You are on page 1of 156

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

What Is Strategy?
A. Traditional strategy
Strategy as “the science and art military command as applied to the
overall planning and conduct of large-scale combat operation (America
Heritage Dictionary)
As determination of the basic long term goals and objectives of
enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of
resources necessary for carrying out these goal (Harvard’s Alfred
Chandler)

B. A New Approach
Strategy that stress the role of planning ignore the fact that strategies can
emerge from within organization without any formal plan (pattern in a
stream of decision or action, ex: the pattern being a product of whatever
intended strategies (planned) are actually realized and of any emergent
(unplaned) strategies. (Mintzberg)
The Hows That
Define a Firm's Strategy
• How to please customers
• How to respond to changing
market conditions
Strategy
• How to out compete rivals is HOW
• How to grow the business to . . .

• How to manage each functional piece of the business and


develop needed organizational capabilities
• How to achieve strategic and financial objectives
Perubahan ke Arah Era Baru

Perubahan Dampak Karakteristik


Lingkungan Bisnis • Pelanggan semakin terdidik
dan semakin rewel
Customer • Pelanggan menjadi sangat
• Globalisasi pemilih (choosy)
Takes
• Pelanggan yang
Charge
• Liberalisasi menentukan produk dan
perdagangan jasa yang dibutuhkan
• Pelanggan menuntut
perlakuan individual
Competition
• Perkembangan • Persaingan berskala global
intensifies
teknologi • Perubahan rules of the
(terutama game
teknologi • Persaingan berbasis
informasi) knowledge atau kompetensi
Changes
becomes
constant • Perubahan menjadi
sesuatu yang normal terjadi
• Deregulasi • Tuntutan fleksibilitas
semakin besar
• Perubahan lain
Old Business Environment
New Business Environment
Misi dan Tujuan

Keunggulan kompetitif Pemilihan Lingkungan Eksternal


(kekuatan dan kelemahan) Strategik (kesempatan dan ancaman)
SWOT
Proses
• Strategi Korporat
Balikan • Strategi Bisnis Manajemen
• Strategi
Fungsional Strategik

Perancangan Perancangan
Implementasi
Struktur Sistem Pengendalian
Strategi
Organisasional Strategik

Matching struktur dan sistem dengan strategi


Intended Strategy

Mission and
Goals

External Strategic Internal


Analysis Choise Analysis

Organization
Implementation
Emergent Strategy

External Mission and Internal


Analysis Goals Analysis

Strategic Choise
Does it fit ?

Organization
grassroots
Mission and Major Goals

The mission sets out why the organization exists and what it should be
doing, for example : mission a national airline might be defined as
satisfying the needs of individual and business transportavelers for high
speed transportation at the reseonable price to all major population
centre of North America.

Major Goals spesify what the organization hopes to fulfill in medium to


long term example maximaze profit, maximizing stock holder wealth.
Major goal of Coca Cola has been to put a coke within an arm’s reach of
every consumer in the world.
Menjadi Sehat dan Kelihatan Menarik
Misi
Goal Mengurangi Berat Badan
(Tujuan)
Objective Berat badan turun 5 Kg
(Tujuan) per 1 September 1999

Strategi Diet dan Olahraga

•Menghindari dessert, roti manis, dan mentega


Tindakan-Tindakan •Mengurangi makan nasi dan gula
atau Aktivitas •Renang setiap hari

Timbang berat badan setiap pagi,


Pengendalian jika ada kemajuan-do nothing; Jika
tidak, pertimbangkan strategi dan tindakan lain

Penghargaan atau Balas-Jasa Beli baju baru


Mission Statement

• The mission of a business is defined as


the fundamental, unique purpose that
sets a business apart from other firms of
its type and identifies the scope of its
operations in products and market
terms.
• The mission is a general; enduring
statement of company intent.
Pendekatan Stakeholders
dalam Pengembangan Misi

• Manajer dalam usahanya untuk


dapat mendefinisikan MISI
korporat dengan baik perlu
memperhatikan kepentingan dari
stakeholder.
• Social Responsibility, sebagai salah
satu kepentingan stakeholder.
Pernyataan misi bisa mencakup:
• Spesifikasi kebutuhan pelanggan yang
dipuaskan melalui produk/jasa
perusahaan
• Indentifikasi kelompok pelanggan (pasar)
• Spesifikasi daerah geografis
• Identifikasi teknologi inti
• Ekspresi komitmen terhadap
pertumbuhan, kelangsungan hidup dan
profitabilitas
• Spesifikasi berbagi elemen filosofi
perusahaan
• Identifikasi konsep-diri perusahaan
• Identifikasi citra publik yang ingin
dibentuk perusahaan
Core Purpose Is A Company’s Reason for Being

3M : To solve unsolved problems innovatively.


Hewlett-Packard: To make technical contributions for the advancement and
welfare of humanity.
Pacific Theatres: To provide a place for people to flourish and to enhance the
community.
Mary Kay Cosmetics: To give unlimited opportunity to Women
McKinsey & Company: To help leading corporations and governments be more
successful.
Nike: To experience the emotion of competition, winning, and crushing
competitors.
Sony: To experience the joy of advancing and applying technology for the benefit
of the public.
Wal-Mart: To give ordinary folk the chance to buy the same things as rich people.
External Analysis, Strategic Choice

The objective of external analysis is to identify strategic


opportunities and threats in the organization
operating environment. Three inttereleted
environment should be examined : industry environment
which the organization operate, national environment,
and macro environment.

Strategic choice is given the company’s external threats


and opportunities (TO Analysis).
Five Force Model
Technological
Political and Enviranment
legal
Environment Potensial
competitor

Supplier Rivalry Buyer


Power Power

Subtitutes

Demografi Macro
Environment economic
Social environment
Environment
Faktor-Faktor Lingkungan
EKONOMI POLITIK
•Sumberdaya Alam
•Stabilitas
•Tenaga Kerja
•Ideologi
•Modal
•Institusi
•Infrastruktur
•Teknologi •Keterkaitan Geopolitis

BUDAYA DEMOGRAFI

•Struktur & Dinamika Sosial •Pertumbuhan


• Perspektif Dasar Manusia Populasi
•Orientasi Waktu & Tempat • Struktur Usia
•Agama •Urbanisasi
•Peran Gender •Migrasi
• Bahasa •Status Kesehatan
Potential competitor

Companies that currently are not competing in an industry


but have capability to do if they choose.The strength of the
competitive force of potential rivals is largely a fuction of the
height of the barrier to entry. High entry barrier keep
potential competitors out of an industry even when industry
returns are high, ex : brand loyality, absolute cost
advantages

Rivalry among Establised Companies

If this competitive force is weak, companies have opportunity


to raise prices and earn greater profit, but if it is strong
significant price competation , including price war may result
from the intense rivalry. The extent of rivalry among
established companies within an industry is largely a function
of three factors (1) industry competitive structure (2) demand
condition (3) the high of exit barrier in the industry (when
industry demand is declining.
The bargaining Power of Buyers

Buyer power will powerfull when :


1. When the supply industry is composed of many small
companies and the buyers are few in number and
large.These circumtances allow the buyers to dominate
supply companies.
2. When the buyer purchase in large quantities
3. When the supply industry depands on the buyers for a
large percentage of its total order
4. When the buyer can switch orders between supply
companies at low cost, thereby playing off compa-nies
against each other to force down prices.
5. When it is economically feasible for the buyers to
purchase the input from several companies at once.
The Bargaining Power of Supplier

Suppliers can be viewed as a threat when they are


able to force up the price that a company must pay
for input or reduce the quality of goods supplied,
thereby depressing the company’s profitability.
Alternatively, weak supplier give a company the
opportunity to force down prices and demand
higher quality.

