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Personal letters about

giving and accepting


information concerning
personal and other
people’s activities

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Daftar Isi
Read the following letter aloud.
What is the letter about?
Answer the following questions based on
the letter.
1. Who is Sari Handayani?
2. What does ‘January 25, 2018’ show?
3. Where does Sari live?
4. What does Sari write in her letter about?
5. Who does Sari send the letter to?
Personal Letter
Do the exercises in your PR Bahasa Inggris
Read the following letter aloud.
Write a reply.
Back to Chapter I Do the exercises in your PR Bahasa Inggris
• Giving and
asking for
information
about cause
and effect

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Daftar Isi
Giving and Asking for Information
about Cause and Effect
Read the following dialog and pay attention to the bold-typed words.
Anneke : What news are you reading?
Yudi : A volcanic eruption. People living on its slope should be alert
because this very active volcano often erupts suddenly.
Anneke: You are right. They should be evacuated to safe places.
Yudi : Yes. The government is busy doing evacuations.
Anneke: Did the people not receive a warning about the eruption before?
Yudi : They did, but they ignored the warning.
Anneke: Why?
Yudi : They had to keep their belongings and animals. Therefore, they
were not willing to evacuate.
Anneke: Anyway, there is a tourist resort on the slope of the mountain. It
must be closed too.
Yudi : Definitely. People should stay at least 10 kilometers away from the
top of the mountain.
Answer the following questions.

1. What do the words ‘because’ and ‘therefore’ mean?


2. What does each word reflect?
3. What is the function of each word?
4. Are the words always followed by sentences or nouns/noun
phrases?
5. Mention other connectors showing cause and effect.
Connectors Showing Cause and
Effect
Connectors showing cause:
• because • as • since • for

Examples:
• Amelia called her close friend because she missed her.
• Alby goes to school by bus for his bicycle is broken.

Connectors showing effect:


• so
• therefore • consequently • as a result
Examples:
• The biology teacher was sick, so Mr. Nando taught the students.
• The road is being repaired. Therefore, we have to take another route.
• Maya is smart and behaves very well. As a result, she is appointed the model
student.
Giving and Asking for Information
Using 'Because of', 'Due to',
'Thanks to'
Read the following dialog.
Pay attention to the word in bold.

Mrs. Dewi : Where are you going, Candra?


Candra : Reza’s house, Mom.
Mrs. Dewi : Will you drop by Kirana cellular phone kiosk?
Candra : Sure, Mom. What happens with your cellular phone?
Mrs. Dewi : It is broken because of water. Unintentionally I plunged
it into in a bucket full of water.
Candra : O gosh! I hope it is not seriously damaged.
Mrs. Dewi : I hope so.
Candra : Why don’t you buy a new one, Mom?
Mrs. Dewi : Let’s see whether it can be repaired. Otherwise, I will
buy a new one.
Answer the following questions.

1. What does the word ‘because of’ mean?


2. What does the word reflect?
3. What is the function of the word?
4. Is the word always followed by a sentence or noun/noun phrase?
5. Compare the sentences “It is broken because of water.” and “It is
broken because unintentionally I plunged it into a bucket full of
water.”
Do they show a similar meaning? What is the difference between
them?
6. Mention other connectors showing cause, which are followed by
nouns/noun phrases.
Because of, Due to, Thanks to
Usage:
The words ‘due to’, ‘because of’ and ‘thanks to’ are used to show
causes.

Pattern:
The words are followed by nouns, noun phrases, pronouns or
gerunds.
Examples:
• Amelia called her close friend because of missing her.
• Alby’s absence is due to his broken bicycle.
• Farah is appointed the model student thanks to her
intelligence and good attitude.
Look at the pictures.
Write suitable sentences showing cause and effect based on the
pictures.

