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Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices

Related to Community-Acquired Pneumonia


Among Mothers Residing in Larion Alto,
Tuguegarao City

ALINGOD, ANGELA
TOUNSI, RAMI
VEA, CASEY
3rd Year Medical Students
CHAPTER

1
INTRODUCTION
Introduction
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) continues to be a major public health
concern in the world. It is a serious condition associated with significant
morbidity and potential long-term mortality (Ramirez, et. al., 2011). In the
Philippines, the disease still persist as a significant cause of morbidity and
mortality.

CAP is an acute lower respiratory disease infection of the lungs that is caused by a
wide range of organisms which include bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoans
(Kasper, et. Al. 2015). The disease is treatable as well as preventable thru early
recognition of symptoms and thru administration of vaccines. Mortality from the
diseases results from delay of giving initial medication to prevent progression of
the infection and if the individual does not have immunization. This means that
death from having the diseases is both unnecessary and reasonably avoidable.
Introduction
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Lower respiratory infection, including CAP, were the fourth leading cause of
mortality worldwide (Yoon, 2014). It has estimated number of victims of 2.81
million and were the leading cause of years of life lost in 1990 and second in
2010 (Yoon, 2014 & Lozano, et. al, 2012). CAP is also the disease that has the
biggest socio-economic burden worldwide. Measured using diasbility-adjusted-
life years, CAP causes 94.5 million DALYs in 2004 (WHO, 2004). Furthermore,
the disease is still the leading cause of childhood mortality in developing countries
and the most common cause of hospitalization. Data reveals that in 2011, a total
of 1.3 million all around the world died from pneumonia and mostly occurs in
poor or developing countries.
Introduction
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Despite the increasing socio-economic status in the Philippines, CAP and pneumonia
in general is still one of the leading causes of death in all ages. According to the
Philippine College of Chest Physicians in their brochure published in 2016, CAP
remains to be the leading cause of death from an infectious disease. Overall, CAP
is sixth leading cause of death and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in
the country.
Introduction
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

According to the Department of Health as published in their website on June 3,


2016, Pneumonia in general is the leading cause of infant mortality in the country
with 3,146 total deaths with overall percentage of 14.3%. In their extensive
study of identification of risk factors of CAP, Lima and colleagues (2016), there
are two main risk factors causing CAP in the community: Child related factors and
Sociodemographic factors. Child related factors that can cause CAP include
birthweight, prematurity, exclusive breastfeeding, nutritional status, previous
respiratory disease and/or allergy, previous hospitalization, and vaccination. On
the other hand, the socioeconomic factors include maternal education, household
crowding, basic sanitation, maternal age, smoking in the home, maternal smoking,
monthly family income. It is noticeable from the identified risk factors that maternal
involvement is a great indicator of whether children can have CAP or not.
Introduction
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Moreover, the standard management of pneumonia requires hospitalization for


supportive treatment including oxygen therapy, airway suctioning and fluid and
nutritional management, antimicrobials and careful monitoring (Scott, et. al,
2012 & Ferdous, et. al.,2014) It is therefore critical for an appropriate health
care for pneumonia be present in local and rural community due to the fact that
there is an inadequate number of healthcare workers and facility. What’s even
worse is the inability of the primary caregivers to identify or the lack of
knowledge about the danger signs and symptoms of the disease is another cause
of delayed seeking care for childhood pneumonia. Many literatures have cited
the prevalence and the health consequence of having the disease but very few
number of literatures have cited the knowledge, attitudes and practices of
primary caregivers in local or rural communities
Introduction
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In a Filipino family, mothers are the primary caregivers. These mothers are
therefore expected to manage the family members as well as their home. It is
obvious therefore that these mothers are more likely to be the ones being
exposed to childbearing information such as presented in mass media, reading
materials and parenting seminars provided in schools and communities (Alampay,
2011).

Therefore, the researchers feels that it is appropriate to assess the knowledge,


attitudes and practices of mothers in the community regarding community-
acquired pneumonia, specifically in Larion Alto, Tuguegarao City which is the
Cagayan
State University, College of Medicine extension site or adopted barangay.
Introduction
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The present study aims to understand the mothers’ knowledge on the signs and
symptoms of pneumonia as well as the healthcare seeking behaviors in terms of
treatment, management, control and prevention of the disease. Moreover, the
study also aims to understand the attitude and identify the practices of the
mothers regarding CAP.
Introduction
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Generally, this study aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices
of mothers in Larion Alto, Tuguegarao City on community acquired pneumonia
(CAP).

