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PAPER PRESENTATION

TOPIC: SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

TITLE: THE PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS USING KITCHEN WASTE

by

1. B. NIRANJANA RAO, Assistant Professor

2. G. BABU RAO, Assistant Professor

Chemical Engineering Department,

GMR Institute of Technology,


Rajam, Andhra Pradesh.
Introduction:
• The demand for the world’s fossil fuel and their price increases due to the
global population rise, then the use of alternate energy resources
(renewable resources) are most important sources for future.
• Therefore searching for alternate energy with low cost and easily available
materials from our surrounding i.e. waste from various sources in the form
of bio-organic materials such as kitchen/vegetable, waste paper and
cardboard, grass clippings, agriculture waste, leftover food, industrial
effluents, sewage & animal waste etc If not treated which will be formed as
solid waste gives pathogenic bacteria, fungi, etc.
• The main objective of the paper “the production of biogas using kitchen /
vegetable waste”, is fabrication of a system in which, by using our daily
wastes from kitchen are fed along with bacteria and under anaerobic
conditions biogas is produced which can be used for daily purposes.
• Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a process which harnesses natural bacteria to
treat biodegradable materials in the absence of oxygen, producing a
methane rich biogas which can be captured and used to generate electricity
and provide a source of heat.
• The digestive residue from this process is typically a pumpable material that
can be further separated into a fibre and liquor. Digestates can be
beneficially applied to farmland as fertilizers and/or soil conditioners.
Almost any organic material can be processed by Anaerobic Digestion.
• The anaerobic process is used throughout the world on a number
of scales, from small single vessel for households, up to large
industrial process size facilities. In this work, the production rate
of methane and fertilizer are high and cost estimation is low
comparing with other sources by using basic raw material kitchen
waste of 100kg/day.
• A detailed study of the work, which is undertaken in production
of biogas, fabrication and construction, material and energy
balances, design calculations and cost estimation of the process
are given in the paper.
List of Topics:
Information of Raw Materials
Introduction of AD Technology
AD Process Description
Process Parameters
Biogas Properties
Model Calculations
State of Project
List of abbreviations
Bibliography
Introduction of digestion process
Selection of plant model
Materials required for construction
Fabrication work
Exhibition of plant model
Economic data
Technical data
Abstract of project
About Biogas
Why we are using kitchen waste
Products and by products
Area of applications
Benefits
Draw backs
production of biogas, fabrication and construction, material and energy balances, design
calculations and cost estimation of the process.
Biogas properties: Substrate CH4%

• Biogas is a mixture containing 55-65% methane Grass 70


gas(CH4),30 to 40% carbon dioxide(CO2) and Cattle manure 65
remaining being of impurities like H2(Hydrogen), H2S
Poultry manure 60
(Hydrogen sulphide), and some N2(Nitrogen).
• It is a clean but slow burning gas with a calorific value Water hyacinths 52
ranging from 5000 to 5500kcal/kg.
Kitchen waste 50

• It in cooking reducing the demand for LPG & Fire Wood. Biogas has been
popular by the name “GOBAR GAS” mainly due to the use of animal dung for
its production.
• The process parameters are pH, Temperature, C/N Ratio, Dry solids content,
loading rate, Mixing, Retentiontime.
Experimental setup: Fabrication and construction:

• The construction of the biogas plant should be placed at near the


domestic house surroundings, to collect the kitchen waste from the
various points easily as well as to distribute the two products gas
and fertilizer to required points.

• The distribution of the biogas is to supply for cooking in homes


and the same way to transport the fertilizer for near forms.

• The plant capacity should be based on the analysis of cost, local


climate, soil type / conditions and the net availability of biomass.
• Digester wall contains a partition wall, the slurry must be added from both the
inlet and outlet tanks to equalize pressure and prevent collapse of wall. Depending
on the thickness of the wall and other protection against heat loss.

• Ratio of height to the diameter of the fermentor shall be 1.3 as a suitable


slenderness ratio in view of the stirring and mixing of the contents.

• Round tanks have the largest volume per surface that means a minimum of heat
loss.

• The fermentor tank should be completely air tight, because even with a small
concentration of air in the biogas there is an explosive mixture.

• The waste inlet & outlet have to be placed in order to ensure a maximum of the
path b/w them and to prevent short circuiting.

• The desired fermentor temperature range is 31-350C.

• For mesophillic fermentation, the temperature in high rate systems has to be kept
constant around 30-350C.
Experimental procedure:

• Raw materials for biogas production and their characteristics:

• Most forms of the organic matter containing proteins, fats or


carbohydrate cellulose can be microbiologically transformed into
biogas (Methane and CO2).

