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Distribution Automation

Dr. M. K. Khedkar

Prof. & Head


Electrical Engineering

VNIT, Nagpur
PROBLEMS WITH EXISTING DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM

• The annual load growth is high (around 10% to 12 %)


necessitating setting up of additional system facilities every year
to meet the growing demand.
• The power losses in distribution network are high around 15%
of total energy generated and reduction of loss is profitable.
• The distribution equipment is fully loaded or overloaded
causing high equipment failure rate.
• The power factor of system is poor, requiring efficient reactive
power management.
• The agricultural pump sets contribute for 80% of peak demand in
rural area and 40 % of total energy sales and therefore load control
of agricultural pump sets is very attractive.

• Voltage profile of system is unsatisfactory.

• The number of breakdowns and momentary interruptions on


distribution feeder are high.
Typical Power System Generating Plant

Step-up
transformers

Circuit breakers

Generation System Transmission System

Transmission System Transformers in Dispersed


Bulk power Storage and
substations generation
(DSG)

Distribution System Sub-transmission


Solar or
Wind
system Sources
(100KW to
• substations
Three-
Distribution phase 1MW)
Primary
Voltage
substation
• transformers feeders Regulator

DSG
• circuit breakers Battery or
Sectionalizing
switch Capacitor
bank
• feeders Fuel cells,
1 to 25 MW Primary
circuits
• sectionalizing switches One-phase
• capacitor banks lateral feeder

• voltage regulators Distribution

• DSGs Transformer

• customers
- HT customers Photovoltaic
DSG Home
- LT customers Power supply,
up to 100 KW
Need For Distribution Automation

The evolutionary growth in microprocessor based devices and


telecommunication equipment and network have brought the
possibility of integrating protection, control, metering, automation
and monitoring system cost effectively. This will considerably
improve system reliability, quality of supply, and customer service
and defer capital investment on system expansion. Distribution
automation and system monitoring meet the demands and
requirements in improving service reliability at a lower cost.
Need For Distribution Automation

The real need for advanced distribution automation is associated with


the growing demand for the reliability of power supply and desire for
optimized network conditions in normal and emergency operations.
One of the most important aspects of distribution automation system is
featured by the electric utility dispatchers’ ability to remotely monitor,
coordinate and operate distribution components.
D.A. is an integrated concept for automation and digital control
functions of substations, lines and users. It includes control,
monitoring and safety of the system and load management. The
concept is based on use of technological advancements in computer
sciences and electronics in power delivery system
.
Automation provides automatic reclosing of relays, feeder
switching, remote monitoring of transformers, capacitors, circuit
breakers, sectionalizers, protections, at all levels. By virtue of real
time on-line monitoring and scheduling D.A. allows the system
operation with lesser capacity margins and reserves.
Objectives Of Distribution automation

The following are objectives for the DAS:


i. Reduce peak load and power losses to overcome prevailing
power shortages and defer construction of distribution facilities.

ii. Improve the reliability of supply by reducing the number and


duration of outages, and improve the quality of service.

iii. Improve the financial performance of the utility by improved


cash flow, safeguarding revenues, and preventing theft of
power.`
Function of Distribution Automation System

Remotely monitors the distribution system,


facilitates supervisory control of devices and
provides decision support tools to improve the
system performance
• SCADA
(Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition)

• Application Functions
Levels of Automation

Substation Level Automation

Feeder Level Automation

Customer Level Automation


Operational problems and Potential Applications of DAS

• Fault location, isolation and Service Restoration


• Maintaining good voltage profile
• Load Balancing
• Load Control
• Metering
• Maintaining Maps
• Fuse-off call operations
• Energy accounting
Candidate Distribution Automation Functions

Substation Feeder Automation Customer Interface


Automation Functions Automation
Functions Functions
 Data Acquisition From:  Data Acquisition From:  Automatic Meter Reading
- Circuit Breakers - Line Reclosers  Remote Reprogramming
- Load Tap Changers - Voltage Regulators of Time-of-Use (TOU)
- Capacitor Banks - Capacitor Banks Meters
- Transformers - Sectionalizers  Remote Service
 Supervisory Control of: - Line Switches Connect/Disconnect
- Circuit Breakers - Fault Indicators  Automated Customer
- Load Tap Changers  Supervisory Control of: Claims Analysis
- Capacitor banks - Line Reclosers
 Fault Location - Voltage Regulators
 Fault Isolation - Capacitor Banks
 Service Restoration - Sectionalizers
 Substation Reactive - Line Switches
Power Control  Fault Location
 Fault Isolation
 Service Restoration
 Feeder Reconfiguration
 Feeder Reactive Power
Control
Control Center Architecture
RTUs in
Modems
the field

DAH
SCADA Host Systems App Server

FES
1&2

LAN

Printer
MMI 1 MMI 6 PERIPHERAL
Sharer PERIPHERAL
SERVER -2
SERVER -1
…….
..