Suppliers are powerfull :


1. When the product that supplier sell has few
subtitutes and is important to the company.
2. When the company industry is not an important
customer to the suppliers.r
3. When suppliers respective are differentiated to such
an extent that it is costly for a company to switch
from one supplier to another.
Internal Analysis
Internal Analysis

• Internal Analysis serves to pinpoint the


strengths and the weaknesses of the
organization. Such analysis involve
identifying the quantity and quality of
resource available to the organization
• Strategic choice is given the company’s
internal strenght and weakness (SW
Analysis).
DASAR PEMIKIRAN
Analisis Internal
• Capability-Based Strategy. Strategi yang baik,
ditinjau dari pemandangan internal,
seharusnya lebih banyak mengacu pada
kapabilitas yang dimiliki oleh perusahaan.

• Keunggulan Kompetitif yang diperoleh berasal


dari proses dan perilaku dalam organisasi:
• kepekaan operasi, manajemen,
kebutuhan konsumen, organisasi yg
sederhana dan fleksibel, SDM yang
inovatif, Informasi teknologi.
Capability-Based Strategy
• SUMBERDAYA
– Faktor Teknis
PROFIT
• patent, brand, dll.
– Faktor Persaingan
• ROS, Market Share, dll. Keunggulan
– Faktor Manajerial Kompetitif
• budaya, kecepatan dlm Mekanisme Proses
respon perubahan, dll. Organisasional
– Faktor Finansial
• akses modal, dll. Core Competencies

Sumberdaya
Capability-Based Strategy

PROFIT

CORE COMPETENCIES Keunggulan


Kombinasi yang unik dari Kompetitif
sumberdaya dan Mekanisme Proses
pengalaman suatu Organisasional
perusahaan.
Core Competencies

Sumberdaya
Capability-Based Strategy

Mekanisme Proses PROFIT


Organisasi
• Kecepatan Merespon Keunggulan
• Kualitas Kompetitif
• Kepekaan Thd. Mekanisme Proses
Konsumen Organisasional
• Tim Organisasi
Core Competencies
• Proses Belajar
Organisasi
Sumberdaya
Capability-Based Strategy

Keunggulan Kompetitif PROFIT


• Keunggulan tertentu
yang dimiliki oleh Keunggulan
suatu perusahaan Kompetitif
secara relatif. Mekanisme Proses
• ROS, Market share
Organisasional
• Dicapai melalui
aktivitas dalam Core Competencies
Value Chain
Sumberdaya
Capability-Based Strategy

• STRATEGI
Strategi dikembangkan untuk: PROFIT
• lebih mengefektifkan dan
mengefisienkan penggunaan
sumberdaya, Keunggulan
• memperkuat core competencies, Kompetitif
• memperbaiki mekanisme proses
organisasional
Mekanisme Proses
Organisasional

Core Competencies

Sumberdaya
Analisis Rantai Nilai
(Value Chain)

Analisis ini sangat berguna untuk mengkaitkan


sumberdaya dgn tujuan strategik yang
mengidentifikasi Kegiatan-kegiatan primer
maupun pendukung yang mendasari keunggulan
kompetitifnya.

Dua langkah dasar analisis rantai nilai, yaitu


identifikasi building blocks (atau kegiatan-kegiatan
yang secara teknologis dan strategik berbeda)
dalam rangkaian operasi bisnis, dan penilaian
value added setiap tahap, dikaitkan dengan
analisis keunggulan kompetitif.
Identifikasi Skope Analisis
berdasar VALUE CHAIN

PRIMARY ACTIVITIES

InBound Operation OutBound Marketing


Services
Logistics Logistics and Sales
Identifikasi Skope Analisis
berdasar VALUE CHAIN

SUPPORT ACTIVITIES

Infra Human Technological Procurement


structure Resources Development (Material
(Structure and Management (Research and Management)
Leadership) Development)
• Material Management adalah aktivitas-aktivitas yang
mengontrol pengadaan material fisik dalam value chain.
• Technological Development (R&D) adalah aktivitas-
aktivitas yang berkaitan dengan fungsi pengembangan
produk dan teknologi proses transformasi input menjadi
output.
• Human Resources Management adalah aktivitas-
aktivitas yang berkaitan dengan usaha-usaha
perusahaan untuk mengadakan, mempersiapkan, dan
memelihara SDM sehingga perusahaan selalu memiliki
SDM yang berkompetensi tinggi.
• Infrastructure adalah aktivitas-aktivitas perusahaan yang
berkaitan dengan usaha-usaha membangun struktur
organisasional, sistem pengendalian, dan budaya
perusahaan. Termasuk di sini adalah aktivitas memilih
top management.
Value Chain Analysis
ACTIVITIES

Infrastruktur Perusahaan
SUPPORT

Manajemen Sumberdaya Manusia


Pengembangan Teknologi
Procurement

Inbound Outbound Marketing


Operations Services
Logistic Logistic and Sales

PRIMARY ACTIVITIES
Metodologi Dalam
Analisis Value Chain
1. IDENTIFIKASI AKTIVITAS:
– Primer
– Pendukung
2. PENILAIAN terhadap masing-
masing AKTIVITAS
3. PENYIMPULAN
Komparasi
Kapabilitas strategik sering sulit dinilai dalam ukuran
absolut. Dua pembanding yang paling sering digunakan
adalah historis - perbaikan atau penurunan
dibandingkan dengan masa lalu - atau norma
industri - perbandingan dengan perusahaan-
perusahaan sejenis atau pesaing. Basis komparasi
ketiga yang sekarang makin banyak diterapkan adalah
membandingkan dengan praktik terbaik (best practice),
atau dikenal dengan istilah benchmarking, yang
mencakup komparasi di luar industri.
Identifikasi
Berbagai Isu
Aspek terakhir analisis sumberdaya adalah
Kunci
identifkasi berbagai isu strategik kunci berdasarkan
berbagai analisis sebelumnya. Analisis ini pada
dasarnya merupakan penilaian berbagai kekuatan
dan kelemahan perusahaan dan kompetensi inti
atau unik (sering disebut core competences atau
distinctive competences). Sumber kompetensi unik
antara lain kapabilitas dan sumberdaya finansial,
manajerial, fungsional, organisasional, teknologi dan
pelayanan, reputasi dan networks. Hasil analisis
memberikan dasar dengan mana alternatif strategik
dievaluasi.
Empat pertanyaan penting:
• Pertanyaan nilai
Apakah berbagai sumberdaya dan kapabilitas Rerangka Analisis
perusahaan memungkinkan perusahaan untuk Kekuatan dan
menghadapi kesempatan dan ancaman Kelemahan
lingkungan? Penilaian Sumberdaya
dan Kapabilitas
• Pertanyaan kelangkaan
Apakah para pesaing juga mempunyai berbagai
sumberdaya dan kapabilitas yang bernilai
tersebut?

