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Binary numbers and arithmetic

Binary Math
Decimal Addition Example
1) Add 8 + 7 = 15
Add 3758 to 4657: Write down 5, carry 1

2) Add 5 + 5 + 1 = 11
111 Write down 1, carry 1
3758 3) Add 7 + 6 + 1 = 14
+ 4657 Write down 4, carry 1

8 415 4) Add 3 + 4 + 1 = 8
Write down 8
Decimal Addition Explanation

What just happened?


111
1 1 1 (carry)
3758 3 7 5 8
+4 6 5 7
+ 4657 8 14 11 15 (sum)
- 10 10 10 (subtract the base)
8415 8 4 1 5

So when the sum of a column is equal to or greater than the base, we


subtract the base from the sum, record the difference, and carry one to the
next column to the left.
Addition (decimal)

1 1 11
1 5 5 6 12
4  14 5 5  99
5 19 10 11 111
Binary Addition Rules

Rules:
–0+0 =0
–0+1 =1
–1+0 =1 (just like in decimal)
 1+1 = 210
= 102 = 0 with 1 to carry

 1+1+1 = 310
= 112 = 1 with 1 to carry
Addition (binary)

1
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
Addition (binary)

1
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 10

So can we count in binary?


Binary Addition Example 1
Col 1) Add 1 + 0 = 1
Example 1: Add Write 1
binary 110111 to 11100 Col 2) Add 1 + 0 = 1
Write 1
Col 3) Add 1 + 1 = 2 (10 in binary)
1 1 1 1 Write 0, carry 1
1 1 0 1 1 1 Col 4) Add 1+ 0 + 1 = 2
Write 0, carry 1
+ 0 1 1 1 0 0 Col 5) Add 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 (11 in binary)
1 0 1 0 0 1 1 Write 1, carry 1
Col 6) Add 1 + 1 + 0 = 2
Write 0, carry 1
Col 7) Bring down the carried 1
Write 1
Binary Addition Explanation
In the first two columns,
What is actually there were no carries.
happened when we In column 3, we add 1 + 1 = 2
carried in binary? Since 2 is equal to the base, subtract
the base from the sum and carry 1.
1 1 1 1 In column 4, we also subtract
the base from the sum and carry 1.
1 1 01 1 1
In column 5, we also subtract
+ 0 1 11 0 0 the base from the sum and carry 1.
2 3 22 In column 6, we also subtract
the base from the sum and carry 1.
- 2 2 22 .
In column 7, we just bring down the
1 0 1 0 0 1 1 carried 1
Addition (binary)

1 11 1
011 01
 01011
Binary Addition Verification

You can always check your Verification


answer by converting the 1101112  5510
figures to decimal, doing the +0111002 + 2810
addition, and comparing the 8310
answers.
64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 0 1 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 1 1 1 = 64 + 16 + 2 +1
+ 0 1 1 1 0 0 = 8310

1 0 1 0 0 1 1
Binary Addition Example 2

Example 2: Verification
Add 1111 to 111010. 1110102  5810
+0011112 + 1510
7310

1 1 1 1 1 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

+ 0 0 1 1 1 1 = 64 + 8 +1
= 7310
1 0 0 1 0 0 1
For Exercises 1-3, match the solution with the problem.
A. 10001100
B. 10011110
C. 1101010
D. 1100000
E. 1010001
F. 1111000

1. 1110011 + 11001 (binary addition)


2. 1010101 + 10101 (binary addition)
3. 1111111 + 11111 (binary addition)
1. 1110011 + 11001 (binary addition)
A
2. 1010101 + 10101 (binary addition)
C
3. 1111111 + 11111 (binary addition)
B
Decimal Subtraction
Example
Subtract 1) Try to subtract 5 – 7  can’t.
4657 from 8025: Must borrow 10 from next column.
Add the borrowed 10 to the original 5.
Then subtract 15 – 7 = 8.
2) Try to subtract 1 – 5  can’t.
7 9 11 Must borrow 10 from next column.
8 10 2 15 But next column is 0, so must go to
column after next to borrow.
- 4 6 5 7 Add the borrowed 10 to the original 0.
Now you can borrow 10 from this column.
3 3 6 8
Add the borrowed 10 to the original 1..
Then subract 11 – 5 = 6
3) Subtract 9 – 6 = 3
4) Subtract 7 – 4 = 3
Decimal Subtraction Explanation

8 0 2 5
- 4 6 5 7

3 3 6 8
So when you cannot subtract, you borrow from the column to the left.
The amount borrowed is 1 base unit, which in
decimal is 10.
The 10 is added to the original column value, so you will be
able to subtract.
Binary Subtraction
Explanation

 In binary, the base unit is 2

 So when you cannot subtract, you borrow from the


column to the left.
 The amount borrowed is 2.
 The 2 is added to the original column value, so
you will be able to subtract.
Binary Subtraction Example
Col 1) Subtract 1 – 0 = 1
Example 1: Subtract Col 2) Subtract 1 – 0 = 1
binary 11100 from 110011 Col 3) Try to subtract 0 – 1  can’t.
Must borrow 2 from next column.
But next column is 0, so must go to
column after next to borrow.
2 1 Add the borrowed 2 to the 0 on the right.
0 0 2 2 Now you can borrow from this column
(leaving 1 remaining).
1 1 0 0 1 1 Add the borrowed 2 to the original 0.
Then subtract 2 – 1 = 1
- 1 1 1 0 0 Col 4) Subtract 1 – 1 = 0
1 0 1 1 1 Col 5) Try to subtract 0 – 1  can’t.
Must borrow from next column.
Add the borrowed 2 to the remaining 0.
Then subtract 2 – 1 = 1
Col 6) Remaining leading 0 can be ignored.
Binary Subtraction
Verification
Subtract binary Verification
11100 from 110011: 1100112  5110

2 1 - 111002 - 2810
2310
0 0 2 2
1 1 0 0 1 1 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
- 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
= 16 + 4 + 2 + 1
1 0 1 1 1 = 2310
Binary Subtraction
Example 2
Example 2: Subtract
binary 10100 from 101001 Verification
1010012  4110
- 101002 - 2010
2110
0 2 0 2
1 0 1 0 0 1 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 0 1 0 1
- 1 0 1 0 0 = 16 + 4 + 1

1 0 1 0 1 = 2110
For Exercises 4-6, match the solution with the problem.
A. 10001100
B. 10011110
C. 1101010
D. 1100000
E. 1010001
F. 1111000

4. 1111111 – 111 (binary subtraction)


5. 1100111 – 111 (binary subtraction)
6. 1010110 – 101 (binary subtraction)
4. 1111111 – 111 (binary subtraction)
F
5. 1100111 – 111 (binary subtraction)
D
6. 1010110 – 101 (binary subtraction)
E
MULTIPLICATION
Multiplication (decimal)

13
 11
13
 130
143
Multiplication (binary)

1101
 1011
1101
11010
 1101000
10001111