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IMPACT ASSESSMENT:

“The Art and Science of


Implementing Participatory
Extension Project”

Presenter:
DR. CHRISTOPHER V. MANAOIS
OUTLINE
Impact Assessment:
“The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory Extension Project”
A. The Essence of Social Responsibility
B. Activity 1: Each Volunteer is Important
C. Activity 2: Volunteer is not Pa-Importante
D. What is Community, Outreach, and Extension Services?
E. Community Outreach VS. Community Extension
F. What Community Development Does?
G. “Musts” of an Extension Project
H. Development and Quality of Life
I. Definition: Community Development
1. 5 C’s Strategy for Community Development
2. Key Qualities of Community Development
J. What is Sustainability?
1. 7 Factors to Sustaining Community-Based Projects
• Community Extension Program Checklist
• Demonstrated Program Impact
• Keys to a Successful Collaboration
K. Action Planning
L. Participatory Extension
M. Topology of Participation
N. Community Outreach/Extension Procedure
O. What is Outcome Measurement Evaluation
P. Process VS Outcome Evaluation
Q. Developing a Program Evaluation Logic Model
R. Documenting Impact of Outcome Evaluation
S. Summary
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

The Essence of Social Responsibility

Man is born free


but everywhere
he is in chains.
-Jean Jacques Rousseau
The Social Contract
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project
Each Volunteer is Important
XVXN THOUGH MY TYPXWRITXR IS AN OLD MODXL, IT
WORKS QUITX WXLL XXCXPT FOR ONX KXY. KXYS
THAT FUNCTION WXLL XNOUGH. BUT JUST ONX KXY
NOT WORKING MAKXS A DIFFXRXNCX.

SOMXTIMXS, IT SXXMS TO MX THAT OUR GROUP IS


SOMXWHAT LIKX MY TYPXWRITXR. NOT ALL THX
KXYS ARX WORKING PROPXRLY. YOU MAY SAY “WXLL,
I AM ONLY ONX PXRSON. IT WON’T MAKX MUCH
DIFFXRXNCX. BUT YOU SAY. THX GROUP YOU BX
XFFXCTIVX NXXDS THX ACTIVX PARTICIPATION OF
XVXRY PXRSON”.

SO, THX NXXT TIMX YOU THINK THAT YOU ARX ONLY
NXXDXD RXMXMBXR MY TYPXWRITXR AND SAY TO
YOURSXLF “I AM A KXY PXRSON AND VXRY MUCH”
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Volunteer is not Pa-Importante


Reminds me oph a phriend oph mine whose typewriter
was missing one key also. It was the eph key he
lacked and we used to call him ephless Ell.

The thing about ephless, though , was that he could


always improvise. Iph one key was out oph action, he
could get around it by using two others.

In other words, phriend – you may be needed but


unless you do something, you wont be needed anyone.
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

“whatever you do to the


least of your brethrens,
you have done it to ME.”
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Community Outreach/
Extension Services is indispensable

As the emerging trend in the HEI’s is


accreditation, it is a make-or-break situation
for the school to implement its extension
program for the institution to survive and
flourish. After all, we are duty-bound to do our
share in making the world a better place to
live in.
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

WHAT IS COMMUNITY

The word “community” is derived from the


Latin word communitas (cum, “with/together
” + munus, “gift”), a broad term for fellowship
or organized society.
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

OUTREACH
A systematic attempt to provide services
beyond conventional limits to particular
segments of the community.

In the present case, we define the outreach


as services beyond routine classroom and
laboratory activities.
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

EXTENSION SERVICES DEFINED

is an educational program and one of the


three main functions of an academic institution
that is conceived to facilitate the transfer of
new knowledge and technology from the
research institution to the end-users for
community development
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

What is community extension/


outreach for?

