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Binary Math

Decimal Addition Example

1) Add 8 + 7 = 15

Add 3758 to 4657: Write down 5, carry 1

2) Add 5 + 5 + 1 = 11

111 Write down 1, carry 1

3758 3) Add 7 + 6 + 1 = 14

+ 4657 Write down 4, carry 1

8 415 4) Add 3 + 4 + 1 = 8

Write down 8

Decimal Addition Explanation

111

1 1 1 (carry)

3758 3 7 5 8

+4 6 5 7

+ 4657 8 14 11 15 (sum)

- 10 10 10 (subtract the base)

8415 8 4 1 5

subtract the base from the sum, record the difference, and carry one to the

next column to the left.

Addition (decimal)

1 1 11

1 5 5 6 12

4 14 5 5 99

5 19 10 11 111

Binary Addition Rules

Rules:

–0+0 =0

–0+1 =1

–1+0 =1 (just like in decimal)

1+1 = 210

= 102 = 0 with 1 to carry

1+1+1 = 310

= 112 = 1 with 1 to carry

Addition (binary)

1

0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

Addition (binary)

1

0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

0 1 1 10

Binary Addition Example 1

Col 1) Add 1 + 0 = 1

Example 1: Add Write 1

binary 110111 to 11100 Col 2) Add 1 + 0 = 1

Write 1

Col 3) Add 1 + 1 = 2 (10 in binary)

1 1 1 1 Write 0, carry 1

1 1 0 1 1 1 Col 4) Add 1+ 0 + 1 = 2

Write 0, carry 1

+ 0 1 1 1 0 0 Col 5) Add 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 (11 in binary)

1 0 1 0 0 1 1 Write 1, carry 1

Col 6) Add 1 + 1 + 0 = 2

Write 0, carry 1

Col 7) Bring down the carried 1

Write 1

Binary Addition Explanation

In the first two columns,

What is actually there were no carries.

happened when we In column 3, we add 1 + 1 = 2

carried in binary? Since 2 is equal to the base, subtract

the base from the sum and carry 1.

1 1 1 1 In column 4, we also subtract

the base from the sum and carry 1.

1 1 01 1 1

In column 5, we also subtract

+ 0 1 11 0 0 the base from the sum and carry 1.

2 3 22 In column 6, we also subtract

the base from the sum and carry 1.

- 2 2 22 .

In column 7, we just bring down the

1 0 1 0 0 1 1 carried 1

Addition (binary)

1 11 1

011 01

01011

Binary Addition Verification

answer by converting the 1101112 5510

figures to decimal, doing the +0111002 + 2810

addition, and comparing the 8310

answers.

64 32 16 8 4 2 1

1 0 1 0 0 1 1

1 1 0 1 1 1 = 64 + 16 + 2 +1

+ 0 1 1 1 0 0 = 8310

1 0 1 0 0 1 1

Binary Addition Example 2

Example 2: Verification

Add 1111 to 111010. 1110102 5810

+0011112 + 1510

7310

1 1 1 1 1 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

+ 0 0 1 1 1 1 = 64 + 8 +1

= 7310

1 0 0 1 0 0 1

For Exercises 1-3, match the solution with the problem.

A. 10001100

B. 10011110

C. 1101010

D. 1100000

E. 1010001

F. 1111000

2. 1010101 + 10101 (binary addition)

3. 1111111 + 11111 (binary addition)

1. 1110011 + 11001 (binary addition)

A

2. 1010101 + 10101 (binary addition)

C

3. 1111111 + 11111 (binary addition)

B

Decimal Subtraction

Example

Subtract 1) Try to subtract 5 – 7 can’t.

4657 from 8025: Must borrow 10 from next column.

Add the borrowed 10 to the original 5.

Then subtract 15 – 7 = 8.

2) Try to subtract 1 – 5 can’t.

7 9 11 Must borrow 10 from next column.

8 10 2 15 But next column is 0, so must go to

column after next to borrow.

- 4 6 5 7 Add the borrowed 10 to the original 0.

Now you can borrow 10 from this column.

3 3 6 8

Add the borrowed 10 to the original 1..

Then subract 11 – 5 = 6

3) Subtract 9 – 6 = 3

4) Subtract 7 – 4 = 3

Decimal Subtraction Explanation

8 0 2 5

- 4 6 5 7

3 3 6 8

So when you cannot subtract, you borrow from the column to the left.

The amount borrowed is 1 base unit, which in

decimal is 10.

The 10 is added to the original column value, so you will be

able to subtract.

Binary Subtraction

Explanation

column to the left.

The amount borrowed is 2.

The 2 is added to the original column value, so

you will be able to subtract.

Binary Subtraction Example

Col 1) Subtract 1 – 0 = 1

Example 1: Subtract Col 2) Subtract 1 – 0 = 1

binary 11100 from 110011 Col 3) Try to subtract 0 – 1 can’t.

Must borrow 2 from next column.

But next column is 0, so must go to

column after next to borrow.

2 1 Add the borrowed 2 to the 0 on the right.

0 0 2 2 Now you can borrow from this column

(leaving 1 remaining).

1 1 0 0 1 1 Add the borrowed 2 to the original 0.

Then subtract 2 – 1 = 1

- 1 1 1 0 0 Col 4) Subtract 1 – 1 = 0

1 0 1 1 1 Col 5) Try to subtract 0 – 1 can’t.

Must borrow from next column.

Add the borrowed 2 to the remaining 0.

Then subtract 2 – 1 = 1

Col 6) Remaining leading 0 can be ignored.

Binary Subtraction

Verification

Subtract binary Verification

11100 from 110011: 1100112 5110

2 1 - 111002 - 2810

2310

0 0 2 2

1 1 0 0 1 1 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

- 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1

= 16 + 4 + 2 + 1

1 0 1 1 1 = 2310

Binary Subtraction

Example 2

Example 2: Subtract

binary 10100 from 101001 Verification

1010012 4110

- 101002 - 2010

2110

0 2 0 2

1 0 1 0 0 1 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

1 0 1 0 1

- 1 0 1 0 0 = 16 + 4 + 1

1 0 1 0 1 = 2110

For Exercises 4-6, match the solution with the problem.

A. 10001100

B. 10011110

C. 1101010

D. 1100000

E. 1010001

F. 1111000

5. 1100111 – 111 (binary subtraction)

6. 1010110 – 101 (binary subtraction)

4. 1111111 – 111 (binary subtraction)

F

5. 1100111 – 111 (binary subtraction)

D

6. 1010110 – 101 (binary subtraction)

E

MULTIPLICATION

Multiplication (decimal)

13

11

13

130

143

Multiplication (binary)

1101

1011

1101

11010

1101000

10001111

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