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uniform temperature of 5°C and is dropped into boiling

water at 95°C. Taking the convection heat transfer

coefficient to be h = 1200 W/m2 · °C, determine how

long it will take for the center of the egg to reach 70°C.

In a production facility, large brass plates of 4 cm thickness that are initially at a

uniform temperature of 20°C are heated by passing them through an oven that is

maintained at 500°C (shown in Fig). The plates remain in the oven for a period of 7

min. Taking the combined convection and radiation heat transfer coefficient to be h =

120 W/m2 · °C, determine the surface temperature of the plates when they come out

of the oven.

The chilling room of a meat plant is 18 m X 20 m X 5.5 m in size

and has a capacity of 450 beef carcasses. The power consumed

by the fans and the lights of the chilling room are 26 and 3 kW,

respectively, and the room gains heat through its envelope at a

rate of 13 kW. The average mass of beef carcasses is 285 kg. The

carcasses enter the chilling room at 36°C after they are washed

to facilitate evaporative cooling and are cooled to 15°C in 10 h.

The water is expected to evaporate at a rate of 0.080 kg/s. The

air enters the evaporator section of the refrigeration system at

0.7°C and leaves at -2°C. The air side of the evaporator is heavily

finned, and the overall heat transfer coefficient of the

evaporator based on the air side is 20 W/m2 · °C. Also, the

average temperature difference between the air and the

refrigerant in the evaporator is 5.5°C. Determine (a) the

refrigeration load of the chilling room, (b) the volume flow rate

of air, and (c) the heat transfer surface area of the evaporator on

the air side, assuming all the vapor and the fog in the air freezes

in the evaporator.

(a) A sketch of the chilling

room is given in Figure. The

amount of beef mass that

needs to be cooled per unit

time is

The author and his 6-year-old son have conducted the following experiment

to determine the thermal conductivity of a hot dog. They first boiled water in

a large pan and measured the temperature of the boiling water to be 94°C,

which is not surprising, since they live at an elevation of about 1650 m in

Reno, Nevada. They then took a hot dog that is 12.5 cm long and 2.2 cm in

diameter and inserted a thermocouple into the midpoint of the hot dog and

another thermocouple just under the skin. They waited until both

thermocouples read 20°C, which is the ambient temperature. They then

dropped the hot dog into boiling water and observed the changes in both

temperatures. Exactly 2 min after the hot dog was dropped into the boiling

water, they recorded the center and the surface temperatures to be 59°C and

88°C, respectively. The density of the hot dog can be taken to be 980 kg/m3,

which is slightly less than the density of water, since the hot dog was

observed to be floating in water while being almost completely immersed.

The specific heat of a hot dog can be taken to be 3900 J/kg · °C, which is

slightly less than that of water, since a hot dog is mostly water. Using transient

temperature charts, determine (a) the thermal diffusivity of the hot dog, (b)

the thermal conductivity of the hot dog, and (c) the convection heat transfer

coefficient.

In Betty Crocker’s Cookbook, it is stated that it takes 5 h to roast a 14-

lb stuffed turkey initially at 40°F in an oven maintained at 325°F. It is

recommended that a meat thermometer be used to monitor the

cooking, and the turkey is considered done when the thermometer

inserted deep into the thickest part of the breast or thigh without

touching the bone registers 185°F. The turkey can be treated as a

homogeneous spherical object with the properties ρ = 75 lbm/ft3, Cp =

0.98 Btu/lbm · °F, k = 0.26 Btu/h · ft · °F, and α = 0.0035 ft2/h. Assuming

the tip of the thermometer is at one-third radial distance from the

center of the turkey, determine (a) the average heat transfer

coefficient at the surface of the turkey, (b) the temperature of the skin

of the turkey when it is done, and (c) the total amount of heat

transferred to the turkey in the oven. Will the reading of the

thermometer be more or less than 185°F 5 min after the turkey is

taken out of the oven?

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