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

OR

STUDENT DEVELOPMENT
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Community development recognizes sources


of wealth (or community capital) that exist in the
community, helps those sources to grow, and
links them with one another to form a stronger,
more capable members of the community itself
have the primary responsibility for decision
making and action. Community development
produces self-reliant, self sustaining
communities that mobilize resources for the
benefit of the members.
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

COMMUNITY EXTENSION /
OUTREACH CREATES
SERVICE LEARNING,
WHICH IS ESSENTIALLY A
TOOL TO ENHANCE
STUDENT LEARNING
-Kraft
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

An extension project must:


 Respond to a felt community need or gap;

 Make use of technology or knowledge


present in the school relevant to the
distinctive academic competence of the
school or a unit of the school; and

 Make the community more empowered.


The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

DEVELOPMENT is:
- empowering and raising the Quality of Life
of the masses

QUALITY OF LIFE is:


- raised when there are both Negative and
Positive Peace Present!
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Extension Project

Training on Skills for


Employability!
Educating Life Skills!
Advocating Tolerance!
Propagating Human Rights!

Ensures foundation of Peace.


The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

What do they have in common?

A VISION,
SUSTAINABILITY
and DETERMINATION!
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Defining Community Development


 A group of a people in a community reaching a
decision to initiate a social action process (that
is, planned intervention) to change their
economic, social, cultural, or environmental
situation
-Christenson and Robinson, 1978

 Collective Agency
 believe working together can make a difference
 organize to address their shared needs
collectively
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
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Five C’s Strategy For


Community Development
 Community
 Connections
 Control
 Cash
 Collective Action
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Extension Project

Key Qualities of
Community Development
 It is always purposive
 Its purpose is always positive
 I exists in the efforts of people and not
necessarily in goal achievement. Trying is
enough to qualify as community
development
 It is structure-oriented
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Extension Project

Development “In” vs. “Of”


the community
 Development IN the community is principally
concerned with building the economic or
physical infrastructure of a community.
 Development OF the community is focused
on building the human capacity to address
local issues and concerns. As such, it affects
the structure of the community.
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

What is Sustainability?
- Collect and repeat responses

Sus-tain(from Latin sustinere), hold up


 To keep in existence; maintain
 To supply with necessities or nourishment
 To keep from falling or sinking; prop
 To support the spirits or resolution of;
encourage
 To endure or withstand
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Extension Project

Sustainability is……

“The ability of an organization to improve


institutional capacity in order to adopt a realistic
and innovative strategy to provide quality
services, with a view to expanding the number
of beneficiaries and to generate income
through a diversified funding base.”
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Mancini and Marek’s suggest there are seven


factors that are viewed as important to sustain
ing community-based programs.

1. Funding
2. Change
3. Leadership
4. Collaborators
5. Community
6. Demonstrated Program Impact
7. Project Staffing
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Program Funding

 Do you have funding for at least 2 years?


 Do you have plans for future funding?
 For a program to survive and thrive, it
must have ongoing financial support.
 Do you have adequate funding for current
operations and staffing?
 What funding issues/ challenges do you face
in your organization?
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Leadership
 Do your organizational leaders plan for
sustainability?
 What do they propose to allow organization to thrive and survive?

 Do your leaders establish clear project mission


statements and goals?
 It is essential to know where you are headed
and have a plan to take you there.

 Do your leaders identify survival strategies?


 What is your “plan B”?
 What will you do to survive long term?

 What are your most common challenges in this


area?
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Project Staffing

 Are your staff involve in design, evaluation


and decision making?

People who feel ownership of the program


will want to make the program work!
It takes input from all staff members to help
a program survive.
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Project Staffing
 Are your staff trained, recognized and rewarded?

Trained staff have the skills necessary to


succeed.
Staff who are recognized for a job well done feel
they matter and others know what they have
contributed.
Rewards motivate staff and give them incentive
to continue doing a good job.
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Project Staffing

Program staff interactive with your “beneficiaries”.


Make certain they have a positive message to
share and they know how to do their job.

What challenges do you encounter with staff?


The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Changes

There is a saying: “Change is the only constant.”


 Plan for Change... it will happen.

 Do your programs end?


 Are new programs developed?
 Are sites consolidated if necessary?
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Extension Project

Community

 Does your program assess needs and assets


on a regular basis?

