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Alexander Louis Solis
Sharmaine Palatones
King James Land Pader
Norman Padua

 The branch of science that deals with the

relationship between heat and other forms of
energy, such as work. It is frequently
summarized as three laws that describe
restrictions on how different forms of energy
can be interconverted. Chemical
thermodynamics is the portion of
thermodynamics that pertains to chemical

 First law: Energy is conserved; it can be neither

created nor destroyed.
 Second law: In an isolated system, natural
processes are spontaneous when they lead to
an increase in disorder, or entropy.
 Third law: The entropy of a perfect crystal is
zero when the temperature of the crystal is
equal to absolute zero (0 K).

 The First Law of Thermodynamics states that

heat is a form of energy, and thermodynamic
processes are therefore subject to the principle
of conservation of energy. This means that heat
energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can,
however, be transferred from one location to
another and converted to and from other forms
of energy.

One of the basic assumptions of thermodynamics is the

idea that we can arbitrarily divide the universe into
a system and its surroundings. The boundary
between the system and its surroundings can be as real
as the walls of a beaker that separates a solution from
the rest of the universe.
 “The First Law says that the internal energy of a
system has to be equal to the work that is being
done on the system, plus or minus the heat that
flows in or out of the system and any other work
that is done on the system," said Saibal Mitra, a
professor of physics at Missouri State University.
"The change in internal energy of a system is
the sum of all the energy inputs and outputs to
and from the system similarly to how all the
deposits and withdrawals you make determine
the changes in your bank balance.”

 One of the thermodynamic properties of a system is

its internal energy, E, which is the sum of the kinetic
and potential energies of the particles that form the
system. The internal energy of a system can be
understood by examining the simplest possible system:
an ideal gas. Because the particles in an ideal gas do
not interact, this system has no potential energy. The
internal energy of an ideal gas is therefore the sum of
the kinetic energies of the particles in the gas.

Note : The standard unit for internal energy is joule.

 Change in internal energy= heat exchange + work done
 ΔU= Q + W
 ΔU = the total change in internal energy of a system,
 Q = the heat exchanged between a system and its surroundings,
 W = is the work done by or on the system.
Q= 1544 Joules, W= -506.65 joules
ΔU= 1544 joules + (-506.65joules)
ΔU= 1037.35 joules
 Heat transfer = (mass)(specific heat)(temperature change)
 Q = mcΔT
 Q = heat content in Joules
 m = mass
 c = specific heat, J/g °C
 T = temperature
 ΔT = change in temperature
 Heat Transfer Formula Questions:
 1) How much energy is transferred if a block of copper with a mass
of 50 g is heated from 20°C to 100 °C? The specific heat of copper,
Cu, is c = 0.386 J/g°C.
 Answer: The temperature change Δ T = 100 °C - 20 °C = 80 °C.
The mass, m = 50 g. Use the formula for Heat Transfer.
 Q = mcΔT
 Q = (50 g)(0.386 J/g°C)(80 J/g°C)
 Q = 1544 Joules
Work done = (Pressure) ( change in volume)
W- Work done V- Volume
P- Pressure
Pressure = 5 atm
Volume = from 2 liters to 3 liters
W = (-5atm)(3L – 2L)
= (-5atm)(1L)
= -5L atm

We need to convert the answer into joules to be able to find the internal energy.
Conversion factor:
1 L atm = 101.33 joules
W= -5 L atm · 101.33joules/1L atm
= -5 · 101.33joules
 Why/How is the equation of the first law of
thermodynamics in physics differ from
 ΔU= q + w (chemistry)
 ΔU= q – w (physics)

 The reason why physics and chemistry differ in

this equation is that, scientist focuses on
the systems point of view while engineers
focuses on the view point of the
 Note:
 If the total amount of the change of the internal
energy is negative then it is done by the system
 If the work done is negative, then it is done by
the system and vice versa.
 Heat is negative if it is exothermic and positive
if it is endothermic.

100 ºC

Endothermic 25ºC

In chemistry, entropy is represented by the capital letter
S, and it is a thermodynamic function that describes the
randomness and disorder of molecules based on the
number of different arrangements available to them in a
given system or reaction.


 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

states that the state of entropy of the
entire universe, as an isolated system,
will always increase over time. The
second law also states that the changes
in the entropy in the universe can never
be negative.

 To understand why entropy increases and decreases, it

is important to recognize that two changes in entropy
have to considered at all times. The entropy change of
the surroundings and the entropy change of the system
itself. Given the entropy change of the universe is
equivalent to the sums of the changes in entropy of the
system and surroundings:

 ΔSuniv=ΔSsys+ΔSsurr= (qsys/T)+ (qsurr/T)

 In an isothermal reversible expansion, the heat q
absorbed by the system from the surroundings is:

qrev=nRT ln V2/V1

Since the heat absorbed by the system is the amount lost by the
surroundings, qsys=−qsurrqsys=−qsurr.Therefore, for a truly
reversible process, the entropy change is
 If the process is irreversible however, the entropy
change is:

 If we put the two equations for ΔSunivΔSunivtogether for

both types of processes, we are left with the second law of
 ΔSuniv=ΔSsys+ΔSsurr≥0
 where ΔSunivΔSuniv equals zero for a truly reversible
process and is greater than zero for an irreversible
process. In reality, however, truly reversible processes
never happen (or will take an infinitely long time to
happen), so it is safe to say all thermodynamic processes
we encounter everyday are irreversible in the direction
they occur.