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:


• Sociodemographic profile
• Age
• Marital Status
• Educational Attainment
• Nature of employment
• Type of Family
• Sociodeconomic profile
• Average family income
• household size
• household appliances
Introduction
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Generally, this study aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices
of mothers in Larion Alto, Tuguegarao City on community acquired pneumonia
(CAP).

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

What is the level of knwoledge of the respondents on CAP


along
• Treatment and management
• Prevention and control
Introduction
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Generally, this study aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices
of mothers in Larion Alto, Tuguegarao City on community acquired pneumonia
(CAP).

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

What are the levels attitudes of the respondents on CAP?

What are the levels practices of the respondents on CAP?


Introduction
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Generally, this study aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices
of mothers in Larion Alto, Tuguegarao City on community acquired pneumonia
(CAP).

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

Is there a significant difference on the level of Knowledge,


Attitudes and Practices of mothers on CAP when grouped
according to profile variables?

Is there association between mother's KAP on CAP?


Introduction
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

This research focuses on the determination of the knowledge,


attitudes and practices related to community-acquired pneumonia
among the mothers residing in Larion Alto, Tuguegarao city. As
CAP is a seriously fatal but preventable disease occurring world
wide, our community needs a local action in order to overcome the
hindrances and challenges in reducing pneumonia related deaths.
This goal, in long term, comes in parallel with the end target of
sustainable development goal fund to end preventable child
deaths due to diseases such as pneumonia.
Introduction
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Based on their publication uploaded on 2013, the World Health


Organization and UNICEF calls for the reduction of incidence of
pneumonia by 75% in children less than 5 years of age by 2025.
Furthermore, the organization also calls for the reduction of
mortality from pneumonia in children in less than 5 years of age to
fewer than 3 per 1000 live births.
Introduction
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Though it is noted that in order for these goals to be met, factors


such as political will and mobilization of additional resources are
significantly needed. Furthermore, since the integrated Global
Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and
Diarrhea (GAPPD)provides the integrated framework of key
interventions to protect, prevent and treat diseases such as
pneumonia in children they call the attention of national
governments as well as community level groups and individuals for
their participation for the effective implementation of the strategy.
Introduction
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Thus, in order for the aforementioned goals to be met firstly in the


locality, the resreachers need to identify their respondents’
socio-demographic profiles and their attitudes towards pneumonia.
Secondly, the researchers need to conduct a survey through either
face-to-face interviews or self-administered questionnaires. Third
the data will be gathered and will be analyzed analyzed,
interpreted and broken down. Lastly, when all the analysis of the
data are done, then health promotion activities in the community
will be conducted based on the result of this study.
Introduction
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Based on their publication uploaded on 2013, the World Health


Organization and UNICEF calls for the reduction of incidence of
pneumonia by 75% in children less than 5 years of age by 2025.
Furthermore, the organization also calls for the reduction of
mortality from pneumonia in children in less than 5 years of age to
fewer than 3 per 1000 live births.
Introduction
RESEARCH PARADIGM

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE


Socio-demographic Profile Level of knowledge, attitudes
• Mother’s age and practices on
• Marital status community-acquired pneumonia
• Educational attainment
• Nature of Employment
• Type of family
Socio-economic Profile
• Average family income
• Household size
• Number of appliances
Introduction
SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

The purpose of the study is to determine and assess the knowledge, attitudes
and practices of mothers residing in Barangay Larion Alto, Tuguegarao City
regarding community-acquired pneumonia or CAP.

This researchers will select respondents from the site and will be interviewed
based on their knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding CAP. The
selection of the the respondents will depend on the usage of the following
inclusion criteria:
Introduction
SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

Mother who have at least resided in barangay Larion Alto, Tuguegarao


city for at least 1 year;

Mothers who are aged from 15 to 49 years old with children less than 12
years old regardless of the number of children;

Mothers who will give a written informed consent to the researchers


stating that they are willingly want to participate in the study; and lastly

Mothers having children infleucned by the disease or those who did not
aged from1one to 12 years old.
Introduction
SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

Furthermore, this study will only employ one exclusioon criteria and it is
motherswho did not want to be involved in the study aged below 15 years
old and above 49 years old.
Introduction
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

With the ongoing campaign of the World Health Organization and


UNICEF in combating unnecessary mortality from pneumonia in
general, the researchers find it necessary and appropriate to
assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers residing in
Larion Alto, Tuguegarao City regarding community acquired
pneumonia as it will help them in the long term to safeguard each
and every family members from acquiring CAP. Moreover, this study
will benefit the following:
Introduction
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Mothers in Larion Alto. As primary caregivers in the family, this


study will directly benefit the mothers in the community of Barangay
Larion Alto as it will help them ensure the safety of their children by
subjecting them to vaccination programs for pneumonia as well as
have an eye for early danger signs of the disease. Moreover, this
study, once useful, will help these mothers to be aware about the
disease in order to be able to protect, control and prevent their
children from acquiring pneumonia.
Introduction
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Barangay Health Center of Barangay Larion Alto,