• Pertanyaan kemudahan diimitasi


Apakah perusahaan yang tidak/belum mempunyai
sumberdaya atau kapabilitas menghadapi cost
disadvantage untuk memperolehnya?

• Pertanyaan organisasi
Apakah organisasi memungkinkan untuk
mengeksploitasi potensial persaingan
sumberdaya dan kapabilitas secara penuh?
 Kompetensi inti merupakan kumpulan kapabilitas atau
ketrampilan yang memungkinkan perusahaan untuk Konsep
menyampaikan nilai atau manfaat fundamental yang dicari Kompetensi
pelanggan. Kompetensi ini harus memberikan kontribusi inti
substansial terhadap customer values.

 Kompetensi adalah sekumpulan kapabilitas, ketrampilan dan


teknologi, bukan kapabilitas, kerampilan atau teknologi tunggal
dan terpisah. Kompetensi inti mencerminkan integrasi beragam
ketrampilan individual.

 Kompetensi inti bukan suatu “aset” dalam pengertian kata


akuntansi, tetapi kemampuan pengelolaan suatu kegiatan
sebagai hasil akumulasi pembelajaran.

 Kompetensi inti merupakan kapabilitas yang mengarahkan


pada pencapaian sukses persaingan, dan membedakan
perusahaan dibandingkan dengan pesaing (secara kompetitif
unik)

 Kompetensi inti menjadi pintu menuju ke pasar baru.


Kompetensi adalah kombinasi berbagai kapabilitas dan proses
bisnis unik yang dimiliki perusahaan dan digunakan untuk
melakukan inovasi dan pemenuhan nilai pelanggan

Rangkaian Kegiatan Inovasi

Perencanaan Perencanaa Manajemen Pengembangan Pemenuhan


n sumberdaya proses nilai
pasar
bauran dan teknologi pelayanan
pelanggan
pelayanan

Rangkaian Kegiatan Pemenuhan Nilai


Pelanggan

Identifikasi Penawaran Pemuasan


kebutuhan pemuasan pelanggan Pelayanan
Inovas dan kebutuhan melalui purna
i keinginan pelayanan proses jual
pelanggan pelanggan pelayanan
Secara potensial banyak kapabilitas menjadi kunci
pelayanan nilai pelanggan.

 Biasanya terlalu banyak kompetensi yang Identifikasi


mendapatkan perhatian manajemen (40, 50 atau Kompetensi inti
lebih)  terlalu berlebihan sebagai upaya untuk
memuaskan pelanggan.
 Di lain pihak, bila manajemen mengidentifikasi
satu atau dua kompetensi  ini bukan
kompetensi inti, tetapi meta-kompetensi.

Dalam banyak situasi, tiga sampai lima kompetensi


menjadi kunci pemuasan pelanggan.

Manajemen perlu membedakan kompetensi yang inti,


dan bukan inti melalui pemfokusan perhatian pada
berbagai kompetensi yang berada pada pusat sukses
kompetitif.
Mengidentifikasi apa yang menciptakan nilai bagi pelanggan:
 Kualitas Perusahaan
 Kecepatan pelayanan Berbasis
 Harga murah
 Keragaman pelayanan Kompetensi
 Aspek kualitatif
Membangun “panggung” yang dapat menyajikan pelayanan:
 Tanpa kesalahan (zero defects)
 Tanpa waktu tunggu (zero waiting time)
 Keragaman pelayanan sesuai keinginan pelanggan
 Pada harga lebih murah relatif terhadap nilai pelanggan,
dibandingkan para pesaing.
Mengeksekusi rantai kegiatan yang menambah nilai bagi
pelanggan secara lebih cepat dan lebih efektif dibanding pesaing.
Mengembangkan strategi untuk mengeksploitasi keunggulan
kapabilitas pengoperasian.

Melayani pelanggan lebih baik daripada pesaing


•peningkatan pangsa pasar

Perusahaan yang kompeten memberikan


nilai kepada pelanggan
Empat tugas utama dalam manajemen kompetensi inti
mencakup:
Pengelolaan
 Seleksi kompetensi inti -- sejumlah Kompetensi
kapabilitas, ketrampilan dan teknologi diuji Inti
dengan kriteria sukses persaingan, pemuasan
nilai pelanggan, dan kelayakan teknologis.
 Pengembangan kompetensi inti -- akumulasi
dan integrasi pengetahuan, kapabilitas dan
ketrampilan melalui proses pembelajaran dan
komunikasi lintas disiplin, lintas fungsi dan
lintas jenjang.
 Penyebaran kompetensi inti -- pengungkitan
dan penanaman kompetensi inti di seluruh
jajaran perusahaan melalui pendekatan
berbasis tim
 Proteksi kompetensi inti -- perlindungan
kompetensi inti dari erosi dengan menghindari
“bad business”
TOWS ANALYSIS
ANALISIS FAKTOR
STRATEGI EKSTERNAL
Faktor Strategik Eksternal Bobot Rating Skor Komentar
Bobot
Opportunity (Peluang)

Dukungan penuh pemerintah 0.18 4 0.72 Pertahankan relasi


Permintaan relatif tinggi dibandingkan 0.18 4 0.72 Tingkatkan suplai dan distribusi
dengan penawaran pemasaran
Brand image (persepsi konsumen) 0.15 2 0.30 Pertahankan citra merk pada
terhadap merk tinggi masyarakat
Total Peluang 1,74
Threat (Ancaman)
Rendahnya pengetahuan masyarakat 0.17 1 0.17 Pengenalan kualitas produk
terhadap semen yang berkualitas pada masyarakat
Banyaknya produk pesaing di pasaran 0.17 2 0.34 Tingkatkan kualitas produk
dan pelayanan kepada
masyarakat
Peraturan pemerintah mengenai 0.15 2 0.30 Ikuti peraturan pemerintah
lingkungan semakin ketat
Total Ancaman 1.00 0,81
KASUS : PT. SEMEN SEMENTIL
ANALISIS FAKTOR STRATEGI INTERNAL

Faktor Strategik Internal Bobot Rating Skor Komentar


Bobot
Strenght (Kekuatan)

