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1. AMRY MUQTASID (171230149)
2. NURLITA ARISTIANI (171230173)
3. SUTIHAT (171230172)

The translation procedures, as depicted by Nida (1964) are as follow:

1. Technical procedures
Analisis of the source language (SL) and target languages (TL), a through study of the source language text before
making attempts translate it. Making judgments of the semantic and syntactic apporoximations.
2. Organizational procedures:
constant reevaluation of the attempt made, contrasting it with the existing available translations of the same
text done by other translators

1. Transference: it is the process of transferring an SL word to a TL text.

Example : Serious (inggris) Serius (Indonesia)
2. Naturalization: It adapts the SL word first to the normal pronunciation, then to the
normal morphology of the TL.
Example : *gear in Indonesia language is gir
*bus in Indonesia language is bis
3. Cultural Equivalent: It means replacing a cultural word in the SL wiyth a TL one.
Example : Pajamas party (menginap bersama)
4. Functional equivalent: This common procedure, applied to cultural words,
requires the use of a culturefree word, sometimes with a new specific term, it
therefore neutrlises or generalizes the SL word, and sometimes adds a particular
Example : contractor’ translated into Persian is ‘Moghatekar’
(kontraktor diterjemahkan dalam bahasa Persia sebagai Moghatekar)
5. Descriptive equivalent: in this procedure the meaning of the SL is explained in several words.
Example : Lothek = the traditional foods from Java that’s made by peanut sauce and boiled vegetables.
(Lokhek adalah makanan tradisional dari jawa yang dibuat dari saus kacang dan rebusan sayuran)
6. Componential analysis: it means "comparing an SL word with a TL word which has a similar meaning but is
not an obvious one-to-one equivalent, by demonstrating first their common and then their differing sense
Example : Sweet talk or nice words in talking
(Sweet talk atau nice words in talking adalah kata-kata manis)
7. Synonymy: it is a "near TL equivalent." Here economy trumps accuracy
Example : Right is have same meaning with true
(Right mempunyai makna yang sama dengan true yang berarti benar)
8. Through-translation: it is the literal translation of common collocations, names of organizations and
components of compounds.
Example : First Name in Indonesia language is nama depan
9. Shifts or transpositions: it involves a change in the grammar from SL to TL, for instance, (i) change
from singular to plural, (ii) the change required when a specific SL structure does not exist in the TL, (iii)
change of an SL verb to a TL word, change of an SL noun group to a TL noun and so forth.
Example : There’s a reason for life → Hay una razón para vivir (Ada alasan untuk menjalani hidup).
10. Modulation: it occurs when the translator reproduces the message of the original text in the TL text in
conformity with the current norms of the TL, since the SL and the TL may appear dissimilar in terms of
Example : You are going to have a son = anda akan jadi ayah
11. Recognized translation: it occurs when the translator "normally uses the official or the generally
accepted translation of any institutional term.
Example : UNO = PBB
12. Paraphrase: in this procedure the meaning of the SL is explained. Here the explanation is much more
detailed than that of descriptive equivalent.
Example : Halloween = malam pada tanggal 31 oktober dimana anak anak memakai kostum seram
dan mengunjungi rumah rumah untuk mengumpulkan permen.
13. Couplets: it occurs when the translator combines two different procedures.
Example : data (data) = transference and naturalization
• Krings (1986) classifies translation strategies into: 1) understanding strategies (cOmprehension), which include
inferencing and use of reference books, 2) searching for equivalents (especially interlingual and intralingual
associations), 3) equivalent examinations (such as comparing language texts) source and target language text),
4) decision making (choosing between two matching solutions), and 5) reduction (for example to a portion of
text that is specific or metaphorical). Gerloff (1986) also gives almost the same classification that the translation
strategy consists of categories: 1) problem identification, 2) linguistic analysis, 3) information retrieval and
storage, 4) search and election information, 5) drawing conclusions on content text and decision making, 6) text
contextualization, and 7) task monitoring
1. Word for word translation is a type of translation gthat is basically stillvery tied to the word level.
Example : 1. look little guy you all shouldn’t be doing that.
2. Liat kecil anak, kamu semua harus tidak melakukan itu.
2. Literal Translation The SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TL equivalents but the
lexical words are again translated singly, out of context. As a pre-translationprocess, this indicates the problems to
be solved.
Example : 1. the sooner or the later the weather will change
2. lebih cepat atau lebih lambat cuaca akan berubah
3. Free Translation is translation that is always bound by a system of linguistics
Example : 1. The flowers in the garden
2. bunga – bunga yang tumbuh dikebun
Semantic translation is the process of using semantic information to aid in the translation of data model to another
representation or data model.
Example: He is a book-worm
(Dia laki-laki adalah orang yang suka sekali membaca)
Communicative translation seeks to translate contextual meanings in the text of the source language, both aspects of language and aspects of its
contents , so that they can be accepted and undrestood by the reader.
Example : Awas anjing galak!
It can translate become: (beware of dog!, than beware of the vicious dog!)
Idiomatic translation uses the natural form in the target language text according to their grammatical construction and lexical choices.
Example : You look cheery mood
(Kamu terlihat ceria )
This is the freest form of translation mainly used for plays and poerty: themes/ characters/ plots preserved , source language culture converted to target
language culture and text is rewritten.

In faithful translation the translator seeks to reproduce the contextual meaning of the original text within the boundaries of the grammatical structure of
the target text.
Example:*Ben is too well aware that he is naughty
(ben menyadari terlalu baik bahwa ia nakal)
*I have quite a few friends
(saya mempunyai sama sekali tidak banyak teman)