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Lesson: Types of Speech

Act
Content Standard:

• The learner recognizes that communicative


competence requires understanding of speech
context, speech style, speech act and
communicative strategy.
Performance Standard:

• The learner demonstrates effective use


of communicative strategy in a variety
of speech situations.
Learning Competencies:

• The learner identifies the types of speech act


• The learner responds appropriately and
effectively to a speech act
Specific Learning Outcomes:

At the end of the lesson the learners are able to:


• 1.Differentiate the types of speech act
• 2. Perform the different types of speech act based on
given context
Time Allotment:
• 2 hours
Introduction/Motivation
• The teacher will present the learning competencies to the learners.
The learners will:
• Answer questions during the expectation setting.
• What are your expectations about the topic on speech acts?
• What do know about this topic? What do you need to know about it? What do you need to learn?
Complete the K-W-L chart.

What I Know What I want to Know What I want to Learn


Instruction/Delivery:

• The learners will view a video about the speech acts


theory by Austin.
• Then, they will share some points they got from the
video.
• The learners will discuss with the teacher the different
types of speech act.
Locution
• "The act of 'saying something' in the full normal sense I call, i.e., dub, the performance of a locutionary act, and the study
of utterances thus far and in these respects the study of locutions, or of the full units of speech. . . .

• "In performing a locutionary act we shall also be performing such an act as:
• asking or answering a question;
• giving some information or an assurance or a warning;
• announcing a verdict or an intention;
• pronouncing sentence;
• making an appointment or an appeal or a criticism;
• making an identification or giving a description;
• and the numerous like."
• (John L. Austin, How to Do Things With Words, 2nd ed. Harvard University Press, 1975)
Illocutionary
• Examples and Observations
• "A direct illocutionary act is performed when a speaker utters a certain meaningful sentence (correctly,
literally, etc.) with certain intentions. For example, I directly assert that rocks are hard when I use the
English sentence 'Rocks are hard' with the intention of describing rocks as being hard. I directly direct my
addressee to come home when I use the English sentence 'Come home' with the intention of directing
my addressee to come home at a time later than the time of utterance. . . . [A]n illocutionary act may be
defective . . . by being performed insincerely. My expressing excitement when I use the sentence 'What a
car!' is defective in this sense when your car does not actually excite me; my act of asserting that rocks are
hard is defective in this sense when I do not actually believe that rocks are hard. ..
• "A direct illocutionary act, then, can be said to be 'conversationally' successful when its respective typical
conversational purpose is achieved--that is, when its conversational success conditions obtain--and
conversationally defective otherwise."
• (Daniel R. Boisvert, "Expressivism, Nondeclarative, and Success-Conditional Semantics."
cont..
• Having It Both Ways: Hybrid Theories and Modern Metaethics, ed. by Guy Fletcher and Michael Ridge.
Oxford University Press, 2014)
• Austin on Locutionary, Illocutionary, and Perlocutionary Acts
• "In How to Do Things With Words, [John L. Austin] offers a . . . distinction . . . between the mere act of
producing some linguistic sounds or marks with a certain meaning and reference, the so-called locutionary act,
and two other types of act that may be performed at the same time. One is the illocutionary act, which carries
an 'illocutionary force' such as apologizing, promising, ordering, and so on. The other is the perlocutionary act,
which consists in the bringing about of certain consequences for the audience to whom the utterance is
directed. For example, a professor's saying to one of his students:
• You are going to fail this course.
• involves a certain locutionary act, since some sounds are emitted and they convey a certain semantic content.
At the same time, however, the utterance may serve in the proper context to warn the student of an impending
bad grade (illocutionary act), and have the effect of alarming her (perlocutionary act)."
• (Susana Nuccetelli and Gary Seay, Philosophy of Language: The Central Topics. Rowman & Littlefield, 2007)
• Relationship Between Speaker and Hearer
• "The importance of the speaker's intention in performing an illocutionary
act is unquestionable, but, in communication, the utterance becomes an
illocutionary act only when the hearer takes the utterance as such. That is, the
illocutionary act is always the speaker's act to the hearer, and, as sociologists
and (socio)linguists claim, this is why the act potentially changes the social
relationship between the speaker and the hearer, as well as the cognitive
configuration of the outer world shared by them."
• (Etsuko Oishi, "Apologies." Pragmatics of Speech Actions, ed. by Marina
Sbisà and Ken Turner. Walter de Gruyter, 2013)
Perlocution:

