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Materials & Applications

Codes & Standards

• ASME Section II Part A: Ferrous Metals
• ASME Section II Part B: Non ferrous
• Materials accepted for BPV from ASTM
included in ASME
• A 516 Gr 70----- SA 516 Gr 70
• B127 ----- SB127
Material Product Forms
• Plate, sheet, strips
• Pipe
• Tube
• Forgings
• Castings
• Structural
• Rod, wire, bars
• etc
Types of Materials
• Carbon Steel
• Low Alloy Steel
• High Alloy Steel
• Tool & Die Steel
• Cast Iron
• Coated Steel
• Stainless & Heat Resistant Steels
• Clad Steel
Types of Materials
Non Ferrous
• Copper and its alloys
• Aluminum and its alloy
• Magnesium and its alloys
• Nickel and its alloys
• Titanium and its alloy
• Refractory metals Zr, Pd, Hf
• Lead, Zinc
Types of Materials
Non Metals
• Plastics
• Ceramic
• Composites
Effect of Alloying Elements
Effect of Carbon
• Increase of Carbon increases hardness
and tensile strength, reduces ductility,
increases responsiveness to heat
treatment (surface hardening), reduces
formability in either hot or cold.
• High carbon is undesirable for SS due to
carbide precipitation, reduces corrosion
Effect of Si, S, P
• Silicon is used as deoxidizer during process of
• Silicon addition in the range of 1.5 to 2% improves
hardenability. Used in some tool steel.
• Sulphur in large quantity improves machinability
• Sulphur is detrimental to hot forming properties
• Sulphur has detrimental effect on corrosion resistance
and weldablity.
• Phosphorus addition increases yield strength and
reduces ductility at low temperature. Believed to
increase resistance to atmospheric corrosion
• Phosphorus has detrimental effect on corrosion
resistance and weldbility.
Effect of Mn
• Manganese is used as deoxidiser and to
impart strength.
• Manganese addition improves hot working
• Manganese like nickel is an austenite
former. Has been used as substitute for
Nickel in 200 series SS
Effect of Chromium, Nickel
• Cr is ferrite former.
• Cr increases resistance to oxidation
• Cr increase response to heat treatment.
• Cr increases depth of hardness penetration.
• Cr with the addition of nickel in large amount
increases the resistance to oxidation and
• Ni is austenite former
• Nickel increases strength and toughness both at
high and low temperature
Effect of Mo, N
• Molybdenum increases penetration of hardness
and increases toughness.
• Mo improves creep strength, resists softening at
high temperature.
• Mo when added to austenitic SS improves
resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion
especially in chloride and sulphur containing
• Nitrogen like Nickel is an austenite former.
• Nitrogen addition improves the yield strength of
Effect of Copper
• Copper in small amount improves resistance to
atmospheric corrosion
• Copper addition increases yield and ultimate
strength with slight loss of ductility.
• Copper addition is done to produce precipitation
hardening properties
• Copper addition enhances corrosion resistance
in sea water environments and sulphuric acid
Effect of Titanium,
• Titanium is added to austenitic SS as a
stabilising element to make the steel immune to
harmful carbide precipitation leading to inter
granular corrosion.
• Niobium/columbium is added to steel in order to
stabilise carbon, as such , performs in the same
way as titanium.
• Niobium also has the effect of strengthening
steels and alloys for high temperature service.
Effect of Aluminum, Boron,
• Aluminum is used as an active deoxidiser in producing
steel. It refines the grain size.
• Boron is added in small quantity to improve
hardenability. Acts as an intensifier, increasing the depth
of hardening during quenching.
• Tungsten is used as an alloying element in tool steel and
tends to produce a fine, dense grain and clean cutting
edge when use in small quantity. Used in large quantity
to produce high speed steel which retains hardness even
at high temperature developed in high speed cutting.
Also used in heat resisting steel where retention of
strength at high temperature is required. usually used in
combination with Cr or other alloying elements.
Effect of Vanadium, Cobalt
• Vanadium usually in small quantity 0.15 to
0.20% retards grain growth, even after
hardening from high temperatures or after
periods of extended heating. Tool steel
containing vanadium resists shock better.