Memiliki banyak tenaga kerja trampil ya- 0.16 2 0.32 Mengenal produk dan pelanggan
ng berpengalaman

Mampu memproduksi berbagai kualitas 0.15 2 0.30 Menciptakan brand names


produk yang bermutu
Memiliki jaringan distribusi cukup baik 0.17 3 0.51 Menghasilkan loyalitas tinggi
Weakness (kelemahan) 1,13

Debt ratio meningkat 0.18 1 0.18 Beban utang cukup besar


Biaya produksi cukup tinggi 0.18 2 0.36 Mengurangi laba perusahaan
Masih menggunakan teknologi yang cukup 0.16 1 0.32 Mengurangi market share
lama dalam bidang produksi
Total 1.00 0,86
PELUANG

Strategi Turn Strategi


Around Agresif

0,93
KELEMAHAN 0,27 KEKUATAN

Strategi Strategi
Defensif Diservikasi

ANCAMAN
` IFAS STRENGTHS (S) WEAKNESS (W)
- Tenaga kerja trampil dan - Biaya produksi sangat tinggi
EFAS pengalaman - Proses produksi
- Menghasilkan produk yg menggunakan tek nologi lama
berkualitas - Fasilitas manufactur
- Jaringan distribusi yang baik

OPPORTUNITIES (O) STRATEGI (SO) STRATEGI (WO)


- Bisnis persemenan di - Optimalisasi kapasitas (1.08) - Meningkatkan efisiensi (1.08)
lindungi - Memperbesar market share - Meningkatkan teknologi alat
Pemerintah (1.04) produksi (1.04)
- Permintaan relatif tinggi - Peningkatan sales melalui - Memanfaatkan rancang
- Brand image produk sgt ekspor (0,81) bangun dalam negeri (0.62)
baik

THREATS (T) STRATEGI (ST) STRATEGI (WT)

- Rendahnya pengetahuan - Menjaga kualitas produk (0.49) - Mengoptimalkan R&D yang


masyarakat akan - Penjelasan teknis melalui sosial ada (0.53)
kualitas semen education pd masyarakat (0.64) - Pemanfaatan kelebihan tenaga
- Bertambahnya merk lain di -Kerjasama dengan pihak asing kerja untuk perluasan
psr (0.81) kapasitas (0.7)
- Peraturan pemerintah -Penjualan sebagian saham
tentang lingkungan (0.62)
BENCHMARKING
1. Suatu ukuran pencapaian “Best in class”, yang dikenal juga standard of exellence
untuk process bisnis.
2. Proses untuk belajar memahami dan mengetahui bahwa pihak lain lebih baik
daripada kita dalam beberapa hal, dan dengan kesadaran penuh berusaha untuk
menyamai atau bahkan melebihi pihak lain tersebut.

Membandingkan proses
Suatu proses yang
Tidak hanya ukuran kinerja
terstruktur

3. Suatu proses perbandingan dan pengukuran yang terus menerus yang dilakukan
oleh suatu organisasi dengan organisasi lain yang terbaik untuk memperoleh
informasi yang membantu organisasi tersebut memperbaiki kinerjanya
(APQC,1993)

Untuk memperbaiki Fokus


Belajar dari Bukan hanya evaluasi Ke eksternal
Pihak lain
3 Tipe Benchmarking

Internal benchmarking
- Melakukan benchmarking antar departemen atau bagian
dalam suatu organisasi

Competitive Benchmarking
- Benchmarking dengan pesaing langsung

Generic Benchmarking
- Benchmarking dengan organisasi lain, bahkan ada di luar
industri
Contoh Benchmarking
Perusahaan A WORLD CLASS

Waktu tunggu 150 hari 8 hari


Pemrosesan order
Pengiriman 6 menit On line
Jumlah kehabisan
Persediaan/tahun 400 kali 4 kali
Prakondisi
Benchmarking

A. Kondisi Struktural
- Sumberdaya dan kemampuan untuk melakukan bencmarking harus
dimiliki oleh perusahaan, seperti keuangan, waktu, pengetahuan,
tentang benchmarking, potensi dan kemampuan kompetitif untuk
berkembang, dokumentasi proses

B. Kondisi Kultural
- Sikap dan nilai yang mendasari pelaksanaan yang efektif benchmarking
perusahaan, seperti :
- Kemauan untuk berubah
- Kemauan untuk membagi informasi
- Komitmen menejemen
- Partisipasi karyawan
Lanjutan
C. Pemahaman yang baik tentang proses bisnis
perusahaan
- Pendokumentasian proses, mis flow-chart
- Memahami bagaimana pengaruh proses bisnis dapat
berbeda-beda pada faktor kompetisi dan faktor kunci
keberhasilan
- Ukuran kinerja untuk proses bisnis
Tahapan Benchmarking

Plan Search Observe Analyze Adapt

PLAN
Memilih, menentukan proses benchmarking, mendokumentasikan proses, dan menentukan
ukuran kinerja

SEARCH
Mencari patner untuk benchmarking

OBSERVE
Memahami dan mendokumentasikan proses patner, termasuk kinerja dan praktiknya

ANALYZE
Mengidentifikasi gap kinerja, dan mencari sebab utama timbulnya gap kinerja

ADAPT
Memilih the best practise dan mengadaptasikan ke perusahaan melalui implementasi berbagai
perubahan yang perlu
STRATEGIC CHOICE
Functional level strategy; competitive advantage stems from a company’s ability to
attain superior efficiency, quality, innovation, and customer responsiveness.

Business level strategy; company encompasses the overall companies theme that
company choosen to stress, three generic business level strategies: cost
leadership, diffentiation, focusing on particular market niche are implemented.

Global strategies; to asses the benefits and cost global expansion, and examine
three different strategies such as multidomestic, international, and global that
company can compete in global market place.

Corporate level strategies; there is a question for corporate busniss level stratey
shoul be answered. What business should we be into maximize the long run
profitability ? For many organizations competing successfully often involves
vertical integration-backward into production of input for the main operation or
forward into disposal of output. Included acqusitions, new ventures, and
restructureof portofolio.
Functional Level Strategy
Functional Level Strategy

Achieving Superior Efficiency


A. Flexible Manufacturing
B. Marketing Strategy and Efficiency
C. Materials Management Strategy (JIT)
D. R&D Strategy and Efficiency
Flexible Manufacturing

The best way to achieve high efficiency, and


hence low cost unit costs, is through the mass
production of a standardized output.
Increasing product variety from a factory
makes it is difficult for a company to increase
its manufacturing efficiency and thus reduce
its unit costs
Marketing Strategy and Efficiency

Marketing strategies will impact on efficiency


if the relationship costumer rate is high, ex :
Mark & Spencer has generate costumer
loyalty that it does not need to do any
advertising
Materials Management Strategy (JIT)

Improving JIT inventory system can economize


on inventory holding costs by having materials
arrive at manufacturing plant just in time to
enter the production process, and not before
ex: Walt-Mart use JIT to replenish the stock in
its stores at least twice a week.
Continue
R&D Strategy and Efficiency

The role of R&D in helping a company achieve greater efficiency is twofold.