• These three groups of organic material are theoretically lead to


different composition of methane and CO2.

• The following are the various kind of organic matter with


potential for methane production broadly they are land based
sources, animal based sources and water based sources.
• Land based sources: crop waste, sugar cane trash, weeds, corn
and related corps etc.

• Animal based sources: at present most of the biogas production is


only through animal dung digesters.

• Water based sources: marine plants produce very good biogas but
their salinity is a serious problem.

• The first gas from a newly filled biogas plant contains too little
methane. The gas formed in the first 4-5 days must therefore be
discharged unused.
Production process (Anaerobic digestion technology):
• Anaerobic digestion is biological process in which microbes,
particularly bacteria, digest organic waste material in an oxygen
free environment.

• Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a process which harnesses natural


bacteria to treat biodegradable materials in the absence of oxygen,
producing a methane rich biogas which can be captured and used
to generate electricity and provide a source of heat.

• The digestive residue from this process is typically a pumpable


material that can be further separated into a fibre and liquor.
Digestates can be beneficially applied to farmland as fertilizers
and/or soil conditioners.
• Almost any organic material can be processed by Anaerobic
Digestion.

• There are mesophillic digestion and thermophillic digestion of AD.

• The process generates three main products biogas, Digestates


(fibre) and liquor.

• The A.D process takes place in three main phases.

• Phase-1: hydrolysis. Phase-2: acid. Phase-3: methane.


AD Process Descriptions:

• The AD process takes place in three main phases: hydrolysis, acid


and methane, with each phase characterized by the main activity of
a certain group of bacteria.

• During the AD process, the bacteria decompose the organic matter


in order to produce the energy necessary to their metabolism, of
which methane is a by-product.
 Phase 1: Hydrolysis

This is the first phase of the process. Here, complex molecules


of proteins, cellulose, lipids and other complex organics in the
vegetable waste are solubulized into glucose and amino acids
and fatty acids. This stage is also known the polymer
breakdown stage2.

 Phase 2: Acid phase

In this phase, facultative acid-forming bacteria convert the


solubulized organic matter to organic acids. The principal acids
produced are acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and
ethanol. The optimum temperature range for this phase is 30ºC.
 Phase 3: Methane Phase

The third phase results in the production of methane by methanogenic


bacteria. They convert the acids produced in the second phase into
methane and carbon dioxide.

The AD process is controlled effectively by this group of bacteria; they


are very sensitive to pH, substrate composition and temperature. If the
pH level in the digester drops below 6.0, methane formation ceases and
there is more acid accumulation bringing the digestion process to a
halt.
The process generates three main products:

• Biogas – a mixture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4),


which can be used to generate heat and or electricity.

• Digestate (Fibre) – can be used as a nutrient-rich soil conditioner.

• Liquor – can be used as a liquid fertilizer.

AD with biogas utilization can be a source of income and may


partially increase the income of the company.
AD is a complex biological process dependent on many physical and chemical factors.
Process Parameters

pH

Temperature

C/N Ratio

Dry solids content

Loading rate

Mixing

Retention time
• pH :
• An optimal pH value of input mixture in the digester is in between 6 and 7.2.

• pH values below this range often show high concentration of volatile fatty acids and
can be toxic to the bacterial populations especially the methanogenic bacteria.
Higher pH ranges than 7.2 also slow down methane production.

Temperature:

There are essentially two temperature ranges for anaerobic digestion.

The mesophillic range; this takes place optimally between 370-410C.

It can also take place at ambient temperatures of 200-450C.

Thermophillic bacteria breakdown organic matter in the waste at higher


temperatures of about 550C.

Temperatures can get up to 700C in some situations.


C/N Ratio

The C: N ratio is the amount of carbon to nitrogen in the feedstock


material.

This will range from 20:1 to 30:1

If there is too much nitrogen, i.e. where the C: N is lower; the


carbon is utilized at a fast rate, causing ammonia accumulation and
its associated pH rise.

This can have adverse effect on the


. methanogenic bacteria

inhibiting methane formation


Dry contents

There are two different operational parameters associated with the solids content of
the digester feedstock.

High solids digesters can process thick slurries; they however require more energy
input to move and process the feedstock.

Low solids digesters will require less energy for processing the feedstock, the
benefit of this is that the liquid environment enables a more thorough circulation of
materials and contact between the bacteria and their food.

Loading Rate:

The loading rate often refers to the amount of raw materials fed per unit volume of
digester capacity per day.

Overfeeding of the plant will cause the acids to accumulate, inhibiting methane
production.

