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This power point presentation is about rheology

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Rheology

• It is a Greek work coined by Scientist Eugen C.

Bingham.

• It is combination of two words: rheo means to flow

and logy means to study.

• Definition:

– Rheology is defined as science of study of flow of liquid

or soft solids or in some cases solids.

Fundamentals of Rheology

• Consider a block of liquid consisting a parallel

plate similar to deck of cards as shown in

diagram.

• A bottom layer is fixed while a top layer is

moved at constant velocity

• A

Application of Rheology in Pharmacy

• Standards of liquid

Fundamentals of Rheology

• Now consider that a constant force is applied

on the top layer of liquid block.

• As the top layer moves, the layers below top

layer will also move.

• The velocity of these layers will be directly

proportional to the distance from bottom layer.

Fundamentals of Rheology

• The difference in velocity (dv) between two

planes of liquid will depend upon distance

between them (dr).

Shearing stress

• The force per unit area applied on liquid is

called as shearing stress.

• F=FI/A

Rate of Shear

• The difference in velocity of two layers (dv/dr) is called as

velocity gradient or Rate of shear (G) or shear rate.

• Rate of shear (G) : The rate of change of stress is called as the

rate of shear.

• G=dv/dr

Newton’s law of Flow

• Newton was the first to study flow of liquids in quantitative

way.

• He recognized that higher the viscosity of liquids greater will

the force per unit area required to move top layer.

• Hence

FI/A = η dv/dr

Newton’s law of Flow

F=ηG

Where F= force per unit are i.e. shearing stress

η = Viscosity

G = rate of shear or shear rate

This is Newton’s law for flow of liquid and the liquid which

follow this law are called as Newtonian System and the systems

which does not follow this law are called as non-Newtonian

system.

Viscosity (η)

• Viscosity of any liquid is defined as it is internal resistance of

liquid to flow.

• Viscosity id inverse of fluidity (φ) which is ability to flow.

• 1 cp =0.01 poise

depends on temperature.

• As temperature increases viscosity decreases.

Newton’s law of Flow

• When we plot graph of rate of shear versus shear stress then following

type of graph is observed in case of Newtonian Systems. Such graphs are

called as Rheograms.

Non- Newtonian Systems.

• These are the materials which does not follow Newton’s law of flow.

• In these kinds systems rate of shear is not directly proportional to the shear stress.

• In Newtonian fluids viscosity always remains constant. It does not change with change in

shear stress.

• But in case of non-Newtonian fluids there are changes in viscosity as shear stress

changes.

• Hence shear stress and rate of shear are not proportional to each other.

• There are three types of non- Newtonian systems

– Plastic

– Pseudoplastic

– Dilatant

Plastic flow

• The rheogram of plastic flow is given in above graph.

• The substance initially behaves like elastic body, the rate of shear is not

• After application of more shear stress, rate of shear becomes proportional to the

shear stress.

• This linear proportion when extrapolated on x axis, it intersect at some point called

Plastic flow

Yield value

Plastic flow

• Plastic flow is associated with presence of flocculated particles in concentrated

• When shear stress is applied initially, this structure does not break.

(F-f) this structure breaks and the material starts to flow and act as Newtonian

system.

Plastic flow

• The quantitative behavior of Bingham systems is

expressed by Bingham equation.

U= F-f/G

where

U= plastic viscosity.

F= Shear stress

f= yield value

G= rate of shear

Pseudoplastic Flow

• These kind of systems are also called as Shear

thinning system.

• As the shear stress increases viscosity decrease and

hence there is less change in rate of shear.

• When rheogram of Pseudoplastic is plotted following

type of graph is obtained.

Pseudoplastic Flow

Pseudoplastic Flow

• The consistency curve for Pseudoplastic flow begins at origin.

increases proportionally.

Pseudoplastic Flow

•Pseudoplastic flow rheogram can be expressed by following exponential formula.

FN= ηIG

Where N= number given to the exponent

ηI = Viscosity coefficient

G= Rate of shear

In case of Pseudoplastic flow N is higher than 1 and increases when fluid becomes

more non-Newtonian.

Pseudoplastic Flow

• Taking log of above equation

N log F = log ηI + log G

On rearranging above equation

log G = N log F - log ηI

This is simplified equation for Pseudoplastic

flow.

Dilatant Fluid

Measurement of Viscosity

• Ostwald Viscometer

Ostwald Viscometer

• Used to determine viscosity of Newtonian liquids.