1. First, R&D can boost eficiency by designing products that are easy to
manufacture, ex: after Texas instruments redisigned an infrared sighting
mechanism that it supplies to the Pentagon, the company found that it had
reduced the number of parts from 47 to 12.

2. Second, R&D can help a company to achieve efficiency by innovation, ex: Toyota
has flexible manufacturing system with reduced setup times.Human
Resources and Efficiency
The more productive the employee the lower will be the unit cost. There is three
main choices to make employee productive are training, organizing the work
force into self managing teams, and linking pay to performance.
Infrastructure and Efficiency
Achieving superior efficiency can built through top management
by facilitate cross functions cooperation, ex: R&D need close
cooperation with material management, HRD and so on.
R&D Strategy and Efficiency
The role of R&D in helping a company achieve greater efficiency is twofold.
1. First, R&D can boost eficiency by designing products that are easy to
manufacture, ex: after Texas instruments redisigned an infrared sighting
mechanism that it supplies to the Pentagon, the company found that it
had reduced the number of parts from 47 to 12.

2. Second, R&D can help a company to achieve efficiency by innovation,


ex: Toyota has flexible manufacturing system with reduced setup times.

• Human Resources and Efficiency


The more productive the employee the lower will be the unit cost. There
is three main choices to make employee productive are training,
organizing the work force into self managing teams, and linking pay to
performance.
BUSINESS LEVEL STRATEGY
Context in Which Competitive Strategy Is
Formulated
Company Strengths Industry
and Weaknesses Opportunities and
Threats (Economic
and Technical)

Factors
Factors Competitive External
Internal Strategy to the
to the Company
Company

Personal Values
of the Key Broader Societal
Implementers Expectations
Levels of Strategy
Network Q
Alliance P
Corpration Y
Network
Level Corpration X Corpration Z
Business B Condition T

Business L

Corporation X
Corporate
Level Business A

Business B Business C

Business B

Business Finance HRM R&D


Level
Marketing &
Sales Operations

Marketing & Sales

Functional Product
Level Price Place
Pomotion
Five Generic Competitive Strategies
Low-Cost Provider Strategies

Keys to Success
• Make achievement of meaningful lower costs
than rivals the theme of firm’s strategy
• Include features and services in product
offering that buyers consider essential
• Find approaches to achieve a cost advantage
in ways difficult for rivals to copy or match

Low-cost leadership means low


overall costs, not just low
manufacturing or production costs!
Approaches to Securing a Cost
Advantage
Approach 1
Do a better job than rivals of performing value
chain activities efficiently and cost effectively

Approach 2
Revamp value chain to bypass cost-producing
Control
activities that add little value from the buyer’s costs!
perspective By-pass
costs!
Approach 1: Controlling the Cost
Drivers

• Manage costs of key resource inputs


• Consider linkages with other activities in value chain
• Find sharing opportunities with other business units
• Compare vertical integration vs. outsourcing
• Assess first-mover advantages vs. disadvantages
• Control percentage of capacity utilization
• Make prudent strategic choices related to operations
Approach 2: Revamping the Value
Chain

• Make greater use of Internet technology applications


• Use direct-to-end-user sales/marketing methods
• Simplify product design
• Offer basic, no-frills product/service
• Shift to a simpler, less capital-intensive, or more flexible
technological process
• Find ways to bypass use of high-cost raw materials
• Relocate facilities closer to suppliers or customers
• Drop “something for everyone” approach and focus on a
limited product/service
Keys to Success in Achieving
Low-Cost Leadership
• Check each cost-creating activity, identifying cost drivers
• Use knowledge about cost drivers to manage costs of each
activity down year after year

• Find ways to restructure value chain to eliminate


nonessential work steps and low-value activities

• Work diligently to create cost-conscious corporate cultures


– Feature broad employee participation in continuous cost-
improvement efforts and limited executives
– Strive to operate with exceptionally small corporate staffs

• Aggressively pursue investments in resources and capabilities that


promise to drive costs out of the business
Characteristics of a Low-Cost
Provider
• Corporate culture awareness cost
• Employee participation in cost-control efforts
• Ongoing efforts to benchmark costs
• Intensive checking of budget requests
• Programs promoting continuous cost improvement

Successful low-cost producers champion


saving but wisely and aggressively
invest in cost-saving improvements !
When Does a Low-Cost Strategy Work
Best?
• Price competition is strong
• Product is standardized or readily available
from many suppliers
• There are few ways to achieve
differentiation that have value to buyers
• Most buyers use product in same ways
• Low buyer switching costs
• Buyers are large and have significant bargaining
power
• Industry newcomers use introductory low prices
to attract buyers and build customer base
Pitfalls of Low-Cost Strategies
• Being overly aggressive in cutting price
• Low cost methods are easily imitated by rivals
• Becoming too fixated on reducing costs
and ignoring
– Buyer interest in additional features
– Declining buyer sensitivity to price
– Changes in how the product is used
• Technological breakthroughs open up cost
reductions for rivals
Differentiation Strategies

Objective
• Incorporate differentiating features that cause buyers to
prefer firm’s product or service over brands of rivals

Keys to Success
• Find ways to differentiate that create value for buyers
and are not easily matched or cheaply copied by rivals

• Not spending more to achieve differentiation


than the price premium that can be charged
Benefits of Successful Differentiation

A product / service with unique, appealing


attributes allows a firm to
 Command a premium price and/or
 Increase unit sales and/or Which
hat is
unique?
 Build brand loyalty
= Competitive Advantage
Types of Differentiation Themes
• Unique taste -- Dr. Pepper
• Multiple features -- Microsoft Windows and Office
• Wide selection and one-stop shopping -- Home Depot
and Amazon.com
• Superior service -- FedEx, Ritz-Carlton
• Spare parts availability -- Caterpillar
• More for your money -- McDonald’s, Wal-Mart
• Prestige -- Rolex
• Quality manufacture -- Honda, Toyota
• Technological leadership -- 3M Corporation
• Top-of-line image -- Ralph Lauren, Channel, Cross
Sustaining Differentiation: Keys to
Competitive Advantage
• Most appealing approaches to differentiation
– Those hardest for rivals to match or imitate
– Those buyers will find most appealing

• Best choices to gain a longer-lasting, more profitable


competitive edge
– New product innovation
– Technical superiority
– Product quality and reliability
– Comprehensive customer service
– Unique competitive capabilities
Where to Find Differentiation Opportunities
in the Value Chain
• Purchasing and procurement activities
• Product R&D and product design activities
• Production process / technology-related activities
• Manufacturing / production activities
• Distribution-related activities
• Marketing, sales, and customer service activities