Underfeeding on the other hand, will cause lower gas production rate in the plant
 Mixing

 Some means of mixing the slurry in a digester is always desirable,


though not absolutely essential.

 If left alone, This will be a greater problem with vegetable matter


than with manure.

 since the animal waste has a somewhat greater tendency to remain


suspended in water and, thus, in intimate contact with the gas-
releasing bacteria.
 Retention Time
 The retention time refers to the average amount of time that a given
quantity of input remains in the digester to be acted upon by the
methanogenic bacteria.

 The methane content falls to as little as 50 % if the retention time is


short.

 The retention time varies with the type of digestion.

 The mesophillic process usually requires a longer time for complete


stabilization, while the thermophillic digestion operates in a shorter
period of time.
• Purification of biogas from the plant:

• The biogas contains impurities like CO2 and H2S.

• Separation of CO2 from biogas by scrubbing technique.

• The removal of H2S from biogas by desulphurization using


ferrous substances.

• The respective method has given in table.


Reaction: Regeneration:
The absorbing material must be by treating the sulphidised
Contain iron in the form of oxides, Absorbent with atmospheric
Hydrated oxides or hydroxides, oxygen, the iron can be returned to
the active oxide form required for
2Fe (OH)2+3H2S→Fe2S3+6H20 the purification of the gas:

Fe (OH)2+H2S→FeS+2H20 Fe2S3+3O2+6H20→4Fe(OH)3+3S2

2FeS+O2+2H20→2 Fe (OH)2+S2
Experimental Results and Discussions:

• Material balance: Waste stream characteristics:

• The proposed plant is designed to handle predominantly vegetable


waste.

• It is wet, and consists mainly of onion skin as well as potatoes, carrot,


and other hand prepared vegetables.

• This analysis will assume an average weekly output of 0.7 tons.

• Operating parameters calculations:

• These parameters were obtained using the biogas conversion primer.

Moisture content: 85% Dry solid content: 15% Volatile solids content: 77%.
Batch size and system volume:

Weight of vegetable waste = 0.7 tons/ week i.e., 100 kg/day

Total solids in waste = % total solids X weight of waste= 15% X100=15kg

Batch size total solids in the waste / % total solids = 15 / 0.15=100 kg

Assuming a HRT is 20 days, the required system volume is 100 X 20 = 2000lit


= 2 m3

Design volume of tank = 2m3

Organic loading rate, OLR = volatile solids in vegetable waste / system volume

Volatile solids in vegetable waste = volatile solids % X total solids in waste


= 77% X 15 = 11.55 kg. OLR = 11.55/2 = 5.775 kg volatile solids / m3 / day
• Energy balance:

• Methane yield assuming a digestion efficiency of 80 %.

• Vs converted in biogas = Vs in the waste X digestion efficiency =11.55X80% = 9.24 kg

• Assuming biogas density = 1.14 kg / m3

• Total gas produced = 9.24 / 1.14 = 8.105 m3

• Assuming CH4 content of 65%.

• Total CH4 = total gas produced X % of CH4 content = 8.105 X 65 % = 5.268 m3

• Methane yield = volume of methane / Vs in the waste = 0.456 m3 CH4 / kg Vs added.

• Methane production rate: This is determined using the total methane and system
volume. Methane production rate = total methane/ digest volume = 2.634 m3/ m3-day.

• Energy yield: Energy yield is estimated at 11.04 kWh / m3 methane.

• Volume of methane produced = 5.268 m3/day.

• Energy yield = 11.04 kWh / m3 X 5.268 m3/day = 58.15872 kWh / day.


• Design Calculations:
• Fixed dome plant can be constructed in any shape rectangular, cylindrical, spherical
or elliptical, we deal here only with cylindrical shapes which are again divided into
two types flat bottom and curved bottom digesters.

• The relevant dimensions for the flat bottom digesters are given below.

• And the related parameters are defined below.

• H = ht of the cylindrical portion of the up to the top edge of the inlet or outlet
opening. (For flat bottom digesters, m)

W = Wt of kitchen waste available / day. dh = ht of the dome, m


G = gas production rate. m3 / day r = radius of the dome, m
VS = active slurry volume in digester, h = slurry displacement in the inlet &
m3 outlet tanks, m
Vsd = slurry displacement volume, m3 l, b = length and breadth of the inlet
H1 = H (for curved bottom digesters, m) and
D = diameter of the digesters, m outlet tanks, m
The steps involved in calculations, the various parameters are given below

• (The amount of waste is available W = 100 kg / day)

• Gas production rate, G = W X 0.02 = 2 m3 / day.