• Principle: When liquid flows due to gravity, the time required to

flow between two marks (A and B) through a vertical capillary

tube is determined.

• The time of flow of test liquid is then compared with the time

required for a liquid of known viscosity (usually water).

• The viscosity of unknown liquid can be determined by using

equation

Ostwald Viscometer

Derivation

• Derivation of above equation is based on Poiseuille’s law.

Derivation

• For the given Ostwald Viscometer the radius,

volume and length remains constant can be

denoted by k.

• Hence above equation can be written as

η = KtΔP

The pressure head ΔP depends on the density of

liquid. (ρ)

hence η = Kt ρ

• For first liquid equation can be written as

• η1 = Kt1ρ1

• For second liquid equation can be written as

• η2 = Kt2ρ2

• By comparing above two equation we can get

Falling Sphere Viscometer

Falling Sphere Viscometer

• The apparatus consists of a glass tube positioned vertically.

• A constant temperature jacket with provision for water circulation is arranged

around the glass tube.

• The test liquid is placed in glass chamber.

• A steel ball is dropped into the liquid and allowed to reach equilibrium with

surrounding temp.

• The tube is with the jacket is then inverted due to which ball comes at the top of

glass tube.

• The time taken for the ball to fall between two marks is accurately recorded

• The process is repeated several times to get concurrent result.

Falling Sphere Viscometer

• The viscosity of Newtonian system can be

calculated from below equation.

Cup and Bob Viscometer

Cup and Bob Viscometer

• In this type of viscometer the sample is placed in between gap of cup and

bob.

using spring or sensor as a torque.

• Depending upon whether cup or bob is rotated there are two types of

models of cup and bob viscometer.

Cup and Bob Viscometer

1. Revolving cup type: Couette type: MacMichel viscometer

The number of revolution represent the rate of shear and torque represent shear stress.

η= kv (w/v)

Where

η= apparent viscosity

w= shearing stress (weight on bob)

v= rate of shear (rpm)

kv= Constant for the instrument

Cup and Bob Viscometer

• The popular viscometer based on Searle principle is the Stromer

instrument.

• In this type the sample is placed between cup and bob and allowed to

reach temperature equilibrium.

• A time required for the bob to make 100 revolution is then recorded.

• The weight on bob is then increased and same procedure is repeated.

• In this way, a rheogram can be constructed by plotting rpm (rate of shear)

versus weight (shear stress).

Plug Flow

• One of the disadvantage of cup and bob viscometer is plug flow.

• In this type of viscometer the sample is placed in between cup and bob

• The amount of stress exerted on liquid which is near the wall of bob is

more as compared to liquid which is far from wall of bob forming a solid

plug.

Cone and Plate viscometer

Cone and Plate viscometer

• The sample is placed at the centre of plate, which is then raised into a

indicator scale.

• Then a graph of rpm (rate of shear) versus scale reading (shearing stress)

can be constructed.

Cone and Plate viscometer

• For Newtonian System viscosity can be

estimated by equation,

η= C (T/v)

Where C= instrument constant

T= Torque reading

v= speed of the cone.

Cone and Plate viscometer

• For plastic flow equation can be modified as

U= Cf (T-Tf/v)

where Tf is the shearing stress at

extrapolated on x axis.

Cone and Plate viscometer

• It has several advantages over cup and bob

viscometer like

– There is no formation of plug flow

– Sample required is very small

– Cleaning is very easy

– Less time is required for temperature equilibrium.

Bulge type loop:

• Some of the dispersions in pharmacy produce a complex

thixotropic curves when shear stress in increased a particular

point, then decreased and corresponding rate of shear is

recorded.

• A concentrated aqueous bentonite Gel, 10% and 15% by

weight produces a characteristic bulge in upcurve.

• This type of upcurve is obtained because of formation house

of card structure of bentonite crystals causing swelling of

bentonite magmas.

• Because of this bulge type curve is

obtained.

Complex thixotropic curve

• Bulge type loop:

Spur type thixotropic curve

• In more complex structure, more complex

rheogram is obtained like in procaine penicillin

G gel for IM injection.

• The spur value represent a sharp point of

structure breakdown.

Spur type thixotropic curve

Pharmaceutical Application of Rheology

Pharmaceutical Application of Rheology

6. Rheological properties of creams and ointments are

assessed time to time during their shelf life in order to

ensure their stability.

formulation of in-situ gelling type of dosage form.

formulation of shear thinning systems.

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