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DRUGS and the NATURE of DRUGS

TOPICS
• Drugs (Definition & Nature)
• Commonly Abused Drugs
• History of Illicit Drugs
• Drug Abuse
• Drug Addiction
• Drug Dependence
Drugs (Definition)
• are any substance when taken into the
system of the body may modify one or more
of its functions.

• In pharmacology it is a chemical substance


used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or
diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise
enhance physical or mental well-being.
Nature of Drugs
1. Synthetic Drug – created in the laboratory by combining
other chemicals.
2. Overdose – dose in excess of the prescribed amount.
3. Legal Drugs – considered useful enough to made available
for sale.
a) over-the-counter drugs
b) prescription drugs
4. Illegal Drugs – forbidden and punishable by law. Anyone
caught using, selling or pushing such drugs will be penalized.
Types of Drugs (According to Use)
1. Medication
Medicine is a drug taken to cure and/or ameliorate any
symptoms of an illness or medical condition, or may be
used as preventive that has future benefits but does not
treat any existing or pre existing diseases or symptoms.
Medications are typically produced by pharmaceutical
companies and are often patented to give the developer
exclusive rights to produce them, but they can also be
derived from naturally occurring substance in plants called
herbal medicine. Those that are not patented (or with
expired patents) are called generic drugs since they can be
produced by other companies without restrictions of
licenses from the patent holder.
Dispensing of medication if often regulated by governments
Into three categories:
a) Over-the-counter (OTC) Medications – which are
available in pharmacies and supermarkets without special
restriction.

b) Behind-the-counter (BTC) Medications – which are


dispensed by a pharmacist without needing a doctor’s
prescription.

c) Prescription only medicines (POM) – which must be


prescribed by a licensed medical professional, usually a
physician.
Types of Drugs (According to Use)
2. Recreation
Recreational drugs are chemical substances that
affect the central nervous system, such as opioids
or hallucinogens. They may be used for perceived
beneficial effects on perception, consciousness,
personality, and behavior.
Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive
substances to have fun, for the experience, or to
enhance an already positive experience.
Types of Drugs (According to Use)
3. Spiritual and religious use (Entheogens)
The spiritual and religious use of drugs has
been occurring since the dawn of our species.
Some religions are based completely on the use
of certain drugs. Entheogens are mostly
hallucinogens, being either psychedelics or
deliriants, but some are also stimulants and
sedatives.
Types of Drugs (According to Use)
4. Nootropics (Smart Drugs)
Nootropics are drugs that are claimed to
improve human cognitive abilities. Nootropics are
used to improve the memory, concentration,
thought, mood, learning, and many other things.
Some nootropics are now beginning to be used to
treat certain diseases such as attention-deficit
hyperactivity disorder, Parkinson’s disease, and
Alzheimer’s disease. They are also commonly used
to regain brain function lost during aging.
Ways on How Drugs can be Administered:
Drugs, both medicinal and recreational, can be administered in a number of
ways:
• Bolus, a substance into the stomach to dissolve slowly.
• Inhaled, (breathed into the lungs), as an aerosol or dry power.
• Injected as a solution, suspension or emulsion either: intramuscular,
intravenous, intraperitoneal, intraosseous.
• Insufflation, or snorted into the nose.
• Orally, as a liquid or solid, that is absorbed through the intestines.
• Rectally as a suppository, that is absorbed by the rectum or colon.
• Sublingually, diffusing into the blood through tissues under the tongue.
• Topically, usually as a cream or ointment. A drug administered in this
manner may be given to act locally or systematically.
• Vaginally as a suppository, primarily to treat vaginal infections.
History of Illicit Drugs
17th Century – Opium use was first reported in the Philippines
under Spanish colonial rule.
Latter Part of the 19th Century – Abuse of opium further
increased.
1906 – The non medical use of opium was curbed.
1960’s – Heroin laboratories had begun operation in Manila,
but were producing only small amounts of heroin for the
localmarket.
Early 1970’s – Production of heroin increased but local demand
remained limited.
Late 1980’s – Methamphetamines, known locally as “Shabu”,
and ephedrine hydrochloride started entering the country,
mainly via Hong Kong, and domestic production expanded
sharply to meet a growing demand.
History of Illicit Drugs
1990 – Cannabis was the most widespread drug of abuse both
in terms of consumption and production, heroin abuse
trends were insignificant, while methamphetamine began
to emerge as a drug abuse.
1994 – The number of treatment clients being treated for
shabu addiction increased and outnumbered those
receiving treatment for cannabis problems.
1999 – Shabu accounted for no less than 91.8% of drug abuse
clients in treatment in metropolitan Manila.
2003 – Seizures of methamphetamine hydrochloride increased
to more than 3,000 kilograms from 37 kilograms in 1992.
2005 – Methamphetamine was the most widely abused drug.
• Legislation for Illicit Drug Control
The Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972
Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002
• National Agency
Dangerous Drugs Board (DDB)
*Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) – serves as the
implementing arm of the Board, and shall be responsible for the
efficient and effective law enforcement of all the provisions on
any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential
chemical.
• International Cooperation
1961 – Single Convention on Narcotics Drugs
Drug Abuse – also known as
substance abuse involves the
excessive use of a drug to produce
pleasure or escape reality despite its
destructive effects.
Why people use and
abuse drugs?
Causes of Drug Abuse (Some factors why people
engage in prohibited drugs)
• Curiosity
• Peer influence / Pakikisama
• Security and self-confidence
• Escape from boredom – pleasure
• Family breakdown
• Spiritual search