• VS = active slurry volume in the digester.( m3) = 0.05 HRT X G = 2 m3

• calculation of H & D; H = Vs/π1/3 = 0.8602 m; D = 2 X H =1.7204m

• Slurry displacement in side the digester, d = D X 0.4 = 0.3441 m

• Slurry displacement in the inlet and outlet tanks, h = 0.85 - d = 0.5058 m

• Length and breadth of the inlet and outlet tanks,

• b = (0.2G / 1.5h) 1/2, m; l = 1.5 X b =1.08904 m.

• calculation of the dome height , dh = 0.88222 m


3 2
 p q
R    
 3  2
6
Where, p  0.75D 2
q  0.6 G
 

dh = A + B;

1 1

 q 1
  q 1
 3
B     R 
3
A     R 
2
Where, 2
  2 
 2 
 D 2 
   dh 
 2  
r    0.9194m
Radius of the dome,
2d h
• Cost Estimation of the process:
• The economic viability of biogas can be assessed using two different methods which
are financial and social.

• One, Financial analysis based on market, including taxes, subsidies and money
profit.

• And another, social analysis is the true economic worth to the society of the inputs
and outputs of the project and includes secondary benefits.

• The financial viability of the biogas plants depends on whether the gas and slurry
outputs can substitute for fuels and fertilizers.

• The financial support from the government to establish such projects by providing
subsidies to the investors and formers, then the resulting cash savings can be used to
repay the capital and maintenance costs and the plant get a good chance of financial
viability.

• Here, two products of biogas plant that are the biogas and the fertilizer.
Value of biogas:
• The gas should be compared with the fuels that it substitutes such fuels like fire
wood, butane or charcoal.

• A few assumptions that simulate the condition in rural areas and simplify the
calculations will be made to compare the cost against the benefits.

Capital cost:
• Let the total cost of the digester with gas holder is equal to Rs 5500/- to 6500/-
per m3 of digester volume.

• The volume of a 0.02 m3/ day capacity biogas plant is approximately 2 m3.
Thus the total cost Cc of the plant would be about Rs 11000/-.

• Assuming that the former receives the loan at 10% interest to be repaid over 10
years, the annual repayment may be calculated from the formula,
…eqn.1; Where, the annuity factor is; and is calculated from,
Cc
Ca 
a

a

1  1  i  
n

i …eqn.2; Where, the interest rate (%) is; i is the

repayment period in years; Substituting the values of n= 10% and a=10 in

eqn.2. Therefore, =6.14. Hence C a  11000  Rs17915 / 


6.14
 Rs1791.53 10  Rs17915 / 

The total cost of the loan including the interest will be,

Annual cost: Assuming that the life of the gas plant is 20 years and that the repairs

maintenance costs are about 2% of the capital cost, the annual cost will be
17915  2  11000 
    Rs1115.765 / 
20  100 
• Cost of energy: Assuming an average cost of Rs 10/-per litre for kerosene and Rs 1.5/- per kg of
firewood, the cost equivalent of effective heat using 1 m3 biogas will be 10 X 0.53 = Rs 5.3/- for
kerosene and 6.0 X 1.50 = Rs 9/- for firewood. From these results, the annual benefits of using
biogas instead of kerosene and firewood.

• Kerosene: 5.3 X 3 X 0.3 X 365 = Rs 1741.05/-

• Firewood: 9.0 X 3 X 0.7 X 365 = Rs 6898.50/-

• Total benefits of biogas as energy sources Rs 8639.55/-

• Value of fertilizer: In order to set a value for the effluent as fertilizer in comparison to the
kitchen waste, it will be assumed that accordingly, in 11700 kg of waste has 14.1 kg of N2 that
equals to 31 kg of urea fertilizer which has about 46% N2 normally. If urea costs Rs 9/- per kg and
contains Rs 46/- N2 then 1 kg of N2 costs Rs 18/-. From the above, it follows that the value of N2 in
the waste for a 3 m3 / day capacity biogas plant would be = 14.1 X 18 X 3.0 = Rs 761.4/-; the cost of
the N2 is Rs 76.14/- per year. Therefore, total benefit is Value of biogas + Value of fertilizer = Rs
8639.55/- + Rs 76.14/-; total benefit = Rs 8920.95/-

• Total annual cost =Rs 1115.765/-

• Cost: benefit = Rs 1115.765: Rs 8920.95 = 1: 8


• Conclusions:

• In this work, the production rate of methane and fertilizer are high and
cost estimation is cheap comparing with other sources by using basic
raw material kitchen waste of 100 kg/day.