 Overtime, needs and assets change. You


need to have your finger on the pulse of
the community you serve.

 Periodic assessments can reveal trends


and help you prepare for the future.
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Community

 Does your project reflect diversity?


 Does your project have strong local
government support?
 How was your project assessed assets
recently?
 How do you recruit diverse members to
your organization?
 What are the best ways to engage local
government?
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Demonstrated Program Impact

 Are evaluation plans developed before you


implement a program?
 What are you attempting to accomplish?
 Without evaluation plans how ill you know
you are successful?

 Are evaluations conducted regularly?


 Regular evaluations reveal areas of
improvement.
 In between evaluations you can modify and improve
programs.
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Demonstrated Program Impact


 Are program “success stories” marketed to the
public and funding sources?
 Brag about your program.
 Let people know how their funding has influenced
the lives of program participants.
 People want to know their contributions make a
difference.
 People want to be aligned with successful programs.

 Whose role is it to plan for and conduct


evaluation?
 Is evaluation written into job descriptions and
plans of work?
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Collaborators
There are several keys to a successful collaboration:

1. Shared common vision.


What are we doing?
What do we want from the program?

2. Clearly defined roles.


Who will do that?

3. Involvement in program design.


Get input from all persons involved.
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Collaborators
There are several keys to a successful collaboration:

4. Involvement in program implementation.


How will get accomplish our goals?

5. Involvement in program evaluation.


How will we know how are we doing?
Where can we improve?

6. Business and government representatives.


Look for ways to engage local community representation.
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Action Planning

Change/ modify
Project Leadership

Project Staffing

Community
Funding
Collaborators

Demonstrated Program Impact


The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project
Situation
Analysis

Evaluation
Planning
Participatory
Extension

Monitoring Implementation
Topology of Participation

8 Passive Participation
People participate by being told what is going to happen
or has already happened. A unilateral announcement is

7 made by the administration or project management


Without listening to people’s responses. The information
being shared belongs only to external professionals.

6
5
4
3
2
1
Topology of Participation

8 Participation in information giving


People participate by answering questions posed by
extractive researchers using questionnaire surveys or

7 similar approaches. People do not have the opportunity


to influence proceedings, as the findings of the research
are neither shared nor checked for accuracy.

6
5
4
3
2
1
Topology of Participation

8
Participation by consultation
People participate by being consulted, and external
people listen to views. These external professionals define
problems and solutions, and may modify these in the

7 light of the people’s responses. Such a consultative


process does not concede any share in decision-making,
and professionals are under no obligation to take on
board people’s views
6
5
4
3
2
1
Topology of Participation
Participation for material incentives
8 People participate by providing resources such as labour, in
return for food, cash or other material incentives. Most
on-farm research today falls in this category – farmers

7 provide the fields for demonstration but are not involved in


the experimentation or the process of learning. It is very
common to see this called participation, yet people have

6
no state in prolong activities when the incentives end.

5
4
3
2
1
Topology of Participation

8
Functional Participation
People participate by forming groups, which are
externally initiated to meet predetermined objective
s related to the project. Involvement of the
7 community is not solicited at early stages of the
project cycle but rather after major decisions have
been made. These groups tend to be dependent on

6 external initiators and facilitators, but may


eventually become self-dependent.

5
4
3
2
1
Topology of Participation

8 Interactive Participation
People participate in joint analysis, which leads to a
ction plans and the formation of new local institutio
7 ns or the strengthening of existing ones. It tends to
involve interdisciplinary methodologies that seek m
ultiple perspectives and make use of systematic and

6 structured learning process. These groups take cont


rol over local decisions, and so people have a stake
in maintaining structures or practices.

5
4
3
2
1
Topology of Participation

8 Self-Mobilisation
People participate by taking initiatives to change
systems independent of external institutions. They

7
develop contacts with external institutions for
resources and technical advice they need, but
retain control over how resources are used. Such
self-initiated mobilisation and collective action may
6 or may not challenge existing inequitable
distributions of wealth and power.

