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An ordinary egg can be approximated as a 5 cm

diameter sphere (shown in Fig). The egg is initially at a

uniform temperature of 5°C and is dropped into boiling
water at 95°C. Taking the convection heat transfer
coefficient to be h = 1200 W/m2 · °C, determine how
long it will take for the center of the egg to reach 70°C.
In a production facility, large brass plates of 4 cm thickness that are initially at a
uniform temperature of 20°C are heated by passing them through an oven that is
maintained at 500°C (shown in Fig). The plates remain in the oven for a period of 7
min. Taking the combined convection and radiation heat transfer coefficient to be h =
120 W/m2 · °C, determine the surface temperature of the plates when they come out
of the oven.
The chilling room of a meat plant is 18 m X 20 m X 5.5 m in size
and has a capacity of 450 beef carcasses. The power consumed
by the fans and the lights of the chilling room are 26 and 3 kW,
respectively, and the room gains heat through its envelope at a
rate of 13 kW. The average mass of beef carcasses is 285 kg. The
carcasses enter the chilling room at 36°C after they are washed
to facilitate evaporative cooling and are cooled to 15°C in 10 h.
The water is expected to evaporate at a rate of 0.080 kg/s. The
air enters the evaporator section of the refrigeration system at
0.7°C and leaves at -2°C. The air side of the evaporator is heavily
finned, and the overall heat transfer coefficient of the
evaporator based on the air side is 20 W/m2 · °C. Also, the
average temperature difference between the air and the
refrigerant in the evaporator is 5.5°C. Determine (a) the
refrigeration load of the chilling room, (b) the volume flow rate
of air, and (c) the heat transfer surface area of the evaporator on
the air side, assuming all the vapor and the fog in the air freezes
in the evaporator.
(a) A sketch of the chilling
room is given in Figure. The
amount of beef mass that
needs to be cooled per unit
time is
The author and his 6-year-old son have conducted the following experiment
to determine the thermal conductivity of a hot dog. They first boiled water in
a large pan and measured the temperature of the boiling water to be 94°C,
which is not surprising, since they live at an elevation of about 1650 m in
Reno, Nevada. They then took a hot dog that is 12.5 cm long and 2.2 cm in
diameter and inserted a thermocouple into the midpoint of the hot dog and
another thermocouple just under the skin. They waited until both
thermocouples read 20°C, which is the ambient temperature. They then
dropped the hot dog into boiling water and observed the changes in both
temperatures. Exactly 2 min after the hot dog was dropped into the boiling
water, they recorded the center and the surface temperatures to be 59°C and
88°C, respectively. The density of the hot dog can be taken to be 980 kg/m3,
which is slightly less than the density of water, since the hot dog was
observed to be floating in water while being almost completely immersed.
The specific heat of a hot dog can be taken to be 3900 J/kg · °C, which is
slightly less than that of water, since a hot dog is mostly water. Using transient
temperature charts, determine (a) the thermal diffusivity of the hot dog, (b)
the thermal conductivity of the hot dog, and (c) the convection heat transfer
In Betty Crocker’s Cookbook, it is stated that it takes 5 h to roast a 14-
lb stuffed turkey initially at 40°F in an oven maintained at 325°F. It is
recommended that a meat thermometer be used to monitor the
cooking, and the turkey is considered done when the thermometer
inserted deep into the thickest part of the breast or thigh without
touching the bone registers 185°F. The turkey can be treated as a
homogeneous spherical object with the properties ρ = 75 lbm/ft3, Cp =
0.98 Btu/lbm · °F, k = 0.26 Btu/h · ft · °F, and α = 0.0035 ft2/h. Assuming
the tip of the thermometer is at one-third radial distance from the
center of the turkey, determine (a) the average heat transfer
coefficient at the surface of the turkey, (b) the temperature of the skin
of the turkey when it is done, and (c) the total amount of heat
transferred to the turkey in the oven. Will the reading of the
thermometer be more or less than 185°F 5 min after the turkey is
taken out of the oven?