• Finally the experimental results give us the methane production rate


0.456 m3/day with an energy yield of 58.1587kwh per day and
coming to the cost estimation the annual cost is about Rs 11,120/-
with cost to benefit ratio is 1:8 by using the basic raw material kitchen
or vegetable waste of 100kg / day with moisture content 85%, dry
solids content 15% and volatile solids content 77% with an initial
retention time of 20 days.
• Comparison of biogas plant results with other plants:

S. no parameter Biogas plant Other plant

1 Feed stock Kitchen/vegetable waste Cow dung

2 High retention time 20 days 50 days

3 Methane production rate 0.456 m3/day 0.08 m3/day

4 Cost of benefit ratio 1:8 1 : 2.6


• Though the results are satisfactory, if we want get better results by
adding of 10% of starch along with the feed to increase C/N ratio up
to 20:1. Using compatible equipments like agitators for better mixing,
heaters to maintain optimum temperature, etc. Adding lime to the feed
will decrease the high retention time.

• Applications: It is a clean and efficient fuel for cooking purposes. It


saves consumption of kerosene, charcoal and wood. The danger of
explosion of biogas is less as it contains CO2 which acts as a fire
extinguisher. Smoke free, less pollutant fuel for cooking, lighting and
running agro-machinery. Use of biogas technology can contribute at
least 10% to national energy requirements and about 50% to rural
energy requirements. Reduces unemployment.
• References:
1. Biogas Technology by B.T. Nijaguna. (New age international publishers).

2. Nonconventional sources of energy, by G.D.Rai.

3. http://en.wiki.org/wiki/mechanicalbiologicaltreatment

4. http://www.bioconverter.com/technology/primer.htm.

5. http://www.waste-technology.co.uk/Efw/efw.php.

6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/waste_management.

7. http://www.britishbiogen.co.uk/goodpractice/adgpg

8. http://foe.co.uk/resource/mechanical_biolo_treatment.html

9. Biogas, the Indian NGO Experience, Network Program by Tata energy research
institute.

10. Tara biogas Plant-New Delhi. Searched in net. & www.wikipedia.com.

11. Through Persons, Dr.R.N.Swamy, Principal, Sri Venkateswara Engg College,

Suryapet.
RAW MATERIALS FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION
AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

Litre gas
Substrate Kg of dry CH4% CO2 %
Substance

Protein 700 70 30

Fat 1200 87 33

Carbohydrate 800 50 50
Designation Unit CH4 CO2 H2 H2S Biogas
mixture of
60%CH4;40
%CO2

Volume (part ) % 55-70 27-44 1 3 100.0

Net calorific valve KJ/N cu.m 35800 --- 10800 22800 21500

Limit of Vol % 5-15 --- 4-80 4-4.5 6-12


inflammability

Inflammation point oC 650-750 --- 585 --- 650-750

Density (normal) g/l 0.72 1.98 0.09 1.54 1.20

Density ratio to air --- 0.55 2.5 0.07 1.2 0.83


MODEL CALCULATIONS

Waste Streams Characteristics

Operating Parameters Calculations

Energy Calculations
Waste stream characteristics
This analysis will assume an average
weekly output of 50 tonnes

Moisture Content = 85%


Dry Solids content = 15%
Volatile Solids content = 77%
Operating Parameters Calculation
These parameters were obtained using the biogas conversion
primer
Batch Size and System Volume
Weight of vegetable waste = 50tonnes/week
= 50000kg/week
In 1day = 7142.85kg
≈ 7150kg

TS in waste = %TS * weight of waste


= 7150 * 15%
= 1072.50kg

Batch Size = TS in the waste/%TS


= 1072.5/0.15
= 7150kg
Assuming a HRT is 20days;

The required system Volume = 7150 * 20


=143000litres
= 143m3

Design volume of tank = 143 m3


Organic Loading Rate

Organic Loading Rate, OLR = VS/System Volume

VS in vegetable waste = VS% of TS


= 77% * 1072.5
= 825.825kg

Therefore OLR = 825.825/143


= 5.775kg VS/m3/day
Energy Calculations

Methane Yield

Assuming a digestion efficiency (DE) of 80%


VS converted to biogas = VS in the waste * DE
= 825.825 * 80%
= 660.66kg

Assuming biogas density = 1.14kg/m3


Total gas produced = 660.66/1.14
= 579.526m3
Assuming CH4 content of 65%

Total CH4 = 65% * 579.526m3


= 376.69m3

Therefore, Methane Yield


= Volume of methane/VS in the waste
= 376.69/825.825
= 0.456 m3 CH4/kg VS added
Methane Production Rate