5
4
3
2
1
Topology of Participation

8 Catalysing Change
An eighth level of participation may be added to

7
these typology, vis. the involvement and stakes of
community members in influencing others in the
environment to initiate change.

6
5
4
3
2
1
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

1. Identify and Prioritize Needs and


Assess Resources Available

Things to consider:

 What do you need?


 What are the underserved areas, unmet
needs, or overlooked groups or
individuals in your community?
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Which staff and what program resources do


you have to implement an outreach activity?

 Personnel, funding, materials, equi


pment, etc.
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Community Needs Assessment

 Community Profiling

 Ocular Visits/Survey

 Needs Survey

 Focused Group Discussion


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Extension Project

2. Identify Your Beneficiaries

Things to consider

 Whom do you want to reach?


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Extension Project

3. Define Goals and Objectives


Things to consider:

 What is it you would like your beneficiaries


to do once they have heard your message?

 What do you hope to achieve with your


outreach activities?

 Who will do what, how, where, and by


when?
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Elements of a SMARTER objective/s


 SPECIFIC: to avoid differing interpretation
 MEASURABLE: to allow for monitoring and
evaluation
 APPROPRIATE: attuned to problems, goals
and strategies
 REALISTIC: achievable, challenging and
meaningful
 TIME BOUND: with specific time period
 EXPANDABLE: can be extended, replicated
 REWARDING: should give satisfaction
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Extension Project

4. Identify Outreach Strategies


(What and How)
Things to consider:
 What outreach methods and tools will you
use?
 Will outreach be one-time, short-term, or
ongoing or a combination?
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

5. Identify Where You Will Go

Things to consider:

 Where will it be most effective to reach


my target beneficiaries?
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

6. Identify Who
Things to consider:

 What staff will be implementing the


outreach activity?
7. Identify Your Target Date (By When)
Things to consider:

 What is the timeline for completing the


outreach activity?
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

8. Evaluation
Before you implement your plan, identify who
will evaluate it.
Things to consider:
 How will you know if your plan is working?
 What baseline information will you obtain
before implementation?
 What outcomes will you be measuring?
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Extension Project

9. Implement

Things to consider:

 Put your plan in action! Monitor to make


sure it is going as planned.

 Make adjustments if needed and keep on


going notes.
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

From Inform to Inspire:


A Framework for Communication
and Engagement

INVOLVE

INSPIRE
INQUIRE
INFORM
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Extension Project

The Fab Four:


Most important things for a change
agent to do

 Connect people
 Develop leadership
 Inspire confidence
 Create and maintain a culture of learning
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

What is Outcome measurement


evaluation?

 Is a continual and systematic process of


assessing the value or potential value of
programs to guide decision-making for the
program’s/projects future and sustainability

 Is an essential indicator of how programs an


d projects should be sustained.
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Process vs. Outcome Evaluation


Process Evaluation Outcome Evaluation
 Resources  Measures of change
 Activities in
 Units produced  Individuals
 Did they do what  Institutions
they said they  Communities
would do?  Did they change
what they said they
would change?
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Extension Project

Why evaluate?

 Planning purposes
 Analysis of program effectiveness or quality
 Direct decision-making
 Maintain accountability
 Project impact assessment
 Project impact and sustenance
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

When to evaluate?

 The timing of program/project evaluation:


 Project/program design stage
 Project start-up stage
 In-progress of formative evaluation
 Program wrap-up or summative evaluation
 Follow –up studies and feed –back
 Continues sustenance
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

When we evaluate a project/program

 We examine the context of the project/program


 Study its goals and objectives
 Collect information about a project’s /
program’s input, outcome and impact
 Compare findings to some pre-set standards or
mandates
 Make a value judgment about the project
 Report findings to stakeholders
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Types of outcome evaluation


Formative or process evaluation:
Focus on information for program/project impr
ovement, modification, management and sust
enance
Summative or impact evaluation
Focus on determining program/project results
and effectiveness (merit and worth)
Serves the purpose of making major decision
s about program – continuation, expansion, re
duction, and funding.
Using the Logic model as road map
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Extension Project

