&Sx: Pain; intermittent toes after exposure to cold,
claudication, tingling numbness and tingling of
sensation, impaired pulse, digits
hair loss in the legs • Allen’s Test reveals
• Leg angiography reveals circulatory problems
inflammatory lesions • Nrsg Dx: Altered peripheral
• Nrsg Dx: Altered peripheral tissue perfusion
tissue perfusion • Intervention:
o Avoid cold weather
• Intervention: o Wear leather gloves when getting
o Instruct the client to stop smoking anything from the refrigerator
o Stop smoking
o Avoid trauma to affected extremity
o Administer vasodilators as ordered
o Maintenance of warmth during cold
Quick Recall
Manifestation Condition
1. Intermittent A. Buerger’s
claudication Disease
2. Pain B. Raynaud’s
3. Vasospasm Disease
4. Inflamed blood C. Both
vessels D. Neither
5. Intermittent
color changes of
the fingers
Thrombophlebitis and
Varicose Veins
Thrombophlebitis Varicose Veins
• Clot in the vein with • Weakening of the venous
inflammation of the wall of valves leading to pooling of
the vein blood
• S&Sx: • S&Sx:
o Tortuous vein
o Unilateral leg edema w/ (+) Homan’s o Dull ache and heaviness in the legs
o Mild edema
o Severe pain at site o Itching of the skin over the affected
o Fever, chills, swelling and cyanosis part
of site
• Doppler UTZ detects the
• Venography reveals a clot presence or absence of venous
• N. Dx: Altered tissue reflux
perfusion • N. Dx: Altered tissue
• Intervention: perfusion
o DO NOT MASSAGE THE • Intervention
AFFECTED LEG o Elevate the legs
o Increase fluid intake o Avoid crossing of legs at knees
o Monitor leg edema o Avoid prolonged sitting and standing
o Avoid constrictive clothing
o Prepare the client for surgery
Quick Recall
Manifestation Disease
1. Edema A. Thrombophlebit
2. Pain is
3. Homan’s sign B. Varicose vein
4. Tortuous vein C. Both
5. Intermittent D. Neither