The girl had an accident, so she


______________________________ The food is burned because the
______________________________
broke her leg.
________ boy is busy with his cellular
________
______________________________ phone.
______________________________
________ ________
Back to Chapter II Do the exercises in your PR Bahasa Inggris on page 28-32.
• Song
• Poem

Back to
Daftar Isi
Song
Mariah Carey sang the following song.
Listen to the song or read the song lyrics.
Hero
(By: Mariah Carey)
[Verse 1] And you’ll finally see the truth But don’t let anyone
There’s a hero That a hero lies in you Tear them away
If you look inside your heart Hold on
You don’t have to be afraid [Verse 2] There will be tomorrow
Of what you are It’s a long road In time
There’s an answer When you face the world alone You’ll find the way
If you reach into your soul No one reaches out a hand
And the sorrow that you know For you to hold Back to [Chorus]
Will melt away You can find love
If you search within yourself [Outro]
[Chorus] And the emptiness you felt That a hero lies in you
And then a hero comes along Will disappear That a hero lies in you
With the strength to carry on
And you cast your fears aside Back to [Chorus] Adopted from: Kementerian Pendidikan
dan Kebudayaan, Bahasa Inggris
And you know you can survive
SMA/MA/SMK/MAK Kelas XI Edisi Revisi
So when you feel like hope is [Bridge] Cetakan Ke-2, Kementerian Pendidikan dan
gone Lord knows Kebudayaan, Jakarta, 2017.
Look inside you and be strong Dreams are hard to follow
Answer the following questions.

1. What is your favourite song?


2. Why do you like it?
3. What is the genre of your favorite song?
4. What are the parts of the song?
5. Show the parts of the song of the prevoius
song.
Work in pairs.
Answer the following questions based on the previous song lyrics.
1. What is the song about?
It is about a hero that lies inside of us
Jawaban: ________________________________.
2. What is the message of the song?
It encourages us to cast fear and improve our potential to
Jawaban: ________________________________________________
pursue our dreams although we have to struggle hard to
________________________________________________
achieve them
___________.

Back to Chapter III Do the exercises in your PR Bahasa Inggris to page 49-51.
Poem
Read the following song lyrics and poem.
The song: The poem:
Touch the Sky Invictus
(By: Julie Fowlis) (By: William Ernest Henley)
Out of the night that covers me,
When the cold wind’s a-calling I will ride, I will fly Black as the pit from pole to pole,
And the sky is clear and bright Chase the wind and touch the I thank whatever gods may be
Misty mountains sing and sky For my unconquerable soul.
beckon, I will fly
Lead me out into the light Chase the wind and touch the In the fell clutch of circumstance
sky I have not winced nor cried aloud.
Where dark woods hide secrets Under the bludgeonings of chance
And mountains are fierce and And touch the sky My head is bloody, but unbowed.
bold Chase the wind, chase the wind
Deep waters hold reflections Touch the sky Beyond this place of wrath and tears
Of times lost long ago Looms but the horror of the shade,
And yet the menace of the years
I will hear their every story Finds and shall find me unfriend.
Take hold of my own dream
Be as strong as the seas are It matters not how strait the gate,
stormy How charge with punishments the scroll,
And proud as an eagle’s scream I am the master of my fate:
Adopted from: https://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/juliefowlis/touchthesky.html I am the captain of my soul.
Adopted from: Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan,
(September 12, 2017)
Bahasa Inggris SMA/MA/SMA/MAK Kelas XI Edisi Revisi
Cetakan Ke-2, Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan,
Jakarta, 2017.
Answer the following questions.
1. What are the similarities of the previous
song and poem?
2. Does they have similar sounds at the last
sound of line or stanza? If yes, show them.
3. Where do you find the same sounds?
4. Can you find the poetic devices in the
previous song and poem? If yes, what are
they?
Read the following information.
Song:
When the cold wind’s a-calling (A)
And the sky is clear and bright (B)
Misty mountains sing and beckon, (C)
Lead me out into the light (B)
Poem:
Out of the night that covers me, (A)
Black as the pit from pole to pole, (B)
I thank whatever gods may be (A)
For my unconquerable soul. (B)

• The words in the song ‘bright’ and ‘light’ which are signed with (B) have the same
sound.
• The words in the poem ‘me’ and ‘be’ which are signed with (A) have the same
sound and the words ‘pole’ and ‘soul’ which are signed with (B) also have the
same sound.

The kind of rhyme which has the same sound of the last rhyme is called end rhyme.
Read the following information.

Poetic devices in songs and poems.


