You are on page 1of 55

Chapter 11

Fluids

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.1 Mass Density

DEFINITION OF MASS DENSITY

The mass density of a substance is the mass of a


substance divided by its volume:

m

V

SI Unit of Mass Density: kg/m3

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.1 Mass Density

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.1 Mass Density

Example 1 Blood as a Fraction of Body Weight

The body of a man whose weight is 690 N contains about


5.2x10-3 m3 of blood.

(a) Find the blood’s weight and (b) express it as a


percentage of the body weight.

m  V   5.2 10 3 m 3  1060 kg m 3   5.5 kg

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.1 Mass Density

(a) W  mg   5.5 kg   9.80 m s 2   54 N

54 N
(b) Percentage  100%  7.8%
690 N

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.2 Pressure

F
P
A

SI Unit of Pressure: 1 N/m2 = 1Pa

Pascal
Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.2 Pressure

Example 2 The Force on a Swimmer

Suppose the pressure acting on the back


of a swimmer’s hand is 1.2x105 Pa. The
surface area of the back of the hand is
8.4x10-3m2.

(a) Determine the magnitude of the force


that acts on it.
(b) Discuss the direction of the force.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.2 Pressure

F
P
A
 
F  PA  1.2 105 N m 2 8.4  10 3 m 2 
 1.0  103 N

Since the water pushes perpendicularly


against the back of the hand, the force
is directed downward in the drawing.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.2 Pressure

Atmospheric Pressure at Sea Level: 1.013x105 Pa = 1 atmosphere

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid

F y  P2 A  P1 A  mg  0

P2 A  P1 A  mg

m  V

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid

V  Ah

P2 A  P1 A   Vg

P2 A  P1 A   Ahg

P2  P1   hg

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid

Conceptual Example 3 The Hoover Dam

Lake Mead is the largest wholly artificial


reservoir in the United States. The water
in the reservoir backs up behind the dam
for a considerable distance (120 miles).

Suppose that all the water in Lake Mead


were removed except a relatively narrow
vertical column.

Would the Hoover Same still be needed


to contain the water, or could a much less
massive structure do the job?

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid

Example 4 The Swimming Hole

Points A and B are located a distance of 5.50 m beneath the surface


of the water. Find the pressure at each of these two locations.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid

P2  P1   gh

atmospheri
   c pressure

P2  1.01 105 Pa   1.00  103 kg m 3  9.80 m s 2  5.50 m 
 1.55  105 Pa
Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.4 Pressure Gauges

P2  P1   gh

Patm   gh

h
Patm


1.01 105 Pa 

 g 13.6  103 kg m 3 9.80 m s 2  
 0.760 m  760 mm

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.4 Pressure Gauges

P2  PB  PA

PA  P1   gh

absolute pressure

P2  Patm   gh
  
gauge pressure

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.4 Pressure Gauges

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.5 Pascal’s Principle

PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE

Any change in the pressure applied


to a completely enclosed fluid is transmitted
undiminished to all parts of the fluid and
enclosing walls.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.5 Pascal’s Principle

P2  P1   g  0 m 

F2 F1

A2 A1

 A2 
F2  F1  
 A1 

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.5 Pascal’s Principle

Example 7 A Car Lift

The input piston has a radius of 0.0120 m


and the output plunger has a radius of
0.150 m.

The combined weight of the car and the


plunger is 20500 N. Suppose that the input
piston has a negligible weight and the bottom
surfaces of the piston and plunger are at
the same level. What is the required input
force?

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.5 Pascal’s Principle

 A2 
F2  F1  
 A1 

  0.0120 m 
2
F2   20500 N   131 N
  0.150 m 
2

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.6 Archimedes’ Principle

P2  P1   gh

FB  P2 A  P1 A   P2  P1  A

V  hA

FB   ghA

FB   V g
mass of
displaced
fluid

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.6 Archimedes’ Principle

ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE

Any fluid applies a buoyant force to an object that is partially


or completely immersed in it; the magnitude of the buoyant
force equals the weight of the fluid that the object displaces:

FB  Wfluid
 
Magnitudeof Weight of
buoyantforce displacedfluid

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.6 Archimedes’ Principle

If the object is floating then the


magnitude of the buoyant force
is equal to the magnitude of its
weight.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.6 Archimedes’ Principle

Example 9 A Swimming Raft

The raft is made of solid square


pinewood. Determine whether
the raft floats in water and if
so, how much of the raft is beneath
the surface.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.6 Archimedes’ Principle

Vraft   4.0 m  4.0 m  0.30 m   4.8 m 3

FBmax   Vg   waterVwater g

  
 1000 kg m 3 4.8m 3 9.80 m s 2 
 47000 N

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.6 Archimedes’ Principle

Wraft  mraft g   pineVraft g

  
 550 kg m 3 4.8m 3 9.80 m s 2 
 26000 N  47000 N

The raft floats!

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.6 Archimedes’ Principle

If the raft is floating:

Wraft  FB

26000 N   waterVwater g

26000 N  1000 kg m 3  4.0 m  4.0 m  h 9.80 m s 2 

26000 N
h  0.17 m
  
1000 kg m  4.0 m  4.0 m  9.80 m s
3 2

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.6 Archimedes’ Principle

Conceptual Example 10 How Much Water is Needed


to Float a Ship?

