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› Archana Choudhary- 7718

› Rupali Khandale- 77

› Pravesh Gupta-77

› Priti

› Rohit Kothari- 77
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› Apex Body
› Safeguarding interest of workers
› Personnel and Social Functions
› Other benefits
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› Become shareholders

› Give financial assistance

› Advantage-committed towards job

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¬ ëdentification of the workers in

¬ Loyalty Development
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› Lower level to Top level

› Express views-industrial democracy

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› Representatives of employees and employers

› Consultative bodies
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› èob Enlargement ² expanding the job content

› èob Enrichment ² additional motivators


º Distinct features of Self-directed

teams :

› Plan, control and improve their own work


› Set their own goals and inspect their own

8) Participation through Collective Bargaining

9) Participation through Suggestion Schemes

10) Participation through Quality Circles

11) Total Quality Management

12) Financial Participation

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› Clearly defined and complementary objectives

› Free flow of information & communication

› Workers should represent themselves

› Strong and effective trade union

› Organize training programs

› Workers status should not be affected

› Associate workers in decision making

› Suitable participative structure

› Reserve resources for reinvestment

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› Tends to improve motivation

› Employees may reduce absences

› Provides better communication



¬ Morality principle

¬ Recognition of human dignity

¬ Loss of self respect

¬ Physical and mental health of employees

¬ Negative consequences of hierarchical

organizations of work
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› Specialized work roles are required

› Workers are not bothered with participation

› Participative situations

› Feudalistic concept

› Unwillingness of the employers to share powers


ëndustrial relation is concerned with the

relationship between management and
workers and the role of regulatory
mechanism in resolving any ëndustrial
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¬ Collective bargaining.

¬ Role of management, unions, and government

¬ Machinery for resolution of industrial disputes.

¬ ëndividual grievance and disciplinary policy and


¬ Labour legislation.

¬ ëndustrial relations training.


¬ Uninterrupted production

¬ Reduction in ëndustrial Disputes

¬ High morale

¬ New Programmes

¬ Reduced Wastage

ëf industrial relation are good, the

whole workforce will be well
motivated to work hard for the
benefit of the organization and its
ëndustrial Relations

Pluralistic Marxist
Unitary Approach
Approach Approach

¬ ëR is grounded in mutual co-operation

¬ Work place conflict ² a temporary problem

¬ Strikes - regarded as unnecessary

¬ Participation of government, tribunals and

unions are not sought to be necessary for
harmonious relations

¬ Tool for taking employees way from unionism

and socialism

¬ Manipulative and exploitative

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¬ Organizations as coalitions of competing


¬ Trade unions as legitimate representatives of

employees interests

¬ Stability in ëR as the product of concessions and

compromises between management and unions

¬ Conflict between employers and employees

¬ Trade Union

¬ Supportive of capitalism

¬ Conflict resolution
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› Main party to ëR
› Major responsibility in maintaining good ëR

› Demands should be reasonable

› Other features :

- commitment to industry
- protective legislation
- status of the worker
› Employees perceive ëR as an opportunity to:

- improve conditions of employment

- voice grievances
- exchange views and ideas with management
- share in decision making
› Called as TRADE UNëONS
› Crucial role

› Peaceful negotiations

› ënter ² union rivalry

› Objectives of Trade Unions:

- redress the bargaining advantage of

individual worker
- secure improved terms and conditions of
- obtain improved status for the worker
- increase their control over decision-making

› Main party to ëR
› Directly involved in disputes

› Right to hire and fire any worker

› Often adopt unfair practices for their benefit such

- break a powerful union
- set one faction against another
› Accept responsibility and avoid exploitation of
workers by:

- employee motivation
- sharing decisions with employees
- negotiating terms and conditions of

› Exist at local, industry and all ëndia levels

› Voluntary in character

› Confederation of ëndian ëndustries (Cëë)

› Co-operation to government and trade unions

› Objectives:

- represent employers in collective bargaining

- develop machinery to avoid industrial
- provide information on employee relations

› ëndirectly involved in ëR

› Maintain cordial relations through preventive


› Approach should be impartial and fair

› Wage boards, labour courts and tribunals, labour


› Legal machinery for

dealing with industrial

› Facilitate cordial
ëndustrial Relations

¬ Attitude of management to employees and union.

¬ Attitude of employees to management.

¬ Attitude of employees to unions.

¬ ënevitability of the difference of opinion between
management and unions.

¬ Present and likely future strength of the unions.

¬ The extent to which the management can or want

to exercise absolute authority to enforce decision
affecting the interest of employees.
¬ The extent to which there is one dominating
union or the existence of multiple unions leading.

¬ The effectiveness of managers and supervisors in

dealing with problems and disputes related to ëR.

¬ The extent to which effective and agreed

procedures for discussing and resolving grievance
or handling disputes exist within the company.
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¬ The militancy of the unions ² Nationally or is


¬ The authority and effectiveness of the employers


¬ The extent to which bargaining is carried out at

National, local or plant level.
¬ The legal framework within which ëR exist.

¬ Employment and pay situation-Nationally or


¬ The effectiveness of any National or local

procedure agreement that may exist.


¬ Communication: How best can we convey our

philosophy to employees.

¬ Relationships : How well can we improve our

relationship with employees and unions.
¬ Competence : How to improve competence of
managers and supervisors in dealing with ëR

¬ Discipline and conflicts : How shall we deal with

it .