1. Simile is used to compare two unlike things using ‘like’ or ‘as’.
Example:
• You are as sweet as sugar.
2. Metaphor is used to compare two things without using ‘like’ or ‘as’.
Example:
• The power in my soul is such a bull.
3. Personification is used to give human qualities to inanimate figures/objects.
Example:
• The wind dances with the waves.
4. Hyperbole is used to exaggerate things beyond limit.
Example:
• My mom has a diamond ring as big as a mountain.
5. Alliteration is used when there is a repetition of consonants at the beginning of the words.
Example:
• Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.
6. Onomatopoeia are words that sound like the names of words.
Example:
• She splashed the water on me.
Read the following song lyrics and poem.
Identify the rhyming words for each verse and write in the table in the next slide.
The song: The poem:
Morning has Broken The Sound of Earth
(By: Cat Steven) (By: Daday Tajores)
Morning has broken, like the first morning As I wake up in the morning,
Blackbird has spoken, like the first bird I saw the sunshine in the window
Praise for the singing, praise for the morning As I go in the garden,
Praise for them springing fresh from the Word I saw the flowers as they grow.

Sweet the rain’s new fall, sunlight from heaven The trees in the mountain
Like the first dewfall, on the first grass Gives us fresh air to inhale,
Praise for the sweetness of the wet garden It gives us water every day,
Sprung in completeness where His feet pass and fulfill life every way.

Mine is the sunlight, mine is the morning How beautiful surroundings that we have,
Born of the one light Eden saw play It’s a gift from up above,
Praise with elation, praise every morning May you be thankful of what you have,
God’s recreation of the new day And share the blessings from loving God.

Morning has broken, like the first morning Today is a great day,
Blackbird has spoken, like the first bird It’s a love fulfilling way,
Praise for the singing, praise for the morning It’s because I have to say,
Praise for them springing fresh from the Word That God is my guidance all the way.
Adopted from: Adopted from:
http://www.lyricsmode.com/lyrics/c/cat_stevens/morning_has_bro http://www.poetryinnature.com/nature/poetry.asp?poem=5668
ken.html (September 12, 2017) (September 12, 2017)
Song Poem
Verse Rhyming Word Verse Rhyming Word
A – morning A – morning
1 B – bird 1 B – window
A – morning C – garden
B – Word B – grow

2 2

3 3

4 4

Do the exercises in your PR Bahasa Inggris to page 55-56.

Back to Chapter III


• Explanation
Text
• Passive
Voice

Back to
Daftar Isi
Explanation Text
Read the following text.
Answer the questions that follow.
How Volcanoes are Formed?

Have you ever wondered how volcanoes are formed?


A volcano is a vent or an opening on the earth’s surface which allows
molten rock called magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape out onto its
surface.
Volcanoes are formed whenever there is a crack in the crust of the
earth. A tube-like passage connects a chamber of magma (molten rock)
at the center of the earth to the earth’s crust.
When the pressure builds up in the chamber, the magma,
gases and ash are pushed up through to the top of the tube on
the earth’s surface known as vent.
The red-hot magma that escapes to flow over the Earth’s surface is
called lava which, when cools, forms into rocks.
In fact, the mountains we see today are nothing but solidified lava
from previously erupted volcanoes.
Adopted from: Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Bahasa Inggris SMA/MA/SMK/MAK
Kelas XI Edisi Revisi Cetakan Ke-2, Jakarta, Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 2017.

Questions:
1. What is the purpose of the text?
2. What tense(s) is used in the text?
3. Why does the text use the tense(s)?
4. What kinds of verbs are used: action, verbal, or mental verbs?
5. Why does the text use such verb form?
6. What conjunctions or sentence connectors are used in the text?
7. What are the functions of the conjunctions or sentence connectors?
8. Are there any technical verbs in the text? What are they and what do
they mean?
Purpose : To describe how or why a certain phenomenon
happens or occurs.
Content : A sequence of events (explaining how) and provides reasons
for a process or phenomenon (why).
Type : 1. sequential explanation
2. cause-effect explanation

STRUCTURE
• Title/Introduction : Identifies the topic to be explained.
• General Statement : Identifies the process to be explained.
• Sequence of Explanation : Describe how and why.
• Conclusion : Puts all the information together
(optional).

