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# Binary numbers and arithmetic

Binary Math
1) Add 8 + 7 = 15
Add 3758 to 4657: Write down 5, carry 1

2) Add 5 + 5 + 1 = 11
111 Write down 1, carry 1
3758 3) Add 7 + 6 + 1 = 14
+ 4657 Write down 4, carry 1

8 415 4) Add 3 + 4 + 1 = 8
Write down 8

## What just happened?

111
1 1 1 (carry)
3758 3 7 5 8
+4 6 5 7
+ 4657 8 14 11 15 (sum)
- 10 10 10 (subtract the base)
8415 8 4 1 5

## So when the sum of a column is equal to or greater than the base, we

subtract the base from the sum, record the difference, and carry one to the
next column to the left.

1 1 11
1 5 5 6 12
4  14 5 5  99
5 19 10 11 111

Rules:
–0+0 =0
–0+1 =1
–1+0 =1 (just like in decimal)
 1+1 = 210
= 102 = 0 with 1 to carry

 1+1+1 = 310
= 112 = 1 with 1 to carry

1
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1

1
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 10

## So can we count in binary?

Col 1) Add 1 + 0 = 1
binary 110111 to 11100 Col 2) Add 1 + 0 = 1
Write 1
Col 3) Add 1 + 1 = 2 (10 in binary)
1 1 1 1 Write 0, carry 1
1 1 0 1 1 1 Col 4) Add 1+ 0 + 1 = 2
Write 0, carry 1
+ 0 1 1 1 0 0 Col 5) Add 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 (11 in binary)
1 0 1 0 0 1 1 Write 1, carry 1
Col 6) Add 1 + 1 + 0 = 2
Write 0, carry 1
Col 7) Bring down the carried 1
Write 1
In the first two columns,
What is actually there were no carries.
happened when we In column 3, we add 1 + 1 = 2
carried in binary? Since 2 is equal to the base, subtract
the base from the sum and carry 1.
1 1 1 1 In column 4, we also subtract
the base from the sum and carry 1.
1 1 01 1 1
In column 5, we also subtract
+ 0 1 11 0 0 the base from the sum and carry 1.
2 3 22 In column 6, we also subtract
the base from the sum and carry 1.
- 2 2 22 .
In column 7, we just bring down the
1 0 1 0 0 1 1 carried 1

1 11 1
011 01
 01011

## You can always check your Verification

answer by converting the 1101112  5510
figures to decimal, doing the +0111002 + 2810
64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 0 1 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 1 1 1 = 64 + 16 + 2 +1
+ 0 1 1 1 0 0 = 8310

1 0 1 0 0 1 1

Example 2: Verification
Add 1111 to 111010. 1110102  5810
+0011112 + 1510
7310

1 1 1 1 1 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

+ 0 0 1 1 1 1 = 64 + 8 +1
= 7310
1 0 0 1 0 0 1
For Exercises 1-3, match the solution with the problem.
A. 10001100
B. 10011110
C. 1101010
D. 1100000
E. 1010001
F. 1111000

## 1. 1110011 + 11001 (binary addition)

2. 1010101 + 10101 (binary addition)
3. 1111111 + 11111 (binary addition)
1. 1110011 + 11001 (binary addition)
A
2. 1010101 + 10101 (binary addition)
C
3. 1111111 + 11111 (binary addition)
B
Decimal Subtraction
Example
Subtract 1) Try to subtract 5 – 7  can’t.
4657 from 8025: Must borrow 10 from next column.
Add the borrowed 10 to the original 5.
Then subtract 15 – 7 = 8.
2) Try to subtract 1 – 5  can’t.
7 9 11 Must borrow 10 from next column.
8 10 2 15 But next column is 0, so must go to
column after next to borrow.
- 4 6 5 7 Add the borrowed 10 to the original 0.
Now you can borrow 10 from this column.
3 3 6 8
Add the borrowed 10 to the original 1..
Then subract 11 – 5 = 6
3) Subtract 9 – 6 = 3
4) Subtract 7 – 4 = 3
Decimal Subtraction Explanation

8 0 2 5
- 4 6 5 7

3 3 6 8
So when you cannot subtract, you borrow from the column to the left.
The amount borrowed is 1 base unit, which in
decimal is 10.
The 10 is added to the original column value, so you will be
able to subtract.
Binary Subtraction
Explanation

##  So when you cannot subtract, you borrow from the

column to the left.
 The amount borrowed is 2.
 The 2 is added to the original column value, so
you will be able to subtract.
Binary Subtraction Example
Col 1) Subtract 1 – 0 = 1
Example 1: Subtract Col 2) Subtract 1 – 0 = 1
binary 11100 from 110011 Col 3) Try to subtract 0 – 1  can’t.
Must borrow 2 from next column.
But next column is 0, so must go to
column after next to borrow.
2 1 Add the borrowed 2 to the 0 on the right.
0 0 2 2 Now you can borrow from this column
(leaving 1 remaining).
1 1 0 0 1 1 Add the borrowed 2 to the original 0.
Then subtract 2 – 1 = 1
- 1 1 1 0 0 Col 4) Subtract 1 – 1 = 0
1 0 1 1 1 Col 5) Try to subtract 0 – 1  can’t.
Must borrow from next column.
Add the borrowed 2 to the remaining 0.
Then subtract 2 – 1 = 1
Col 6) Remaining leading 0 can be ignored.
Binary Subtraction
Verification
Subtract binary Verification
11100 from 110011: 1100112  5110

2 1 - 111002 - 2810
2310
0 0 2 2
1 1 0 0 1 1 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
- 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
= 16 + 4 + 2 + 1
1 0 1 1 1 = 2310
Binary Subtraction
Example 2
Example 2: Subtract
binary 10100 from 101001 Verification
1010012  4110
- 101002 - 2010
2110
0 2 0 2
1 0 1 0 0 1 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 0 1 0 1
- 1 0 1 0 0 = 16 + 4 + 1

1 0 1 0 1 = 2110
For Exercises 4-6, match the solution with the problem.
A. 10001100
B. 10011110
C. 1101010
D. 1100000
E. 1010001
F. 1111000

## 4. 1111111 – 111 (binary subtraction)

5. 1100111 – 111 (binary subtraction)
6. 1010110 – 101 (binary subtraction)
4. 1111111 – 111 (binary subtraction)
F
5. 1100111 – 111 (binary subtraction)
D
6. 1010110 – 101 (binary subtraction)
E
MULTIPLICATION
Multiplication (decimal)

13
 11
13
 130
143
Multiplication (binary)

1101
 1011
1101
11010
 1101000
10001111