• Examples and Observations

• "Intuitively, a perlocutionary act is an act performed by saying something, and not in


saying something. Persuading, angering, inciting, comforting and inspiring are often
perlocutionary acts; but they would never begin an answer to the question 'What did
he say?' Perlocutionary acts, in contrast with locutionary and illocutionary acts, which
are governed by conventions, are not conventional but natural acts (Austin [1955], p.
121). Persuading, angering, inciting, etc. cause physiological changes in the audience,
either in their states or behavior; conventional acts do not."
• (Aloysius Martinich, Communication and Reference. Walter de Gruyter, 1984)
cont…
• An Example of a Perlocutionary Effect
• "Consider a negotiation with a hostage-taker under siege. The police
negotiator says: 'If you release the children, we'll allow the press to publish
your demands.' In making that utterance she has offered a deal (illocutionary
act). Suppose the hostage-taker accepts the deal and as a consequence
releases the children. In that case we can say that by making the utterance,
the negotiator brought about the release of the children, or in more technical
terms, that this was a perlocutionary effect of the utterance."
• (Nicholas Allott, Key Terms in Semantics. Continuum, 2011)
• Fire!
cont2…
• "In the perlocutionary instance, an act is perfomed by saying something. For
example, if someone shouts 'fire' and by that act causes people to exit a building
which they believe to be on fire, they have performed the perlocutionary act of
convincing other people to exit the building. . . . In another example, if a jury
foreperson declares 'guilty' in a courtroom in which an accused person sits, the
illocutionary act of declaring a person guilty of a crime has been undertaken. The
perlocutionary act related to that illocution is that, in reasonable circumstances, the
accused person would be convinced that they were to be led from the courtroom
into a jail cell. Perlocutionary acts are acts intrinsically related to the illocutionary act
which precedes them, but discrete and able to be differentiated from the
illocutionary act."
• (Katharine Gelber, Speaking Back: The Free Speech Versus Hate Speech Debate.
John Benjamins, 2002)
• The Accordion Effect
• "Perlocution has no upper border: any consequential effect of a speech act
may be considered as perlocutionary. If breaking news surprises you so that
you trip and fall. my announcement has not only been believed true by you
(which is already a perlocutionary effect) and thus surprised you, but has also
made you trip. fall, and (say) injure your ankle. This aspect of the so-called
'accordion effect' concerning actions and speech actions in particular (see
Austin 1975: 110-115; Feinberg 1964) meets general consent, apart from
those speech-act theorists who prefer to limit the notion of perlocutionary
effect to intended perlocutionary effects . . .."
• (Marina Sbisà, "Locution, Illocution, Perlocution." Pragmatics of Speech
Actions, ed. by Marina Sbisà and Ken Turner. Walter de Gruyter, 2013)
Practice:
• Students will be asked to portray any of the following acts.
Making a request: Extending an invitation: Offering congratulations:
1. for money to a party on the arrival of a new baby
2. for car/bike for a date on a recent wedding
3. for a book to a lecture on an engagement
4. for a ride to class to the movies for someone’s anniversary
5. for a food item (sugar) to lunch/dinner for HS/college
graduation
Enrichment:
Chart completion.
Differentiate the three types of speech act by completing the chart below.

Locution Illocution Perlocution


Evaluation:
Task1 : Give students the ‘scenario’ cards. Give one situation to each pair. In pairs, the
students role play one of the scenarios.
• You have ordered a meal. It has arrived after a long wait but it is cold.
• You visit a shop where you bought a T-shirt recently. It has got holes in it.
• You have got a test back from your teacher. You think that they have missed giving
you marks that would result in you getting a higher grade.
• You want to rearrange a hair appointment as you have been given the opportunity
to go to a theme park for the day instead.
• Your grandmother has tickets for a concert and wants to you to go with her. It’s
going to be attended by all her friends and you don’t like the music.
• Your friend has a spare ticket to a gig. It will cost you 5000Php and you think it’s too
expensive. It’s your friend’s 18th birthday on the same day as the gig.
Task 2: Based on the given speech acts, present
a short role play.
• making an apology
• making request
• filing a complaint
• inviting someone
• refusing an offer
• giving commands
Rubric for Role Play