• Cobalt becomes highly radioactive when
exposed to intense radiation of nuclear reactors.
SS used in nuclear service will have a Co
restriction of 0.2%.nickel used in SS invariably
have Co as residual element.
Carbon & Low alloy steel
• 95% of construction and fabrication
worldwide is of Carbon and Low alloy steel
• Good mechanical properties
• Low cost
• Ease of fabrication
• Application areas: Vehicles, bridges,
machinery, pressure vessels, offshore
structure, railroad, ships, tanks, pipelines
Carbon Steel
• Low carbon steel - 60HRB, Plate , sheet,
strip, pipes, tubes Carbon – 0.30%max
• Mild steel –90HRB, Structural shapes,
Carbon– 0.15 to 0.30%
• Medium Carbon Steel- Carbon 0.3- 0.5%,
25HRC, Machine parts
• High Carbon Steel- Carbon 0.5 to 1.0%,
40HRC, Springs, railroads, abrasion
Low Alloy Steel
Types & Application
• Alloying element< 10%
• HSLA steels- high strength, thk comes down,
better toughness, resistant to corrosion in
specific environment eg.Corten
Pipelines, pressure vessels, penstock, offshore
Normally used in as rolled or normalised
Alloying elements are Ni, Cu, Mo, Ti, V, Nb
Low Alloy Steel
• QT Steel: Furnished in heat treated
condition. No further heat treatment is
required. Has high yield strength. eg.
HY80, HY100, HY130
primarily used as plate
Application: Earthmoving equipment,
armour application (defence), pressure
vessel, steel mill and mining equipment,
ships, TV towers
Low Alloy Steel
• Cr-Mo Steel: 0.5 to 9% Cr, 0.5 to 1.0%Mo
• Air harden able, Creep Properties, good high
temperature yield strength
• Improved oxidation and corrosion resistance
• Mo increases strength at high temperature
• Ti, V, Nb, N2 addition increases further creep
• Used widely in refineries and power generating
Low Alloy Steel
• Nickel Steel: 0.5 to 9% Nickel
• Good low temperature properties
• Good toughness at low temperature
• Cryogenic applications
• Pressure vessels , storage tank in
refineries, petrochemicals, fertilizer
High Alloy Steel
• Alloying content > 10%
• Ni-Co alloy steel, Mar aging steel (Ni),
Austenitic Mn steel
• Ultra high strength steel
• Used widely for rocket motor, jaw
crushers, mining equipment, bicycle frame
• Age hardening
Coated Steel
• Lower production cost
• Better and more consistent product quality
• Reduced energy usage
• Easier compliance with environmental,
health and safety concerns
• Coating could be metallic or paint
• Protective coating or decorative finish
• Resistance welding preferred
Stainless & Heat Resisting Steel
• Min Cr required is 10.5% for making the steel
• Chromium oxide film gives the protection
• High thermal coefficient
• Low thermal conductivity
• More distortion compared to Carbon steel
• Very widely used as pressure vessels, heat
exchangers in chemical, petrochemical, fertilizer
and offshore industries
Stainless steel : Types
• Martenistic --- low Cr around 13%
• Ferritic --- high Cr around 17 to 26%
• Austenetic --- Cr-Ni typical 18/8, 25/20
• Duplex ---- high Cr and low Ni, 22 to 25
Cr, 4 to 6 Ni
• Austenetic grades are 200 and 300 series,
non magnetic
Clad Steel
• To reduce cost and also having chemical
corrosion resistance
• Hydro treaters, chemical , petrochemical,
• Marine applications
• Surfacing, hard facing, spraying
Other Materials
• Ti &Ti alloys: high strength to weight ratio
• Used widely in chemical, aerospace, marine
• Good chloride resistance
• Zirconium: Reactive metal used in chemical and
petrochemical, food processing
• Tantalum: chemical equipments, corrosion
Other Materials
• Al & Al alloys: good electric and thermal
conductivity. Non magnetic. Inherent
corrosion resistance. Light weight
• Mg & Mg alloys: Low weight. Used in
Industrial Textiles, printing machines,
material handling (gravity conveyor, grain
shovel), aerospace
Other materials
• Cu & Cu alloys: Brass, Bronze, Cupro -
• Application in water tubing, valves, fittings,
heat exchangers, chemical equipment,
bearings, sprinklers
Other materials
• Ni & Ni alloys: Chemical and Heat
resistant application like SS.
• Nickel, Monel, Inconel, Incoloy,
1.Material Identification
Color coding for Material

Color Coding
Carbon Steel Red + Yellow
(1/2 Mo)

Alloy Steel T11/P11 Silver + Yellow

(1Cr 1/2Mo)
Alloy steel T22/P11 Green + Red
(21/4Cr 1Mo)
Alloy Steel T91/P91 Silver + Red
(9Cr 1Mo)
SS Material
SS 304 Blue
SS 310 Blue + Orange
SS 316 Orange
SS 321 Orange + white