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ADONIS P.

BESA
Reporter

MINNIE P. CHAN, Ph.D


Professor
What is POLICY?

•A definite course or method of


action selected (by government,
institution, group or individual) from
among alternatives and in the light
of given conditions to guide and,
usually, to determine present and
future decisions.
Educational Policy
• Refers to the collection of
laws and rules that govern
the operation of
education systems.
•Plans and strategies for
education introduced by
the government
POLICY PROCESS
Agenda Setting/
Identification of
Issues or
Problems

Policy
Policy
Assessment/Eval
Formulation
uation

Policy Policy Adoption/


Implementation Legitimization
1. Agenda Setting/ Identification of
Issues or Problems
•Issue Identification
- Publicized demands for government
action can lead to identification of policy
problems.
- Attention that prompts the need for
government action.
• Agenda Setting
- Government begins to give serious
consideration
2. Policy Formulation
•Policy proposals can be formulated
through political channels by policy
planning organizations, interest
groups, government bureaucracies,
state legislatures, and the president
and Congress.
•Development of possible solutions;
consideration of several alternatives
3. Policy Adoption/
Legitimization
•Policy is legitimized as a result of the
public statements or actions of
government officials; both elected and
appointed—the president, Congress, state
legislators, agency officials, and the
courts.
•This includes executive orders, budgets,
laws and appropriations, rules and
regulations, and administrative and court
decisions that set policy directions.
4. Policy Implementation
•Policy implementation includes all the
activities that result from the official
adoption of a policy.
•Policy implementation is what happens
after a law is passed.

NOTE: We should never assume that the


passage of a law is the end of the
policymaking process. Sometimes laws are
passed and nothing happens!
3 Main Activities Involved in
Implementation

•Organization
•Interpretation
•Application
Approaches to Policy
Implementation

Top to
Bottom-Up
Bottom

Principal-
Managerial
Agent
1. Top to Bottom Approach
2. Bottom-Up Approach

It underlines the importance of initiatives coming from


the bottom leading to effective implementation. It
promotes delegated legislation where local legislatives
and executives are given the chance to formulate and
implement policies

• Evaluating the effects of a policy becomes


difficult.
• Difficult to separate the influence of individuals
and different levels of government on policy
decisions and consequences.
3. Managerial Approach

• This approach is market driven


• Decentralized in its process
• Emphasize shift from hierarchy
to participation and teamwork
4. Principal – Agent Approach

• In each situation, there will be a


relationship between principals
(those who define policy) and agents
(those who implement policy), which
may include contracts or agreements
that enable the principal to specify
what is provided and check that this
has been accomplished.
Conditions for Successful Implementation
The policy contains unambiguous directives and
structures of the implementation process

Leaders of implementation agencies possess


substantial managerial and political skill and
professional knowledge

The policy is actively supported by organized


constituency groups, legislature and judiciary

The relative priority of statutory objectives is not significantly


undermined over time by the emergence of conflicting public
polices or by change in relevant socio – economic conditions that
undermine the statutes' technical theory or political support
WORKS CITED
• https://www.slideshare.net/jedabolencia/policy-
implementation-process
• https://www.slideshare.net/yhamskiey/policy-making-process
• https://www.google.com