A ship floating in the ocean is a familiar sight. But is all


that water really necessary? Can an ocean vessel float
in the amount of water than a swimming pool contains?

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.6 Archimedes’ Principle

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.7 Fluids in Motion

In steady flow the velocity of the fluid particles at any point is constant
as time passes.

Unsteady flow exists whenever the velocity of the fluid particles at a


point changes as time passes.

Turbulent flow is an extreme kind of unsteady flow in which the velocity


of the fluid particles at a point change erratically in both magnitude and
direction.
Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.7 Fluids in Motion

Fluid flow can be compressible or incompressible. Most liquids are


nearly incompressible.

Fluid flow can be viscous or nonviscous.

An incompressible, nonviscous fluid is called an ideal fluid.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.7 Fluids in Motion

When the flow is steady, streamlines are often used to represent


the trajectories of the fluid particles.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.7 Fluids in Motion

Making streamlines with dye


and smoke.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.8 The Equation of Continuity

The mass of fluid per second that flows through a tube is called
the mass flow rate.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.8 The Equation of Continuity

m  V   A v t
distance

m2 m1
  2 A2 v2  1 A1v1
t t

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.8 The Equation of Continuity

EQUATION OF CONTINUITY

The mass flow rate has the same value at every position along a
tube that has a single entry and a single exit for fluid flow.

1 A1v1   2 A2 v2

SI Unit of Mass Flow Rate: kg/s

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.8 The Equation of Continuity

Incompressible fluid: A1v1  A2 v2

Volume flow rate Q: Q  Av

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.8 The Equation of Continuity

Example 12 A Garden Hose

A garden hose has an unobstructed opening


with a cross sectional area of 2.85x10-4m2.
It fills a bucket with a volume of 8.00x10-3m3
in 30 seconds.

Find the speed of the water that leaves the hose


through (a) the unobstructed opening and (b) an obstructed
opening with half as much area.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.8 The Equation of Continuity

Q  Av
(a)

 
Q 8.00  10 3 m 3  30.0 s 
v   0.936 m s
A 2.85  10 m-4 2

(b) A1v1  A2 v2

A1
v2  v1   2 0.936 m s   1.87 m s
A2

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.9 Bernoulli’s Equation

The fluid accelerates toward the According to the pressure-depth


lower pressure regions. relationship, the pressure is lower
at higher levels, provided the area
of the pipe does not change.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.9 Bernoulli’s Equation

W    F  s   F  s   P  As   P2  P1 V

Wnc   1
2 mv12  mgy1    1
2 mv22  mgy2 

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.9 Bernoulli’s Equation

 P2  P1  V   12 mv12  mgy1    12 mv22  mgy2 

 P2  P1    12 v12  gy1    12 v22  gy2 

BERNOULLI’S EQUATION

In steady flow of a nonviscous, incompressible fluid, the pressure, the


fluid speed, and the elevation at two points are related by:

P1  12 v12  gy1  P2  12 v22  gy2

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation

Conceptual Example 14 Tarpaulins and Bernoulli’s Equation

When the truck is stationary, the


tarpaulin lies flat, but it bulges outward
when the truck is speeding down
the highway.

Account for this behavior.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation

Example 16 Efflux Speed

The tank is open to the atmosphere at


the top. Find an expression for the speed
of the liquid leaving the pipe at
the bottom.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation

P1  P2  Patm
v2  0

P1  12 v12  gy1  P2  12 v22  gy2

y2  y1  h

1
2
v12  gh

v1  2 gh

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.11 Viscous Flow

Flow of an ideal fluid.

Flow of a viscous fluid.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.11 Viscous Flow

FORCE NEEDED TO MOVE A LAYER OF VISCOUS FLUID WITH


CONSTANT VELOCITY

The magnitude of the tangential force required to move a fluid


layer at a constant speed is given by:
Av
F
y
coefficient
of viscosity

SI Unit of Viscosity: Pa·s

Common Unit of Viscosity: poise (P)

1 poise (P) = 0.1 Pa·s

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.11 Viscous Flow

POISEUILLE’S LAW
R 4  P2  P1 
The volume flow rate is given by: Q
8L

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.11 Viscous Flow

Example 17 Giving and Injection

A syringe is filled with a solution whose


viscosity is 1.5x10-3 Pa·s. The internal
radius of the needle is 4.0x10-4m.

The gauge pressure in the vein is 1900 Pa.


What force must be applied to the plunger,
so that 1.0x10-6m3 of fluid can be injected
in 3.0 s?

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.11 Viscous Flow

8LQ
P2  P 
R 4


  
8 1.5  10 3 Pa  s  0.025 m  1.0 10 6 m 3 3.0 s 
  4.0 10 m 
-4 4

 1200 Pa

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
11.11 Viscous Flow

P1  1900 Pa

P2  P1  1200 Pa

P2  3100 Pa


F  P2 A   3100 Pa  8.0  10 m  0.25 N
5 2

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.