Designing of Air Cooled Heat Exchangers

By Mehaboob Basha N.B

Purpose ‡ To provide some general information on air-cooled heat exchangers ‡ Designing a air cooled heat exchanger

.Definition ‡ An Air Cooled Heat Exchanger is a heat transfer device for rejecting heat from a hot fluid directly to fan-blowing ambient air.

The most evident advantages are: ‡ No problem arising for thermal and chemical pollution of cooling fluids. . ‡ Flexibility for any plant location and plot plan arrangement like installation over other units.

Fields of application of air-cooled heat exchangers Oil and gas refineries Compressor stations for gas pipelines Subsurface gas storage facilities Plants producing polychlorvinyl. polyethylene. glass fibre. biplastic ‡ Caustic soda plants ‡ By-product coke plants ‡ Ammonia transportation and handling plants ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .

CONFIGURATION ‡ Arrangement of tube bundles and provision of air flow ‡ Bundles construction and flow configurations ‡ Finned tube construction .

‡ less fouling. ‡ lower noise at grade. ‡ less hot air recirculation.INDUCED DRAFT UNIT ‡ The induced draft unit gives a steady and durable thermal performance. . ‡ better air distribution.

.FORCED DRAFT UNIT ‡ The forced draft unit allows an easy access for maintenance to the fans and to the bundles. ‡ lower capital cost. Furthermore. ‡ the fans remain in the cold ambient air .

‡ Typical heat exchanger .

A typical air cooled heat exchanger .

components may be listed as 1. Outlet header on the other side collects the process fluid. Inlet header which distributes the process fluid in to tubes 3. . 2.mechanical components of heat exchanger A air cooled heat exchanger is shown in the figure 1. Tubes with fins as basic component which is made up of carbon steel thru which process fluid at high temperature flow and heat exchange takes place.

Tube sheet are found at the inlet and outlet of the tubes and tube length ends at the tube sheets. .‡ Above three are basic components of air cooled exchanger and the rest are auxiliary. Gasket is employed in order to avoid leakage. Tube support which the support the tubes. number of tube support varies with length of heat exchanger. tube bundles are lifted for cleaning by these holes. Lifting eye is the small grove found on the tube support. such as side wall which holds the tube bundle structure.

The whole assembly is usually mounted on legs or a pipe rack. Usually.How are they constructed? ‡ Typically. depending on whether the air is pushed or pulled through the tube bundle. . The fans can be either forced or induced draft. which directs the air. One or more fans provide cooling air. The space between the fan(s) and the tube bundle is enclosed by a plenum chamber. the air blows upwards through a horizontal tube bundle. an air-cooled exchanger for process use consists of a finned-tube bundle with rectangular box headers on both ends of the tubes.

The minimum tube wall thickness vary with the material. which are 1. VIII of the ASME Code.0". or more exotic alloys. In some cases the design pressure and design temperature of the exchanger govern the minimum thickness. The minimum preferred outside diameter is one inch. . 1.5" OD. Admiralty brass. since they are pressure vessels What kinds of finned tubes are used? ‡ The tubes can be of virtually any material available. Some manufacturers sometimes use smaller tubes.What standards air used for Air-Cooled Exchangers? ‡ First.25". stainless steel. such as carbon steel. or 1. but most of the process coolers have tubes. almost all air coolers are built to Sect.

Thermal performance calculations BASIC EXPERSSION FOR THE TOTAL RATE OF HEAT TRANSFER . Q ! ATU r (TM AT Ur is the total external surface are of the tubes without fins. is the overall heat transfer coefficient mean temperature difference. (T .

r 2Pt Di Ef .calculation of overall heat transfer .r   AT AF is external area of the fin and is the external surface of the tube between fins . r = Enhanced airside heat transfer coefficient based on tube outer diameter.i t = thermal conductivity of tube =heat transfer coefficient for fluid being cooled based on inner diameter. =contact thermal resistance between fins and tube. 1 1 Dr Dr 1 Dr !  ln   Rc Ur Ea.i Di E a. E a . Rc E f .

L ! f AF AW Ea .

Calculation of mean temperture difference.Calculate R and P R! McCpc MhCph c.out . 1.

T ! .

in c.out .out Tc. T h.

T P! .

in 2.T  Tc. .in  Tc.values R and P read off the values of F from the part of the combined chart(F0-NTU-P).

calculate from the expression (TLM ?T T  .3.


T ! ln?T  T .


in c. T h.out A A  Tc.out h.out h.out h. calculate the mean temperature difference from (TM ! F(TLM .in c.

Problem description ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ tc_i=313 air inlet temperature [k] th_i=383 process fluid inlet temperature [k] u_a=6 air velocity[m/s] m_h=7 mass flow rate of process fluid[kg/s] " th_o=368* outlet temperature[k]" process fluid is hydrocarbon heat transfer rate=218400 w .

physical understanding ‡ Design criteria .Sizing and designing ‡ Sizing of the heat exchanger tubes ‡ Assumption are to be made based on 1. Data available 3. type of exchanger 2.

four tubes in a row .one pass and unmixed stream 3. 2. Cross-flow unit . fins are made up of aluminum 4.ASSUMPTION: 1. Mass flow is equally divided in to number of tubes.

Sizing ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Outer diameter of the tube[m] Internal diameter of the tube[m] Number of tubes in one passes Number of rows Number of passes Total number of tubes Number of tubes in a column Length of the tubes[m] Space between the fins[m] Thickness of the fins[m] Thermal resistance of aluminum [w/m.k] .

Design Criteria ‡ Heat exchanger was designed in order to perform required duty with minimum cost of heat transfer ‡ Paikert(1983) sugested internal htc 200 w/m2.k then TSAFT/TSABT=5 internal htc 1000 w/m2.k then TSAFT/TSABT=13 internal htc 5000 w/m2.k then TSAFT/TSABT=23 .

4 %" nusselt number of process fluid" alpha_h=(nu_h*k_h)/di %"heat transfer coeffiecient of the process fluid" a_t=n_t*l*pi*dr %" total area of the `tube without fins" a=a_t*12 %"condition for min cost of heat transfer paikert(1983) .procedure ‡ u_h=m_h/(np*(pi/4)*(di^2)*rho_h) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ %"velocity of hydro corbon" re_h=rho_h*u_h*di/mhu_h %Reynolds number of process fluid" nu_h=0.8)*(pr_h)^0.023*((re_h)^0.

042739 % height of the ‡ h=(d_f-dr)/2 fin" .a_w=n_t*l*pi*dr*s/(s+w) ‡ a_f=a-a_w ‡ %" area between the fins" %" area between the fins" solve('d_f^2+2*d_f*w(a_f*2*(s+w))/(n_t*l*pi)-dr^2)=0') d_f=0.

4e-3 outer diameter of the tube[m] internal diameter of the tube[m] number of tubes in one pass" number of rows number of passes total number of tubes number of tubes in a column length of the tubes[m] space between the fins[m] thickness of the fins[m] .Result dr=24e-3 di=20e-3 np=88 nr=4 p=1 n_t=88 nt=n_t/nr l=2 s=1.9e-3 w=0.

k ‡ percentage of error calculation=0.k ‡ overall heat transfer co-efficient = 291.5178 w/m2.1891 w/m2.4027 w/m2.k ‡ heat transfer co-efficient on tube side =535.3332 m/s ‡ heat transfer co-efficient on air side = 115.07 ‡ Pressure drop= 215.‡ velocity of process fluid= 0.5326 N/m2 .

Thank you .

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