Pay attention to the structure of an explanation text in the


following slide.
Identify the linguistic features as well.
Title How Volcanoes are Formed?

Have you ever wondered how volcanoes


Introduction
are formed?
General noun
A volcano is a vent or an opening on the
General earth’s surface which allows molten rock
Statement called magma, volcanic ash and gases to
escape out onto its surface.
Technical words
Volcanoes are formed whenever there
is a crack in the crust of the earth. A tube-like
Explanation
passage connects a chamber of magma
Sequence 1
(molten rock) at the center of the earth to
the earth’s crust.

Passive
voice
Present tense

When the pressure builds up in the


Explanation chamber, the magma, gases and ash are
Sequence 2 pushed up through to the top of the tube on
the earth’s surface known as vent.

Action verb
The red-hot magma that escapes to
Explanation flow over the Earth’s surface is called lava
Sequence 3 which, when cools, forms into rocks.
Conjunction

In fact, the mountains we see today are


Closing/
nothing but solidified lava from previously
Conclusion
erupted volcanoes.
Passive Voice
Read the following sentences.
Pay attention to the structure of the verbs in bold.

• The magma, gases and ash are pushed up through to the top of the tube
on the earth’s surface.
• Convective rain is produced by convective clouds.
• Convective clouds are formed in vertical motions that result from
instability of the atmosphere.
• When the air is heated from below like this, much like in a boiling kettle,
it will produce “bubbles” of rising air.
• This rain is commonly referred to as “sunshine and showers” in the UK.

The above sentences are called passive voice.

Pattern: be + past participle (V3)


Usage:
1. When we want to focus on the person or object affected by
the action, or the action itself.
2. When it is not important who or what performed.
3. When the subject is unknown.
4. When we intend to be more formal, as in most forms of academic
writing.
How to change active sentences into passive ones:
1. The subject of an active sentence becomes the object of a passive sentence.

Active : Carla drove Anita to the cinema.


Sub. Verb Obj. Adverb

Passive : Anita
Sub.
2. The object of an active sentence becomes the subject of
a passive sentence, usually preceded by a preposition
‘by’, known as ‘by agent’. ‘By agent’ is not always stated
in a passive sentence.
Active : Carla drove Anita to the cinema.
Sub. Pred. Obj. Adverb

Passive : Anita by Carla


Sub. Obj.

3. The verb is changed into be + past participle (V3). The form of ‘be’
depends on the tense of the sentence (past, present, future) and
the subject of the sentence (singular or plural).

Active : Carla drove Anita to the cinema.


Sub. Verb Obj. Adverb

Passive : Anita was driven by Carla to the cinema.


Sub. Verb Obj. Adverb
Fill in the blanks with the suitable verbs, whether active
or passive. Use the words in brackets.

Respiration occurs in all living cells, including leaves and roots. Since
does not require [not require] light energy, it can
respiration (1) _______________
can be conducted [conduct] at night or during the day. It
(2) _______________
(3) _______________ [occur] when glucose, sugar which
(4) _______________ [produce] during photosynthesis, combines with
oxygen to produce useable cellular energy. This energy (5) ______________
[use] to fuel growth and all of the normal cellular functions. Carbon dioxide
and water (6) _______________ [form] as by-products of respiration.
However, respiration does require oxygen which can be problematic for
roots which (7) _______________ [overwater] or in soil with poor drainage.
If roots (8) _______________ [inundate] for long periods of time, they cannot
(9) _______________ [take in] oxygen and convert glucose to maintain cell
metabolic processes. As a result, water-logging and excessive irrigation can
(10) _______________ [deprive] roots of oxygen, kill root tissues, damage
trees and reduce yield.
Adopted from: http://fruitandnuteducation.ucdavis.edu/generaltopics/Tree_Growth_Structure/
Photosynthesis_Respiration/ (August 30, 2017)
Look att he picture carefully.
What is the picture described?
Write an exlanation text about it.

Source:
http://www.metoffice.gov.uk
/learning/rainbows/how-
are-rainbows-formed,
downloaded September 7,
2017
To check your understanding on an explanation text further,
please open your book on page 74-75.
Do the exercises from TASK 18 until TASK 22.

Back to Chapter IV
Thank you