This is determined using the Total CH4 and


System Volume:

Methane Production Rate


= Total CH4/ Digester Volume
= 376.69/145 m3/m3-day
≈ 2.60 m3/m3-day
Energy Yield

This is estimated at 11.04kWhr/m3 methane

Recall that vol. of CH4 produced = 376.69m3 per day

Energy Yield = 11.04kWhr/m3 * 376.69m3


= 4158.6576kWhrs per day
State of Progress
• Construction of plant was completed on
• Checking of leakage was completed on
• Feeding of bacteria initially was completed
on
• Collection and feeding of the raw materials
is being done once in 3 days.
• The production of gas is expected in
between March 15-20,2008
BALL VALVE

PRESSURE
GUAGE
GAS OUTLET

SUPPORTERS

DRAIN PIPE
FEED PIPE

STATIONARY DRUM

FLOATING DRUM
LIST Of ABBREVIATIONS

1. AD  Anaerobic Digestion
2. C Carbon
3. O Oxygen
4. H Hydrogen
5. N Nitrogen
6. TS 
7. VS  Volatile Solids
8. HRT High Retention Time
9. OLR  Organic Loading Rate
10. DE Digester Efficiency
Second ppt
Experimental Results

Material balance

Energy balance

Design Calculation
MATERIAL BALANCE
Waste Stream Characteristics:-
This analysis will assume an average
weekly output of 0.7 tonnes

Moisture Content = 85%


Dry Solides content = 15%
Volatile Solids content = 77%
Operating Parameters
Calculation
• Batch Size and System Volume
Weight of vegetable waste
=0.7 tonnes/week = 700kg/week
In 1day = 100kg
TS in waste = %TS * weight of waste
=100 * 15% = 15kg
Batch Size = TS in the waste/%TS
= 15/0.15 = 100kg
Assuming a HRT is 20days;

The required system volume


= 100 * 20
= 2000 litres = 2m3.

Design volume of tank = 2 m3.


Organic Loading Rate

Organic Loading Rate, OLR


= VS/System Volume
VS in vegetable waste = VS% of TS
= 77% * 15
= 11.55kg
Therefore OLR = 11.55/2
= 5.775kg VS/m3/day
ENERGY BALANCE
Methane Yield
Assuming a digestion efficiency (DE) of 80%
VS converted to biogas = VS in the waste * DE
= 11.55* 80%
= 9.24kg
Assuming biogas density = 1.14kg/m3
Total gas produced = 9.24/1.14
= 8.105m3
Assuming CH4 content of 65%
Total CH4 = 65% * 8.105m3
= 5.268m3
Therefore Methane Yield
= Volume of methane/VS in the waste
= 5.268/11.55
= 0.456 m3 CH4/kg VS added
Methane Production Rate
This is determined using the Total Methane and
System Volume:
Methane Production Rate
= Total Methane/ Digester Volume
= 5.268/2 m3/m3-day
≈ 2.634 m3/m3-day
Energy Yield
This is estimated at 11.04kWhr/m3 methane
Recall that vol. of methane produced
= 5.268m3 per day
Energy Yield = 11.04kWhr/m3 * 4.5305m3
= 58.15872kWhrs per day
DESIGN CALCULATIONS
• Fixed dome plants can be constructed in
any shape-rectangular, cylindrical,
spherical or elliptical. We deal here only
with cylindrical shapes, which are again
divided in to two types, viz, flat bottom and
curved bottom digesters.
Numerical calculations 2m3 plant as
an case study are given next.
1.Gas production rate G:
one kg of Kitchen waste (undiluted),
If digested well, yields about 0.02 m3 of gas. The gas
production rate G for the available waste is thus given
as
G = W x 0.02  (1)
Waste available (W) = 100 kg/day
G = W× 0.02
= 100×0.02
= 2.0m3/day
2. Active Slurry Volume Vs:
The active slurry volume in the digester is directly
related to the HRT chosen and is given by
Vs= HRT(2W/1000)
Vs = 0.05 HRT×G  (2)

Assuming HRT as 50 days


Vs = 0.05×50×G
= 0.05×50×2 = 5 m3
3. Calculation of H and D:
There is no strict rule for the relative values of H and D,
but usually a D/H ratio of 2.0 is used in practice.
Knowing the active slurry volume from
eq. (2), H can be calculated from the equations
(π/4).D2.H = Vs  (3)
H = (Vs/π)1/3  (4)
= (5/π) 1/3
=1.17m
D =2H  (5)
= 2×1.17
= 2.34m
4. Slurry displacement inside
digester d :
• The selection of a suitable value of d depends
upon gas usage pattern.
• As cooking is usually done two times in a day,
50% of the gas produced in a day should be
made available for one cooking span.
• But, as there is a continuous production of gas
from the digester, the gas generated during the
cooking time should also be considered.
• If the total cooking time is about 3 hrs.
The variable gas storage volume Vsd is obtained from the
equation