Internally Activities, Costs,


Activities, & Margins of
Performed Buyer/User
Costs, & Forward Channel
Activities, Value
Margins of Allies &
Costs, & Chains
Supplies Strategic Partners
Margins
How to Achieve a Differentiation-Based
Advantage
Approach 1
Incorporate product features/attributes that
lower buyer’s overall costs of using product
Approach 2
Incorporate features/attributes that raise the
performance a buyer gets out of the product
Approach 3
Incorporate features/attributes that enhance buyer
satisfaction in non-economic or intangible ways
Approach 4
Compete on the basis of superior capabilities
Importance of Perceived Value
• Buyers seldom pay for value that is not perceived

• Price premium of a differentiation strategy reflects

– Value actually delivered to the buyer and Value


perceived by the buyer

• Actual and perceived value can differ when buyers are


unable to assess their experience with a product
Signaling Value as Well as Delivering Value

• Incomplete knowledge of buyers causes them to


judge value based on such signals as
– Price
– Attractive packaging
– Extensive ad campaigns
– Ad content and image
– Characteristics of seller
• Facilities
• Customers
• Professionalism and personality of employees
• Signals of value may be as important as actual value when
– Nature of differentiation is hard to quantify
– Buyers are making first-time purchases
– Repurchase is infrequent
– Buyers are unsophisticated
When Does a Differentiation
Strategy Work Best?
• There are many ways to differentiate a product
that have value and please customers

• Buyer needs and uses are diverse

• Few rivals are following a similar


differentiation approach

• Technological change and


product innovation are fast-paced
When Does a Differentiation
Strategy Work Best?

• There are many ways to differentiate a product that have


value and please customers

• Buyer needs and uses are diverse

• Few rivals are following a similar


differentiation approach

• Technological change and


product innovation are fast-paced
Pitfalls of Differentiation Strategies

• Buyers see little value in unique attributes of product


• Appealing product features are easily copied by rivals
• Differentiating on a feature buyers do not perceive as lowering their
cost or enhancing their well-being
• Over-differentiating such that product
features exceed buyers’ needs
• Charging a price premium
buyers perceive is too high
• Not striving to open up meaningful gaps in quality, service, or
performance features vis-à-vis rivals’ products
Best-Cost Provider Strategies
• Combine a strategic emphasis on low-cost with a strategic
emphasis on differentiation
– Make an upscale product at a lower cost
– Give customers more value for the money

Objectives

• Deliver superior value by meeting or exceeding buyer


expectations on product attributes and beating their price
expectations
• Be the low-cost provider of a product with good-to-
excellent product attributes, then use cost advantage to
under price comparable brands
Competitive Strength of a
Best-Cost Provider Strategy
• A best-cost provider’s competitive advantage comes from
matching close rivals on key product attributes and beating
them on price

• Success depends on having the skills and capabilities to


provide attractive performance and features at a lower cost
than rivals

• A best-cost producer can often out-compete both


a low-cost provider and a differentiator when
– Standardized features/attributes
won’t meet diverse needs of buyers
– Many buyers are price and value sensitive
Risk of a Best-Cost Provider Strategy

• A best-cost provider may get squeezed between strategies of


firms using low-cost and differentiation strategies

– Low-cost leaders may be able to siphon


customers away with a lower price

– High-end differentiators may be able to


steal customers away with better product attributes
Focus / Niche Strategies
• Involve concentrated attention on a narrow piece of the total
market

Objective
Serve niche buyers better than rivals

Keys to Success
• Choose a market niche where buyers have distinctive
preferences, special requirements, or unique needs
• Develop unique capabilities to serve needs of target buyer
segment
Approaches to Defining a Market
Niche

• Geographic uniqueness

• Specialized requirements in
using product/service

• Special product attributes


appealing only to niche buyers
Examples of Focus Strategies
• eBay
– Online auctions
• Porsche
– Sports cars
• Jiffy Lube International
– Maintenance for motor vehicles
• Pottery Barn Kids
– Children’s furniture and accessories
• Bandage
– Specialist in truck tire recapping
Focus / Niche Strategies and Competitive
Advantage
Approach 1
• Achieve lower costs than
rivals in serving the segment --
A focused low-cost strategy

Approach 2 Which hat


is unique?
• Offer niche buyers something
different from rivals --
A focused differentiation strategy
What Makes a Niche Attractive for
Focusing?
• Big enough to be profitable and offers good growth potential
• Not crucial to success of industry leaders
• Costly or difficult for multi-segment competitors
to meet specialized needs of niche members
• Focuser has resources and capabilities
to effectively serve an attractive niche
• Few other rivals are specializing in same niche
• Focuser can defend against challengers via superior ability to serve niche
members
Risks of a Focus Strategy
• Competitors find effective ways to match
a focuser’s capabilities in serving niche

• Niche buyers’ preferences shift towards


product attributes desired by majority of
buyers – niche
becomes part of overall market

• Segment becomes so attractive it becomes


crowded with rivals, causing segment profits to
be splintered
Deciding Which Generic Competitive
Strategy to Use
• Each positions a company differently in its
market and competitive environment
• Each establishes a central theme for how a
company will endeavor to out compete
rivals
• Each creates some boundaries for
maneuvering as market circumstances
unfold
• Each points to different ways of
experimenting with the basics of the
strategy
• Each entails differences in product line,
production emphasis, marketing emphasis,
and means to sustainthe strategy
Deciding Which Generic Competitive
Strategy to Use
• Each positions a company differently in its
market
• Each establishes a central theme for how a
company will endeavor to outcompete rivals
• Each creates some boundaries for maneuvering
as market circumstances unfold
• Each points to different ways of experimenting
with the basics of the strategy
• Each entails differences in product line,
production emphasis, marketing emphasis, and
means to sustain the strategy

The big risk – Selecting a “stuck in the middle” strategy!


This rarely produces a sustainable competitive
advantage or a distinctive competitive position.
Business Level Strategy
and Industry Environment
Strategy in Fragmented Industry
Fragmented industry fragmented is one
composed of a large number of small and
medium size companies, ex : Restaurant
Industry, Health Club Industry, and Legal
Service Industry.

1. Chaining , ex Wal-mark Store and Midas International estalish networks


of linked merchandising outlet that are so interconnected that
they function as one large business entity
2. Franchise (franchisee vs franchaisor)
3. Horizontal Merger; Dillard’s and Blockbuster Entertaimment merger their
regional store chain in order to form national company
STRATEGY IN MATURE INDUSTRY

1. Product Proliferation; company produce a range of


products aimed at different market segments, so
that that they have broad product line.
2. Price Cutting; price cutting can be used to deter
entry by other
company
3. Maintaining Excess Capacity; Excess capacity can
affecting the level of competation
STRATEGY TO MANAGE RIVALRY IN MATURE
INDUSTRY
• PRICE SIGNALING
• PRICE LEADERSIP
• NON PRICE COMPETITION
• PRUDUCT DEVELOPMENT
• PRODUCT PROLIFERATION
• CAPACITY CONTROL
STRATEGY IN DECLINE INDUSTRY

• Leadersip strategy
• Niche Strategy
• Harvest Strategy
• Divestment Strategy
GLOBAL STRATEGY
Compete in Global Marketplace

Facing two types of competitive


pressures :
1. Pressures for cost reduction
2. Pressures for local responshipness
Pressures for cost reduction

To respond to these pressures, a


company need to lower the costs of
value creation by mass producing a
standardized product at the optimal
location in the world, in order to
relize location and experience curve
economies
CORPORATE STRATEGY
CORPORATE STRATEGY
• Vertical integration
• Strategic Alliances
• Diversification
• Acquisition
• Joint Ventures
• Restructuring
- Turnaround Strategy
Vertical Integration
Vertical integration means that a company is producing its own inputs (backward
upstream integration) or is disposing of its own output (forward or downstream
integration).

