You are on page 1of 14

Interference investigation

on UMTS base stations


Thomas Hasenpusch
Federal Network Agency
Germany

www.bundesnetzagentur.de
UMTS: System Principles

 Each bit is „coded“ with a binary key before RF modulation


and transmission
 Spectrum widens by the number of bits (chips) in the code
 Multiple users can transmit on the same frequency at the
same time
 Receiver at base station separates users by correlation with
known binary codes
 Immunity against interference raises by „system gain“

2
Thomas Hasenpusch, Bundesnetzagentur 08.06.2019
UMTS: CDMA Principle

 Transmitter side:

A 0 1 0 1
A
+
0 1 0 1 0110

0110100101101001
f
f
„slow“ user narrow Coding with 4-bit key wide
data spectrum -> fast data spectrum

3
Thomas Hasenpusch, Bundesnetzagentur 08.06.2019
UMTS: Immunity Against Interference

 Receiver side
A A

wideband narrowband
interferer interferer

f f

0110100101101001
+
A A
0110
system
0000111100001111 gain
0 1 0 1
f f
wide decoding with high pass flt. „slow“ user narrow
spectrum 4-bit key (integration) data spectrum

This is what we see with the


spectrum analyzer

4
Thomas Hasenpusch, Bundesnetzagentur 08.06.2019
UMTS: Principle Restrictions

 Separation of signals from multiple users works only if all are


received with (nearly) equal level
 Fast organisation channel necessary to tell mobile how to adjust
its output power

 If interference present: Base station asks all mobiles to


increase power until useful signal is above interference
 Far away mobiles get disconnected if they cannot increase
power further
 Base station coverage decreases

 All base stations (of one network) operate on same


frequency
 One interferer may disable whole base station

5
Thomas Hasenpusch, Bundesnetzagentur 08.06.2019
Interference Recognition by Operator

 Modern UMTS base stations measure the level of „unwanted


emissions“ (in the code domain)
 Indicator is RTWP value (received total wideband power):
Equivalent to RMS power from the antenna in 5 MHz
bandwidth

Sector 2 and 3 are


interfered (3 less).
Equal interference times
indicate one interference
source

6
Thomas Hasenpusch, Bundesnetzagentur 08.06.2019
Interference Recognition by Monitoring Service

 Interfering signal must be in the order of system gain to be


really „harmful“
 When uplink channel is viewed with a spectrum analyzer:
 Wideband interference must be visible to left and right of the
used channel
 Narrowband interference must
„peak out“ of wanted signal

7
Thomas Hasenpusch, Bundesnetzagentur 08.06.2019
Investigation: Sequence

 Determine rough direction of interferer by sector map:

Base station with


sector beams

Estimated angle
range of interferer

 Try to pick up interferer in measurement vehicle

8
Thomas Hasenpusch, Bundesnetzagentur 08.06.2019
Measurement at base station antenna (1)

 If interference cannot be pciked up in meas. vehicle:


 Measurement point at UMTS base station is antenna port:

Tx/Rx Tx/Rx

Band pass
filter

9
Thomas Hasenpusch, Bundesnetzagentur 08.06.2019
Measurement at base station antenna (2)

 In case of weak interferers, measurement must be done


while UMTS station is running!
 Otherwise nearby mobiles may cover interfering signal

Interfered
station

Neighbour
stations

10
Thomas Hasenpusch, Bundesnetzagentur 08.06.2019
Common Interference Sources (1)

 DECT telephones:
 Imported from US (DECT channels reach into UMTS uplink band)
 Faulty DECT fixed parts (main emission jumps into UMTS uplink
band)
 Identification:
 In case of faulty phones spectrum is unlike DECT
Time domain (zero span)
* RBW 1 MHz 1 [T1 ]
Marker 2
 * VBW 3 MHz 9.74 dBµV
-52.85 dBm
Ref -20
Ref dBm
72 dBµV * Att
Att 10dB
0 dB * SWT 20.5 ms
100 ms 20.008000 ms
1.975000000 GHz
with largest RBW shows 70
-20 Marker 1 [T1 ]
-52.81 dBm
10ms pulse repetition and 11 PK
PK**
-30
60
10.004000 ms A

about 100µs pulse length CLRWR


VIEW
-40
50
TRG

2 PK
VIEW 1
-50
40
2
PA
TRG -58.2 dBm PS
-60
30
PRN
-70
20
6DB
3DB
-80 1
10

-90
0

-100
-10

-110
-20
-120
1.9675GHz
Center 1.975 GHz 2.05
10 ms/
MHz/ Span 100 MHz
11
Thomas Hasenpusch, Bundesnetzagentur 08.06.2019
Common Interference Sources (2)

 Antenna amplifiers
 High amplification in active antennas may lead to feedback
between output and input
 Identification:
 Mostly unmodularted carriers
 AM-demod: sometimes humming noise
 Often not stable
in frequency

12
Thomas Hasenpusch, Bundesnetzagentur 08.06.2019
Common Interference Sources (3)

 Sideband emissions from RLAN Routers


 Insufficient suppression of sideband emissions when router
operates in 2.4 GHz band
 Identification:
 In time domain (zero span): different pulse lengths up to 1 ms,
Pulse repetition about 100 ms
RBW 300 kHz Delta 4 [T1 ]
 Spectrum indifferent Ref -35 dBm * Att 0 dB
VBW 1 MHz
SWT 165 ms
1.30
120.120000
dB
ms
Marker 1 [T1 ]
-40 -67.69 dBm
0.000000 s A

1 AP -50 Delta 2 [T1 ]


VIEW 1.22 dB TRG
39.930000 ms
-60 3 Delta 3 [T1 ]
1 2 4 4.03 dB
80.190000 ms
-70 PA
TRG -71.6 dBm PS

-80 PRN

-90 3DB

-100

-110

-120

-130

Center 1976 MHz 16.5 ms/ 13


Thomas Hasenpusch, Bundesnetzagentur 08.06.2019
UMTS interference Investigation

Thank you for your attention!

www.bundesnetzagentur.de