(3/24).G + Vsd = 0.5 G  (6)


Which after simplification leads to
Vsd = 0.375 G
≈ 0.4G
D is then obtained as
(π/4)D2d = Vsd = 0.4G  (7)

Using eqs. (3) and (5), we get


d = (H/2.5)×0.4
= (1.17/2.5)×0.4
= 0.19m
5. Slurry displacement in the
inlet and outlet tanks h :
The maximum pressure attained by the gas is equal to the
pressure of the water slurry column above the lowest
slurry level in the inlet/outlet tanks. This pressure is
usually selected to be 0.85 m water gauge as a safe limit
for brick/ concrete domes.
We can write
h + d = 0.85 → (8)
knowing the value of d from eq.(10), h can be
calculated.
h = 0.85-d
=0.85-0.19 = 0.66m
6. Length (l) and breadth (b) of
the inlet and outlet tanks:
There is no restriction on the shape of the
cross section of the inlet and outlet tanks,
but usually a rectangular shape with
l=1.5b is selected.
If the inlet and outlet cross sectional areas
are selected to be identical, we get
2×l×b×h=Vsd = 0.4G
The above relation is obtained by equating the
volume of slurry displaced downwards inside the
digester to the total volume of slurry displaced
upwards in the inlet and outlet tanks, substituting
l=1.5b in the above equation and rearranging,
we get
b=(0.2G/1.5h)1/2 → (9)
b = (0.2×G/11.5h)1/2
= (0.2×2/1.5×0.66)1/2
= 0.635m
L = 1.5×b
= 1.5×0.635
= 0.953m
using the values of h and G obtained earlier,
b can be calculated from the above
equation and l is then obtained as
l = 1.5 b → (10)
In some cases, an inlet pipe of 15-20 cm
diameter is provided instead of inlet tank.
Then the area of the outlet should be
doubled to accommodate the slurry
displacement. For this
boutlet = (0.4G/1.5h)1/2 → (11)
loutlet = 1.5 boutlet
7. Calculation of the dome height
dh:
The volume of the dome, which is a section of
sphere is given by
Vd = ( π/6)dh [3(D/2)2 + dh2] → (12)
The total volume of the gas space, as mentioned
earlier, is taken as equal to G. As the slurry or
gas displacement volume Vsd is already fixed as
0.4G, the remaining gas space volume, which is
the volume of the dome, will be equal to
(G-0.4G) or 0.6G.Substituting this in the above
equation we get
0.6G = ( π/6)dh [3(D/2)2 + dh2]. → (13)
dh has to be obtained by solving the above
equation; which is cubic. This can be simply
done by iteration. An algebraic solution also
exists, which is obtained by the following steps.

First obtain the parameters


p = 0.75 D2  (14)
q = -0.6(6/π) G  (15)
R = (p/3)3 + (q/2)2  (16)
A = [(-q/2) + √R]1/3  (17)
B = [(-q/2) - √R]1/3  (18)
Then dh is given by
dh = A+B
. p = 0.75 D2
= 0.75×(2.34)2 = 4.107
q = -0.6×(6/π)×G
= -0.6×(6/π)×2.0 = -2.292
R = (p/3)3+(q/2)2
= 2.566+1.1313 =3.879
√R = √3.879 =1.9696
A = [(-q/2)+√R]1/3
= (-1.1.146+1.9696)1/3 =1.4605
B = [(-q/2)-√R]1/3
=(1.4605-1.9696)1/3 = - 0.9374
dh = A+B
= 1.4605 – 0.9374 = 0.523 m
8.Radius of the dome, r:

The dome radius is obtained by the equation


r = [(D/2)2 + dh2 )/(2dh) → (19)
= [(1.17)2 + (0.523)2]/2×0.523
= 1.57 m
All the computed parameters are
listed below
G = 2.0 m3 / day
Vs = 5 m3
H = 1.70 m
D = 2.340 m
d = 0.190 m
h = 0.660 m
b = 0.635 m
l = 0.953 m
dh = 0.523 m
r = 1.570 m
3rd ppt GOOD MORNING