High – is the feeling that drug users want to get when they
take drugs. There are many types of highs, including a very
happy or spacey feeling or a feeling that someone has
special powers, such as the ability to fly or to see into the
future.
Drug Abuse & Addiction among Teenagers
Teenagers are especially vulnerable to drug abuse for
several reasons:
• In the adolescent brain, the centers for judgment and self-control
are still developing, making many teens less than careful about the
decisions they make and more open to risk-taking.
• Kids think they’re immortal and nothing can kill them (see risk-
taking, above).
• Teens are notoriously conformist, so many are going to want to do
what other kids are doing or what they think will make them look
cool.
• Contemporary adolescence is filled with stress and problems, some
exaggerated and some, unfortunately, experienced fully. Even if a
teen overdramatizes or magnifies a problem, the temptation to self-
medicate is real.
Signs and Symptoms of Drug Abuse
1) Behavioral Symptoms
• Angry outbursts, mood swings, irritability, manic
behavior, or overall attitude change
• Talking incoherently or making inappropriate remarks
• Risky behavior, such as driving under the influence of
drugs, starting a fight, or engaging in unprotected sex
• Secretive or suspicious behavior: frequent trips to the
restroom, basement, or other isolated areas for
privacy while using drugs
• Deterioration of physical appearance and grooming
• Wearing sunglasses and/or long-sleeved shirts
frequently or at inappropriate times
• Frequent absences from work or school; drop-off in
quality of work or grades
• Neglect of family responsibilities
• Evidence of money problems: frequent borrowing,
selling possessions, or stealing items from employer,
home, or school
• Legal problems rooted in drug use: arrest for driving
under the influence, possession of a controlled
substance, disorderly conduct, or stealing
• Using drugs first thing in the morning
• Using increasing doses of a drug
Signs and Symptoms of Drug Abuse
2) Social Symptoms
• Abandoning or spending less time on activities such as hobbies,
sports, and socializing
• Inability to relax or have fun without doing drugs
• Associating with known drug users and dropping friends who
don’t use drugs
• Talking about drugs all the time and encouraging others to use
• Estrangement from old friends and loved ones
3) Physiological Symptoms
• Unexplained injuries and infections
• Blackouts
• Flashbacks
• Delusions
• Paranoia
• Withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, tremors, and sweating
Common Effects of Drug Abuse and Addiction
• Malnutrition
• Skin infections or rashes
• Infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, bronchitis, etc.
• Result to criminal acts
• Pregnancy and abnormal children
1) Neurological Effects 2) Physical Effects
• Impaired memory and learning • Changes in heart rate and blood pressure:
ability slowed from depressants, elevated from
• Poor concentration, confusion other drugs
• Nausea and vomiting
• Panic attacks
• Loss of appetite, abnormal weight loss
• Flashbacks • Increased body temperature
• Impaired motor function • Danger to heart, liver, kidneys
• Seizures • Chest pain, stomach cramps
• Depression • Hormonal changes
Commonly Abused Drugs
1. Hallucinogens - drugs that cause hallucination such as
seeing and feeling things that do not exist.
a) LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethyl amide) also called
“acide”
b) PCP (Pheniclidine) – a depressant and a
hallucinogen. This drug is also called “angel dust”.
c) Peyote – a hallucinogen cactus grown in southwest
Mexico.
d) Mescaline – the chemical in peyote that causes
hallucination.
e) Psilocybin /Psilocin – the two psychoactive
chemicals found in certain mushrooms.
HALLUCINOGENS
Commonly Abused Drugs
2. Stimulants - drugs that increase the heart rate,
blood pressure and rate of breathing.
a) Caffeine – drug that is found in coffee, soft
drinks and cocoa. If taken in large amount one
may suffer ulcers.
b) Amphetamines – drugs that are called “speed”
or “uppers”. When abused cause psychological
dependence, depression, mental illness, nervous
