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Chimmy Chimmy Chummy

Lepimimiyo (2X)
Miyo! Miyo! Miyo!
 “Thinking about thinking”
 “Learning how to learn”
 Refers to higher order thinking which involves
active awareness and control over the cognitive
process engaged in learning.
- John Flavell (1979, 1987)
 Latin: cognoscere, “to know”, “to conceptualize” or
“to recognize”
 refers to a ability for the processing of information,
applying knowledge, and changing preferences.
 Cognition, or cognitive process, can be natural or
artificial, concious or unconcious.
 Person variables - knowledge about how human
being learn and process information, as well as
individual knowledge of one’s own learning process.

Ex. You maybe aware that you study better or

will be more productive if you work in a quite library
rather than at home where there are may
 Task variables - knowledge about the nature of
task as well as the type of processing demands that
it will place upon the individual.

Ex. You maybe aware that it will take more time

for you to read and comprehend a math text than it
read and comprehend a novel.
 Strategy variables - awareness of strategy you
are using to learn a topic and evaluating whether
this strategy is effective.
Ex. a student may use knowledge in planning
how to approach a math exam.
I know that I (person variable) have more
difficulty with my science assignments than language
arts and find Filipino easier (task variable) so I will do
my homework in science first, then language arts, the
Filipino (strategy variable)
Aspects of Learning Novice Learners Expert Learners
Have different knowledge
Knowledge in Have limited knowledge in in different areas because
different subject the different subject they look for
areas areas. interrelationships in the
things they learn.
Satisfied at just scratching First try to understand
the surface; hurriedly the problem, look for
Problem Solving gives a solution to boundaries and create a
problem. mental picture of the
Aspects of Learning Novice Learners Expert Learners
Employ rigid strategies Design new strategies
Learning/thinking that may not be that would be appropriate
strategies appropriate to the task at to the task at hand.
Select important
Selectivity in Attempt to process all information to process;
processing information they received. able to breakdown
information to
manageable chunks.
Do not examine the Check their errors and
Production of output quality of their work, nor redirect their efforts to
stop to make revisions. maintain quality output.

 Nature of the learning process – The learning

of complex subject matter is most effective when it
is an intentional process of constracting meaning
from information and expert.
 Goals of the learning process - The successful
learner, over time and with support and instructional
guidance, can create meaningful, coherent
representations of knowledge.
 Construction of knowledge – The successful
learners can link new information with existing
knowledge in meaninful ways.

 Strategic thinking – The successful learner can

create and use a repertoire of thinking and
reasoning strategies to achieve complex learning

 Thinking about thinking – Higher order

strategies for selecting and monitoring mental
operations facilitate creative and critical thinking.
 Context of learning – Learning is influenced by
invironmental factors, including culture, technology,
and instructional pronciples.

 Motivational and emotional influences on

learning – what and how much is learned is
influenced by the learne’s motivation. Motivation to
learn, in turn, is influenced by individual’s emotional
states, beliefs, interests and goals, and habits of
 Intrinsic motivation to learn – The learner’s
creativity, higher order thinking skills, and natural
curiosity all contribute to motivation to learn.
Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by task of optimal
novelty and difficulty relevant to personal interests,
and providing for personal choice control.

 Effects of motivation on effort – Acquisition of

complex knowledge and skills requires extended
learner effort and guided practices. Without
learners’ motivation to learn, the willingness to exert
this effort is unlikely without coercion.
 Developmental influences learning - As
individuals develop, there are diffirent opportunities
and constrains for learning. Learning is most
effective when differencial development within and
across physical, intellectual, emotional and social
domains is taken into account.
 Social influences on learning - Learning is
influenced by social interactions, interpersonal
relations, and communication with others.
 Individual difference in learning – Learners
have different strategies, approaches and
capabilities for learning that are prior experience
and heredity.
 Learning and diversity – Learning is most
effective when differences in learner’s liguistic,
cultural and social background are taken into
 Standards and assessment – Setting high and
challenging standards and assessing the learner as well as
learning progress, including diagnostic, process and
outcome assessment are integral parts of the leaning