Evaluators Credibility
 Competence:
 Knowledge of the program/project
 Evaluation expertise
 Data analysis and interpretation skills
 Report writing and presentation skills
 Personal Style:
 Communication skills
 Strong interpersonal skills
 Ability to nurture trust and rapport
 Sensitivity in reporting
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Extension Project

Logic Model

 Identifies both process and outcome portions


of your program
 Shows relationship of your program inputs to
the expected results or outcomes
 Helps you identify the major questions you
want the evaluation to answer
The Art and Science of Implementing Participatory
Extension Project

Logic Model

 Provides a graphic summary of how


program parts relate to the whole
 Makes explicit the underlying theory of a
program
 Identifies categories to measure in the
program evaluation
 Sets timelines and benchmarks
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Extension Project

Developing a Program Evaluation


Logic Model

Process Outcome

Resources Activities Outputs Outcomes Goals


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Resources
 Program ingredients
 Funds
 Staff
 Community support
 Participants
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Activities

 Method used to accomplish program


goals
 Classes
 Counseling
 Training
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Outputs

 Units produced by a program


 Number and type of clients served
 Number of policies developed
 Number of events planned
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Outcomes

 Short term and immediate indicators of


progress towards a goal
 Collaborative partnerships
 Improved family functioning
 Improved school performance
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Extension Project

Goals

 Long term desired program effects


 Resilient community
 Economic self-sufficiency
 Violence prevention
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Extension Project

Sample Program Evaluation Logic Model


Program Name: School and Community
Violence Prevention Project

Process Outcome

Resources Activities Outputs Outcomes Goals


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Sample Resources
 Staff
 Violence prevention curriculum
 Case management services
 Partnerships
 University
 Counseling centers
 Sheriff’s department
 School district
 Participants
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Extension Project

Sample Activities

Commission Funded

 Delivery of violence prevention curriculum


in the schools
 Intensive violence prevention groups to
high-risk youth
 Intensive outreach services to families with
high-risk youth
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Extension Project

Sample Activities

Concurrent Activities

 DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education)


 Family Empowerment Project services to f
amilies
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Extension Project

Sample Outputs

 4-6 hours of violence prevention education


for 1,890 students
 480 students receive intensive prevention
training in 10-week groups of 6-10 students
each
 185 at risk families receive intensive
outreach services
 60 at risk families receive Family
Empowerment Project services
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Extension Project

Sample Outcomes
 Improvement in healthy peer social
communication
 Reduction of violent behaviors in school
climate
 Increase in healthy behavior patterns in
handling stress
 Improved school-related behaviors
 Increase in family support
 Consumer satisfaction
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Extension Project

Sample Goals

Violence prevention
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Outcomes You Can Measure

Example: Desired outcome is


improvement in par
enting skills.
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Indicators

 Clear parental expectations for child


behavior
 Use of problem-solving and communication
skills
 Increased positive parent-teacher interaction
 Increased positive family activities
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Indicators

 Use of behavior reinforcement mechanisms


 Home learning environment supportive of
school work
 Use of family interaction skills
 Reduction of conflict
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Extension Project

Documenting Impact of outcome evaluation


 Impact is a clear description of value of a
program/project to people and society.
Generally, these are the longer-term sustainable
benefits and impact to clients or society.
It could be:
 Increased knowledge
 Improved attitudes
 Financial gain
 Production efficiencies
 Preservation and environmental resources
 Improved condition of health care
 Improved condition of roads
 Improved condition of education
 Improved condition of water supply, etc
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Summary/Conclusion
 Outcome elevation is a tool to assist, plan,
implement, monitor, evaluate, account and
sustain programs/projects:
 By having a road map that will assist in
implementation and sustaining projects/
programs
 To assist government ministries, departments
and agencies (MDAs) to be accountable and
effective
 To enable government measure the impact and
benefit of its projects/programs in consonance
with their agendas which are sustainable
Gob bless us all!