aggression, seizures, coma and death.
c) Cocaine – a drug from the leaves of the Cacao
plant, a shrub that originated in South America.
STIMULANTS
Commonly Abused Drugs
3. Depressants - Drugs that slow down the process of the
body. It lowers body temperature, muscle action and
heart rate.
a) Barbiturates – strong depressant made
from barbituric acid.
b) Tranquilizers – slow down the nerve
activity, relax muscle tension, lower alertness
and cause drowsiness.
c) Methaqualone – a tranquilizer with similar
effects to those of barbituric acid. Also
referred to as “lude”, “714” and “sporns”.
DEPRESSANTS
Commonly Abused Drugs
4. Narcotics - Drugs that induce sleep. They are
addictive and their use results to both physical and
psychological dependence.
a) Codeine – can produce euphoria when abused.
b) Opium – refers to the coagulated juice of the
opium poppy (Papaver Somniferum L.) and
embraces every kind, class and character of
opium.
c) Morphine - a pain reliever. It is highly addictive
when compared to other substances.
d) Heroin – a white crystalline addictive drug.
NARCOTICS
Commonly Abused Drugs
5. Steroids - these drugs are available legally
only by prescription, to treat conditions that
occur when the body produces abnormally
low amounts of testosterone, such as delayed
puberty and some types of impotence.
It has two classes:
• the androgenic steroids (promotes masculine
characteristics)
• anabolic (tissue building).
STEROIDS
Harmful Effects of Steroids:
• Brain Cancer, depression, • Nausea and vomiting
violent behavior • Kidney disease
• Yellowing of eyes and skin • Abdominal pain, diarrhea
• Bad breath • Testicular shrinkage &
• Severe acne impotence (men), irregular
• Deepening of voice (women) menstrual cycles (women)
• Heart attack stroke • Bruising infections (from
• Development of breasts injection)
(men), breast reduction • Stunted growth
(women) • Weak tendons
• Liver tumors and liver cancers
Commonly Abused Drugs
6. Synthetic Drugs - are chemical psychoactive
substances produced in laboratories. They
include amphetamines, ecstasy and LSD.
These drugs can cause brain damage.
*Shabu (Methamphetamine Hydrochloride) - refers
to the drug having such chemical composition,
including any of its isomers or derivatives in any
form.
SYNTHETIC DRUGS
Harmful Effects of Ecstasy:
• Brain damage, addiction, • Liver damage
severe anxiety, paranoia, • Loss of appetite, vomiting
depression • Kidney damage
• Blurred vision • Increases body
• Teeth clenching temperature, heat stroke
• Sweating, chills, fainting • Nausea
• Lung failure • Muscle tension
• Increases heart rate and
blood pressure, heart
failure
Commonly Abused Drugs
7. Marijuana - Comes from leaves and flowers of
Indian hemp plant. The scientific name is
Cannabis Sativa. This drug is a stimulant,
depressant and hallucinogen. Har shish is
purified marijuana. It causes blood-shot eyes and
dry mouth, changes the ability to move, see and
think, and reduces sperm reproduction, changes
in mood and mental abilities, and causes anxiety
leading to mental illness, hallucination, and
irritability due to withdrawal.
MARIJUANA
Harmful Effects of Marijuana:
• Reduces motivation
• Paranoia & anxiety
• Sleepy eyes
• Dry mouth
• Throat cancer
• Lung cancer & disease
• Increases heart rate
• Increases appetite
• Increases blood pressure
• Weakens immune system
• Decreasing sex drive & sperm count (men), irregular
menstrual cycles & birth defects (women)
Commonly Abused Drugs
8. Inhalants - drugs that are also called “Volatile solvents”.
a) Nitrate – legally prescribed drug used to lower \
blood temperature.
b) Butyl Nitrate – an illegal drug which is also
called “locker room”, “rush” or “poppers”.
c) Nitrous Oxide – eases pain. Due to its smell, this
drug is also called “whip pits”, “laughing gas”, or
“peppermint gas”.
d) Household Products – found in our common
houses such as nail polishes, thinners, varnishes,
etc which can cause intoxication.
INHALANTS
Harmful Effects of Inhalants:
• Permanent brain damage, memory loss
• Hearing loss
• Nose bleeds, loss of smell
• Slurred speech
• Suffocation, sudden death
• Irregular heartbeat, heart attack and death
• Nausea and vomiting
• Liver damage
• Kidney damage