Raw Intermidiate End


Assembly Distribution
material User
Manufacturing

Upstream Downstream
Benefit of Vertical Integration

• Building Barrier to new competation


• Facilitates investment efficiency enchange
special assets
• Protect product quality
• Results in improved resecheduling
Disadvantages of Vertical Integration
• Cost disadvantages
Vertical integration can raise costs if a company become
commited to purchasing inputs from company-owned
supplier when low cost from another companies.
• Technological change
When technology is changing fast, vertical integration
poses the hazard, ex: radio manufacturer in 1950s
integrated backward and acuired vacum tubes in 1960s
transistors replaced vacum tubes as major componen
• Demand Uncertainty
When demand, higher degrees of vertical integration
might be managed with relative ease.When demand
unstable, achieving close coordination among vertical
integrated activities may be difficult.
Strategic Alliances
Strategic Alliance
Is ecentially agreements between two or more companies
share the costs, risks, and benefits associated with
developing new business opportunity.

Strategic Alliance and Long term contract


Long contract between two companies. In this arrangement
one company agree to supply the other, and the other
company agree to continue purchasing from that supplier;
both make comitment to jointly seek ways of lowering the
costs or raising the quality inputs to downstream value
creation process.
DIVERSIVICATION

• Related diversivication
Diversivication into a new business activity that
is linked to a company”s existing business
activity, Ex : Toyota, Sony, etc.

• Unrelated diversivication
Diversivication into new business area that has
no obvious connection with any company’s
existing areas, ex: Conglemeration
Acquisition
Is purchasing an estabized company,
complete with all its facility, aquipment,
and personnel.
The Failure of Acquisition :
• Companies difficult when trying integrate
corporate culture
• Companies overestimate the potential economic
benefit
• Tend to be very expensive
• Companies often do not adequately screen their
acquisition target
Join Ventures
When the company see a posibility
of establishing a new business in
embryonic or growth industry but
facing a risks and cost associated
with this project. The company
using joint ventures with another
company for entring this project
with such agreement.
Restructuring
One reason for retructuring in
recent years has been early
overdiversification. More
precisely, the bureaucratic
inefficiencies created by
expanding the scope of
organization outweighed and
company performance
declined.
Exit Strategies
Divestment
It represents the best way for a company to recoup as
much of its initial investment in a business unit as
posible. The idea to sell the business unit to the
highest bidder.

Harvest or Liquidation
It involves stoping investment in a unit in order to
mazimize short to medium term cash flow from that
unit before liquidating.
Turnaround Strategy
It cause by corporate decline: poor
management, overexpansion, in adequate
financial controls, high costs, the emergence
of powerful new competation, unforseen
shift of demand, and organization inertia, ex
: IBM’s in 1990s with mainframe computer
as main business.
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI
Strategi yang baik tidak selamanya
mencapai kinerja yang diinginkan.
Penentunya adalah seberapa jauh para
manajer mampu menindak-lanjuti strategi
tsb menjadi kenyataan.

Poor implementation tends to


mask both appropriateness and
inappropriateness of the strategy
(Bonoma, 1984)
Executing the Strategy
• An action-oriented, make-things happen task involving
management’s ability to
Implementat
– Direct organizational change ion involves
...
– Achieve continuous improvement in
operations and business processes

• Move toward operating excellence


– Create and nurture a
strategy-supportive culture
– Consistently meet or beat performance targets
• Tougher and more time-consuming than crafting strategy
Why Executing Strategy Is a Tough
Management Job

• The demanding variety of managerial


activities to be performed
• Numerous ways to tackle each activity
• Requires good people management skills
• Requires launching and managing
a variety of initiatives simultaneously
• Number of bedeviling issues to be worked out
• Battling resistance to change
• Hard to integrate efforts of many different work groups into a
smoothly-functioning whole
Implementing a Newly Chosen Strategy
Requires Adept Leadership

• Implementing a new strategy


takes adept leadership to

– Convincingly communicate
reasons for the new strategy

– Overcome pockets of doubt

– Build consensus and enthusiasm

– Secure commitment of concerned parties

– Get all implementation pieces in place and coordinated


Who Are the Strategy Implementers
?

• Implementing and executing


strategy involves a company’s
whole management team
and all employees
• Top-level managers must lead
the process
and orchestrate major
initiatives
The Three Components of Building a
Capable Organization
Allocating Resources to
Support Strategy Execution
• Allocating resources in ways to support effective strategy
execution involves

– Funding strategic initiatives that can make


a contribution to strategy implementation

– Funding efforts to strengthen competencies


and capabilities or to create new ones

– Shifting resources — downsizing some areas,


upsizing others, killing activities no longer justified,
and funding new activities with a critical strategy role
How Prescribed Policies and Procedures Facilitate
Strategy Execution
Instituting Best Practices
and Continuous Improvement
• Searching out and adopting best practices
is integral to effective implementation

• Benchmarking is the backbone of the process of


identifying, studying, and implementing best practices

• Key tools to promote continuous improvement

– TQM

– Six sigma quality control

– Business process reengineering


What Is a Best Practice?

