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John Deere E diesel Research Program

William Mitchell

Date: Monday, 21 June 2004


Place: Madison, Wisconsin
Event: Governors’ Ethanol Coalition
PROGRAM SPONSORS

John Deere Corn Growers from:


Illinois DCEO – Illinois
Renewable Fuels – Iowa
Association(RFA) – Kansas
National Renewable – Minnesota
Energy – Michigan
Laboratory(NREL) – Nebraska
USDOE – Ohio
O2 Diesel Inc. – Kentucky
GE Betz
Lubrizol
State of Minnesota
“E diesel” Program

What is “E diesel”??
Definition And Key
Properties of “E diesel” Fuel
“E diesel” is defined as a blend of up to 15%
anhydrous Ethanol, up to 5% Special
Blending Additive (with cetane/lubricity
enhancer), and at least 80% #2 diesel fuel.

The Fuel Blend Has A Lower Pour Point


Temperature Than Conventional Diesel Fuel.

Minimum Fuel Oxygen Content = 2.7%


Engine Tests
8 Mode Steady State Emissions Test

Federal Smoke Cycle Test

Unregulated Emissions Testing


- (31 potential toxins)

Durability Tests

Cold Room Tests


Vehicle Tests
- Further field testing to compliment the work
of the University of Illinois project

- Vehicle cold room tests

- Vehicle hot room tests comparing fuel


cooler performance/vapor lock effects
between # 2 diesel and E diesel mix

- Verification work for using E diesel as


factory fill
Vehicle Tests (Continued)
-Bench test/analysis to evaluate
seal/material compatibility

-Analysis on fuel lines, fittings, fuel tank,


and fuel from field machines

-Flash/flammability tests, spark arrestors,


safety verification
Engine Tests
8 Mode Steady State Emissions test

Federal Smoke Cycle Test

Unregulated Emissions Testing


- (31 potential toxins)

Durability Tests

Cold Room Tests


John Deere E-diesel Research Program

The research will be performed covering


engine families using three injection system
technologies:
- Rotary
- High Pressure Common Rail (HPCR)
- Electronic Unit Injector(EUI)

along with fuel additives from our major suppliers


Typical Deere Engine Applications
4045H/6068H

5000,6000,7000 Series Ag
Tractors
Forestry
Skidders/Backhoe/ Tele-
Handlers/ Crawlers/
Excavators/ End Loaders/
Gen Sets/ Air
Compressors/ Fork
Lifts/Trenchers/Marine
Typical Deere Engine Applications

6081H
Combine Harvesters
7000,8000,9000 Series
Ag Tractors
Cotton Pickers
Feller-Bunchers
Excavators/Crawlers/ End
Loaders/ Graders Non-
road Trucks
Gen Sets/ Air
compressors/Marine
Typical Deere Engine Applications

6125H

9000 Series Ag
Tractors/ Forage
Harvesters
Excavators
Gen Sets/Marine
Test Fuel Matrix
Engine ID Additive Cert. Fuel 7.7% Blend 10% Blend 15% Blend
6081H None X
6081H A X
6081H B X
6081H C X
6068H None X
6068H A X
6068H B X
6068H C X
6125H None X
6125H A X
6125H B X
6125H C X
Regulated Emissions
Overall % Change w/ E diesel
Items 6068H 6081H 6125H
Power -8% -6%/+2% -6%/-8%
Fuel Rate -6% -5%/+10% -5%/-6%
Smoke -11/-58% -39%/-61% -32%/-58%
(BS) PM -4%/-22% -16%/-30% -13%/-19%
(BS) CO +3/+24% -6%/-14% -15%
(BS)HC+NOx -7%/-9% +1%/+2% -4%
Regulated Emissions Summary
– All engines w/ all test fuels/additives meet EPA’s
Tier II non-road regulated smoke and emissions
requirements

– More than 75% of the regulated smoke and


emissions data for E diesel blends indicated
improvement

– The reductions of Particulate Matter (PM) and


visible smoke were significant and consistent for
the E diesel blends
Compound Abbreviation

Individual Hydrocarbons (IHC)


1,3 – Butadiene
Methane
Benzene
Toluene
Ethylbenzene
m&p–Xylene
o–Xylene
Hexane
Methyl ethyl ketone
Styrene
Compound Abbreviation

Soluble Organic Fraction of PM (SOF)


Aldehydes and Ketones (ALD)
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
Propioandehyde
Methyl Ethyl Ketone
Ethanol (ETH)
1-Nitropyrene (nPAH)
Compound Abbreviation

Individual PAH (PAH)


Naphthalene
Acenaphthene
Acenaphthylene
Fluorene
Phenanthrene
Anthracene
Fluoranthene
Pyrene
Benzo(a)anthracene
Chrysene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene
Unregulated Potential Toxins

• Comparison of 423 data points


• 58% of the E diesel blends recorded equal or
reduced emissions compared to the certification
fuel
• In general:
- the acetaldehydes group and
ethanol emissions substantially
increased with the ethanol blends
- benzene and 1,3 butadiene were
substantially reduced with the
ethanol blends
Engine Tests
8 Mode Steady State Emissions test

Federal Smoke Cycle Test

Unregulated Emissions Testing


- (31 potential toxins)

Durability Tests

Cold Room Tests


Vehicle Tests
- Further field testing to compliment the work
of the University of Illinois project

- Vehicle cold room tests

- Vehicle hot room tests comparing fuel


cooler performance/vapor lock effects
between # 2 diesel and E diesel mix

- Verification work for using E diesel as


factory fill
Vehicle Tests (Continued)
-Bench test/analysis to evaluate
seal/material compatibility

-Analysis on fuel lines, fittings, fuel tank,


and fuel from field machines

-Flash/flammability tests, spark arrestors,


safety verification