• Muscle weakness and cramping
• Abdominal pain
• Involuntary passing of urine and feces
• Bone marrow depression
Drug Addiction - The disorder of addiction
involves the progression of acute drug
use to the development of drug-seeking
behavior.
*Difference to Drug Abuse - Someone can
abuse drugs without being addicted but the
opposite is not true. It is not possible to be
addicted to drugs without abusing them.
Drugs Causing Addiction
• Stimulants:
– Amphetamine and Methamphetamine
– Caffeine
– Cocaine
– Nicotine
• Sedatives and Hypnotics:
– Alcohol
– Barbiturates
– Benzodiazepines, particularly alprazolam, clonazepam,
temazepam, and nimetazepam
– Methaqualone and the related quinazolinone sedative-hypnotics
• Opiate and Opioid analgesics
– Morphine and Codeine, the two naturally-occurring opiate
analgesics
– Semi-synthetic opiates, such as Heroin (Diacetylmorphine),
Oxycodone, and Hydromorphone
 Anabolic steroids
Treatment for Drug Addiction
Treatments for drug addiction vary widely
according to the types of drugs involved, amount of
drugs used, duration of the drug addiction, medical
complications and the social needs of the individual.
Determining the best type of recovery program
for an addicted person depends on a number of
factors, including: personality, drugs of addiction,
concept of spirituality or religion, mental or physical
illness, and local availability and afford ability of
programs.
Drug Dependence – (or physical dependence)
refers to a state resulting from habitual use
of a drug, where negative physical
withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt
discontinuation.
*Difference from Drug addiction - Physical
dependence is different from drug addiction. The
latter is often characterized by a psychological need
for a drug, while the former can often be the result of
legal, long-term use of medicine.
Prevention of Drug Abuse, Drug Addiction, and
Drug Dependence
• Maintain good health and personal decision
• Use drugs properly and appropriately preferably with
doctor’s advice
• Accept and respect yourself for what you are and your
family
• Engage in wholesome activity
• Learn to relate effectively with others
• Seek professional help
• Familiarize yourself with dangerous drugs
• Avoid friends that may lead you to use drugs
• Always trust and have faith in God because he will direct
your path
Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse / Misuse
School-based prevention
• Among school-age children and adolescents who may be
at risk of non-medical use of pharmaceuticals. It is
suggested that physicians, parents, pharmacists, school
nurses, social workers, counselors, and principals be
educated about the prescription drug misuse.

• Other school administrators such as school nurses, social


workers, etc. can help monitor which students are
prescribed medications and may be at risk for
prescription drug diversion.
Increasing the role of the physician
• Prescription drug abuse prevention is an
important part of patient care.
• Accurate screening and increases in
medication should be careful monitored
by physicians as well as the patient
receiving the medication.
Increasing the role of the patient
• Patients can be challenged to provide a complete
medical history and a description of the reason for
the visit so that their physician be accurate in the
assessment and treatment of any illness.

• Patients should also try to thoroughly read and follow


the directions for careful use of pharmaceuticals.
Become familiar with any side effects of common to
the use a particular prescription drug.

• Also, ask your pharmacist or physician of any adverse


potential interactions among the medications you
take and as always, do not change or disrupt dosages
unless discussed with your health care provider in
advance.
Warning Signs of Potential Prescription Drug Abuse
 You take more pain medication than your doctor
has prescribed.
 You request prescriptions from multiple doctors.
 You use alcohol or other medications to increase
the effects of the pain medication.
 You take pain medication to deal with other
problems, such as anxiety or stress.
 Your doctor, friends or loved ones express concern
about your use of pain medication.