• Any activity that at least


one company has proved
works particularly well

• A path to operating excellence


Characteristics of Best Practices

• The best practice must havea • To be valuable and


proven record in transferable, a best practice
– Significantly lowering must
costs – Demonstrate success
– Improving quality or over time
performance
– Deliver quantifiable and
– Shortening time highly positive results
requirements
and
– Enhancing safety or
– Be repeatable
– Delivering some other
highly positive
operating outcome
Characteristics of Benchmarking

• Involves determining how well a firm performs particular


activities and processes when compared against
– “Best in industry” or “Best in world” performers
• Goal – Promote achievement of operating excellence
in performing strategy-critical activities
• Caution – Exact duplication of best practices
of other firms is not feasible due to differences
in implementation situations
• Best approach – Best practices of other firms need to be
modified or adapted to fit a firm’s own specific situation
Installing Strategy-Supportive Information and
Operating Systems

• Essential to promote successful strategy execution


• Types of support systems
– On-line data systems
– Internet and company intranets
– Electronic mail
– E-commerce systems
• Mobilizing information and creating systems
to use knowledge effectively can yield
– Competitive advantage
What Areas Should
Information Systems Address?
• Customer data

• Operations data

• Employee data

• Supplier/partner/collaborativelly data

• Financial performance data


Gaining Commitment: Components of an
Effective Reward System

Monetary Incentives Non-monetary Incentives


• Base pay increases • Praise
• Performance bonuses • Constructive criticism
• Special recognition
• Profit sharing plans
• More, or less, job security
• Stock options
• Stimulating assignments
• Retirement packages • More, or less, autonomy
• Piecework incentives • Rapid promotion
Balancing Positive vs. Negative
Rewards
• Elements of both are necessary
– Challenge and competition are
necessary for self-satisfaction
• Prevailing view
– Positive approaches work better
than negative ones in terms of
• Enthusiasm
• Effort
• Creativity
• Initiative
Linking the Reward System
to Performance Outcomes
• Tying rewards to the achievement of strategic and
financial performance targets is management’s single
most powerful tool to win the commitment of company
personnel to effective strategy execution
• Objectives in designing the reward system
– Generously reward those
achieving objectives
– Deny rewards to those who don’t
– Make the desired strategic and financial
outcomes the dominant basis for designing
incentives, evaluating efforts, and
handing out rewards
The Defining Characteristics of a
Company’s Culture
• Its core values, beliefs, and business principles
• Patterns of “how we do things around here”—its style of
operating and ingrained behaviors of company personnel
• Oft-told stories illustrating company’s values
• Its approach to people management
• Ethical standards
• Internal politics
• Traditions
Culture: Ally or Obstacle to Strategy
Execution?
• A company’s culture can contribute to – or hinder –
successful strategy execution
• A culture that promotes attitudes and
behaviors that are well-suited to
first-rate strategy execution is a
valuable ally in the strategy
execution process
• A culture that embraces attitudes and
behaviors which impede good
strategy execution is a huge obstacle
to be overcome
Why Culture Matters: Benefits of a Tight
Culture-Strategy Fit
• A culture that encourages actions and behaviors
supportive of good strategy execution
– Provides employees with clear guidance regarding what
behaviors and results constitute good job performance
– Creates significant peer pressure among coworkers to
conform to culturally acceptable norms
• A culture imbedded with values and behaviors
that facilitate strategy execution promotes
strong employee commitment to the company’s
– Vision
– Performance targets
– Strategy
Optimal Outcome of a Tight
Culture-Strategy Fit
• A good job of culture-building by managers
– Promotes can-do attitudes
– Encourages acceptance of change
– Instills strong peer pressure for strategy-supportive
behaviors
– Enlists enthusiasm and dedicated effort to achieve
company objectives

Closely aligning corporate culture with


the requirements for proficient strategy execution
merits the full attention of senior executives!
Changing a Problem Culture
Leadership Activities of the
Strategy Implementer
1. Stay on top of what’s happening
2. Put constructive pressure on
company to achieve good results
3. Keep company focused
on operating excellence
4. Lead development of stronger core
competencies and competitive capabilities Carly Fiorina
Hewlett-Packard
5. Exercise ethics leadership
6. Take corrective actions to improve overall strategic
performance
BCG MATRIX
ANALYSIS
Rumus
Sales Prsh
Market Share = x 100 %
Sales Industri

Market Share Relatif = M.share / M.share pesaing terkuat

Growth = Pertumbuhan industri / pertumbuhan ekonomi rata-rata

M.Share Pesaing terkuat = Sales Competitor terbesar / Sales Industri

Besarnya lingkaran = besarnya jumlah sales industri


DATA HIPOTESIS UNTUK
BCG MATRIX

INDUSTRI NAMA SALES SALES KOMPETITOR SALES

PERUS. PERUSH 1 2 3 4 5 INDUSTRI

(MILYAR) (MILYAR) (MILYAR) (MILYAR) (MILYAR) (MILYAR) (MILYAR)

Transportasi darat A 35 15 20 25 7 8 110

Rumah sakit B 60 60 30 50 40 50 290

Pendidikan Tinggi C 30 30 50 40 35 45 225

Perhotelan D 40 40 45 50 30 35 210

Restoran E 5 5 15 10 35 80 165
INDUSTRI NAMA MARKET M.SHARE MARKET PERTUMB GROWTH

PERUSAHAAN SHARE PESAING SHARE INDUSTRI

TERKUAT RELATIF

Transportasi darat A 32% 23% 1,4 5% 0,71

Rumah sakit B 24% 20% 1,2 14% 2,00

Pendidikan Tinggi C 24% 20% 1,2 10% 1,43

Perhotelan D 19% 21% 0,9 9% 1,29

Restoran E 3% 30% 0,1 3,5 % 0,50

PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI RATA-RATA 7%


The BCG Matrix
High Relative Market Share Low

Stars 2 1 Question Marks


High
?
Market
Growth 1
ate
32 %
0.71
A

3 4
Low

Cash Cows Dogs


The BCG Matrix
Relative Market Share
High 1.4 1.0 Low

Stars 2B 1 Question Marks


High
24 %
?
Market
Growth
ate
B
1

32 %
0.71
A

3 4
Low

Cash Cows Dogs


The BCG Matrix
Relative Market Share
High 1.4 1.0 Low

2.00 Stars 2B 1 Question Marks


High

1.43
24 %
?
C
Market
24 %
Growth
ate
32 %
0.71
A

3 4
Low

Cash Cows Dogs


The BCG Matrix
Relative Market Share
High 1.4 1.0 0.9
Low

2.00 Stars 2B 1 Question Marks


High

1.43
24 %
?
C
1.29
Market D
Growth 24 % 19 %
ate 1.0
32 %
0.71
A

3 4
Low

Cash Cows Dogs


The BCG Matrix
Relative Market Share
High Low 0.1
1.4 1.0 0.9

2.00 Stars 2B 1 Question Marks


High

1.43
24 %
?
C
1.29
Market D
Growth 24 % 19 %
ate 1.0
32 %
3%
0.71
A

E
3 4
Low

Cash Cows Dogs


STRATEGI PERUSAHAAN
STAR ( Industri B dan C )
- Strategi Ekspansi dan diversivikasi

CASH COW ( Industri A )


- Strategi Differensiasi

QUESTION MARK (Industri D)


- Membutuhkan dana tetapi growth tinggi
- Surplus kas dari cash cow digunakan untuk mensupport
industri ini agar bisa menjadi Star
- Jika prospek jangka panjang lemah maka didivestasi
- Strategi Alliansi.
Continue
DOG (Industri E)
- Kalau mempunyai konsumen yang loyal dan pasarnya
tertentu, maka industri ini perlu dipertahankan
- Bisa dilikuidasi bila pasarnya kecil dan kalah bersaing
- Bisa dikembangkan bila dilakukan modifikasi dan innovasi
dengan menggunakan teknologi