To one and all


Abstract
Waste disposal is one of the major problems being faced by all nations
across the world. One of the laws probably most important for the conservation of
nature is law of conservation of energy and matter. We are aware that nothing can
be created in this world or can be destroyed. There is only change in form.
According to this law waste is not a problem but a part of this cycle. There is a
definite need for developing means to handle enormous amounts of biodegradable
waste that is generated daily in light of scientific knowhows. The waste organic
matter that is generated in the kitchens can be processed using modified biogas
plant. Kitchen waste based NISARGRUNA (biogas) plant has been installed at
BARC for environmental friendly disposal of the waste generated in kitchens of
various canteens in premises.
The efficient disposal of kitchen waste can be ecofriendly as well as cost
effective. While calculating the cost effectiveness of such waste disposal one has to
consider more than monitory aspects. The dumping of uncooked food in unmanned
area may not be very civilized. It can also lead to population growth of nuisance
animals. It is undoubtedly unhygienic and can pose threat to the habitat.
These factors will add to the value of such plants. Using the natural friends
in the form of thermophiles, methanogenic microorganisms and their consortiums we
can certainly handle the kitchen waste and may be other biodegradable waste like
paper.
It must be noted that our plant is suitable as a community plant rather than
for individual dwellings. City corporations, big hotels, government establishments,
housing colonels, schools and colleges, hospitals, power plants and factories can
easily set up such plants and process their wastes in most environment friendly way.
It would generate employment as well, and it would easily be self-sustainable looking
at fertilier and gas output. Though initial cost may be relatively higher than
conventional gobar gas plant, BARC model will be more reliable and enduring due to
modifications made in it to avoid choking and variety of biodegradable wastes it can
handle.
About Biogas
• Biogas is a mixture containing 55-65% methane
gas(CH4),30 to 40% carbon dioxide(CO2) and remaining
being of impurities like H2(Hydrogen), H2S(Hydrogen
sulphide), and some N2(Nitrogen).

• It is a clean but slow burning gas with a calorific value


ranging from 5000 to 5500kcal/kg.

• It in cooking reducing the demand for LPG & Fire Wood.

• Biogas has been popular by the name “GOBAR GAS”


mainly due to the use of animal dung for its production.
We can also make
Why kitchen waste?
gas from animal
manure (dung), but
we are making it Feed Production
with kitchen waste of gas/kg of
because solid waste
Dung 0.06 kg

Kitchen waste 0.25 kg


Materials Required For Plant
Construction

•G.I sheet : 22 guage : 2 sheets


•P.V.C Pipes : 4” inch : 5.5m
•G.I.Pipe : 0.5” inch : 0.25m
•P.V.C pipe Elbows : 4” inch : 4 no
•Tar, M-seal, bolts etc…
Economic Data
parameters Biogas LPG Kerosene Fire
wood
Value of fuel Rs. 7.50 Rs.5.35 Rs.4.96 Rs.7.06
per m3
Replacemen 35 cft 0.50 kg 0.62 kg 3.47 kg
t value (Qty)
Energy 23.40 mj 22.15 25.91 mj 55.11 mj
value mj
Total estimated cost is around Rs 6000/-
Plant Model
• They are many models like fixed dome
digester, Floating drum digester,janata
model,pragathi model and so on,here we are
using floating drum digester because of its
low cost,less maintainance,require no
storage of gas, Gas supply constant and at
stable pressure, Gas yields higher, easy to
control scum.
• This type is also called as KVIC(Khadi and
village industries commission).
Technical Data

Quantity Of Gas
Specification
Consumed(m3/Hr)

2” Burner 0.33

6” Burner 0.64
Production Process

The production process occurs in three


distinct phase under ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
1. Enzymatic Hydrolysis

2.Acid Formation

3.Methane Formation
Products (outputs)

Biogas

Enriched manure
Areas of Application

• Gas produced from this


plant can be utilized for
domestic and commercial
fuel purposes.

• Waste Slurry of the plant


can be utilized as
enriched manure.
Benefits
• It is a clean and efficient fuel for
cooking purposes.

• It saves consumption of kerosene,


charcoal and wood.

• The danger of explosion of biogas is


less as it contains CO2 which acts as a
fire extinguisher.

• Smoke free, less pollutant fuel for


cooking, lighting and running agro-
machinery.
• Use of biogas technology can
contribute at least 10% to national
energy requirements and about 50%
to rural energy requirements.
• Reduces unemployment
Drawbacks
• Initial cost of biogas systems are high particularly for
economically weaker sections of rural population.

• Low gas production in winter.

• Excessive water requirement specially for dry areas.

• Operation problems such as pinhole leakages, water


condensation in gas lines, scum formation, blockages
and burner problems can not be addressed efficiently by
unskilled persons.
Thank-U