Tuguegarao City. This study is particularly useful for the
barangay health center of the aforementioned community because
this study will provide an absolute set of data regarding the
knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers in their locality. For
this, the community health center will then be able to facilitate
community level awareness campaign or other forms of information
dissemination activities fro the prevention and contorl of CAP.
Introduction
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Department of Health. This will be important for the DOH as it


will serve as a pool of information for the department regarding
the current status of awareness of the mothers in poor and far flung
areas regarding CAP. Moreover, this study will provide and insight
for the department about the knowledge, attitudes and practices of
mothers in local communities thereby using the information from this
study to plan for programs that has better health outcomes and also
will be able to plan their interventions such as vaccinations that
protect infants and children which are most susceptible in the
community
Introduction
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Department of Social Welfare and Development. Lastly, this


study will be able to benefit Department of Social Welfare and
Development as this will give them information that the barangay
Larion Alto, Tuguegarao City as probably at risk for pneumonia
and may then start same studies and interventions to other
communities within the city and within the province of Cagayan.
CHAPTER

2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
CHAPTER

3
METHODOLOGY
Methodology
RESEARCH DESIGN

This study will utilize descriptive correlational research


design to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices
of mothers in Larion Alto, Tuguegarao City on
community-acquired pneumonia with questionnaire as a
principle data tool.
Methodology
LOCAL AND DURATION OF THE STUDY

This study will be conducted within the vicinity of Barangay


Larion Alto, Tuguegarao City. It will be performed for six
months, starting from January to June of 2019 or
corresponding
to the second semester of the school year 2018-2019. The
analysis of the data will be finalized at College of Medicine,
Cagayan State University-Carig Campus.
Methodology
RESPONDENTS

The respondents of this study will be determined from the


total number of mothers in the community of Barangay
Larion Alto, Tuguegarao city. They will be selected based
on the inclusion-exclusion criteria presented earlier.
Methodology
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

This study will use the purposive sampling technique to


gather the particular answers of the respondents

Respondents will be informed and guided about the


objectives of the study and will also be provided optional
informants to ensure confidentiality with regards to their
profiles.
Methodology
INSTRUMENTATION

A questionnaire will be used to investigate knowledge,


attitude, and practices of mothers regarding
community-acquired pneumonia. The questionnaire will be
divided into three broad sections:
Methodology
INSTRUMENTATION

A questionnaire will be used to investigate knowledge,


attitude, and practices of mothers regarding
community-acquired pneumonia. The questionnaire will be
divided into three broad sections:
Methodology
INSTRUMENTATION

socio-demographic information, which include age,


educational level, marital status, and total number of
children,

socioeconomic information, which included type household


and sources of income, and

information regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices


towards pneumonia
Methodology
DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE

The researcher will request for the approval by the Dean


of the college throught the research coordinator and
program chair. Another request will be sent for approval
from the Barangay Captain of Larion Alto, Tuguegarao City.

Once approved, the researchers will visit Larion Alto,


Tuguegarao City and identify respondents. After which, they
will ask for consent and proceed to distribution of the
questionnaires. Same procedure will be done with other
respondents
Methodology
DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS - DATA MANAGEMENT

All study participants will receive a unique participant


identification number that is recorded on the questionnaire.
Collected data from the study will be thoroughly checked and
validated for accuracy and completeness and will be stored
in a database established using Microsoft Excel. Also, the
data will be backed up at a flashdrives before and after
analysis. Data on the questionnaire will be kept under lock
and key while electronically stored data will be password
protected
Methodology
DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS - DATA ANALYSIS

The quantitative data will be analyzed using IBM SPSS


Version 23.0.0. Descriptive statistics including mean, standard
deviation, two-way cross-tabulation and frequency distribution
will be performed. In testing of differentiation between groups
of analysis will be done using the ANOVA test and Pearson
Correlations for testing associations of selected factors with
mother’s knowledge of pneuminia, attitudes and their practices.
Specific analysis within groups was done using LSD multiple test
to modify significance for dependent factors and affect
modification
Questionnaire
KNOWLEDGE OF THE RESPONDENTS TO MANILA
Questionnaire
KNOWLEDGE OF THE
RESPONDENTS ON CAP
Questionnaire
ATTITUDES OF THE RESPONDENTS
TO MANILA
Questionnaire
ATTITUDES OF THE
RESPONDENTS TO
MANILA
Questionnaire
ATTITUDES OF THE
RESPONDENTS TO
MANILA
Thank you!