DMP -1
Video
Projector
Time
Center
DMP -2
DT 1 & 2
Application Functions

• Network Reconfiguration
a) Fault localization
b) Service Restoration
c) Load Balancing
• Integrated Volt-Var Control
• Remote Metering
• Automatic Load Shedding
• Load Management
• Automated Mapping and Facilities Management (AM/FM)
• Trouble Call Management System (TCMS)
• Load Survey and Energy Accounting
Network Reconfiguration - Fault Localization

• Locates faulty section in a radial distribution feeder by


operating “Load Break Switches” on a feeder

• Localization is faster compared to manual determination of


faulty section

Illustration:
Fault

A radial feeder
Fault localization Fault

CB Close

LB Sw Close
Network Reconfiguration - Service Restoration

• Restores service to non-faulty feeder sections by reconfiguration

• Considerations

* Presence of alternate paths


* Operation of LB switches
* Need to have remotely controllable switches
* Restoration based on
- satisfaction of current and voltage constraints
- minimum switches
- minimum losses
Network Reconfiguration - Load Balancing

• Composition and hence consumption patterns of loads on


different feeders are different

• To distribute loads among transformers/feeders

• Remote control of switches for reconfiguration


Load Balancing - Illustration

Feeder 1

Initial
configuration
Feeder 2

Final
configuration
Integrated Volt-Var Control

• Applied on feeders with capacitors and voltage regulators

• Control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators

• Schedule for switching and tap control

• To meet reactive power requirements and reduce losses


Remote Metering

• Uses of electro-static meters

• Customer meter reading

• Facilitates Multiple tariff

• Detection of Meter tampering

• More justifiable at HT (high value) Customers


Automatic Load Shedding

• Under Frequency based load shedding

• Sensing Frequency through transducers

• Load shedding based on the frequency drop, current loading


conditions and priority of the load

• Closed loop function at RTU level


Load Management - Scheduled power cuts

Illustration

• Gap between generation and demand Schedules for Power


cut on Feeders
• Schedule power cuts on rotation
(6 to 7)

• Automatic load shedding based on schedules (7 to 8)

(8 to 9)
• Facility to change the schedules
(9 to 10)
Load Management - Emergency based load shedding

• Gap between power generation and load demand due to


sudden contingencies

• To shed the loads based on the relief required

• Identification of loads to be shed based on


- current load magnitudes
- priority of the load
- time when last shed

• Shed the load based on the above factors


Load Management - Agricultural load control

• Importance of Agricultural load

• Separate schedule for Agricultural loads

• Ag. Loads categorized into groups

• Schedule for each group

• Shed the load based on the schedule

• Use of one-way radio switch


- Accepts a command to shed
- Restores automatically
Automated Mapping and Facilities Management (AM/FM)

• Display of geographical Maps

• Dynamic info on Maps


(From T&D World, Oct 2001)

• Layering, Zooming, Scrolling and Panning

• Historical data on Devices

(From T&D World, Oct 2001)


Trouble Call Management System (TCMS)

• Responds to customer complaints

• Acceptance of interruption/restoration data from the operator

• Distribution Transformer trip/close info from SCADA

• Determination of source of interruption

• Improvement of response time to customer complaints


Load Survey and Energy Accounting

• Availability of continuous data on loads etc.,

• Determination of Load Patterns

• Data for planning

• Detection of abnormal energy consumption pattern

• Identification of high loss areas


Overall Schematic Diagram of Gachibowli DA Project
Why Distribution Automation ?

Benefits

- Tangible
- In-tangible
Tangible Benefits

Substation Feeder Customer interface


Automation Automation Automation
Reduction in Capital Expenditure Reduction in O&M Costs of:
Reduction in Capital Expenditure
due to: • Regular Meter Reading
due to:
• Deferment of additional substation • Reprogramming of Meters
• Deferment of additional feeders
facilities • Service Connect/Disconnect
• Effective utilization of existing
• Effective utilization of substation • Processing of Customer Claims
feeders
facilities
Reduction in O&M Costs of Breaker
Reduction in O&M Costs of: Increased Revenue Due to:
switching for:
• Fault Location and Isolation • Reduction of System Peak Load
• Routine Operations
• Service Restoration • Tamper Detection to Reduce
• Non-Routine Operations
• Routine Switching Operations Electricity Theft
Reduction in O&M Costs of LTC • Recloser Setting • Reduced Payments for Customer
Operation for: • Recloser Testing Claims
• Routine LTC Operations • Data Collection
• Non-Routine Operations • Data Analysis
• Feeder Reconfiguration
Reduction in O&M Costs for: • Capacitor Banks Inspection
• Routine Relay Testing
• Relay Setting
Increased Revenue Due to:
Reduction in O&M Costs of: • Loss Reduction due to Feeder
• Routine Data Collection Reconfiguration
• Non-Routine Data Collection • Loss Reduction due to Capacitor
• Data Analysis Banks Automation
• Testing of Data Logging Devices • Faster Service Restoration
• Repair of Data Logging Devices
Intangible Benefits

Benefit Substation Feeder Customer interface


Category Automation Automation Automation

Improved Service
Reliability
Applicable Applicable Not Applicable
Improved Customer Applicable Applicable Applicable
Satisfaction
Improved Public Applicable Applicable Not Applicable
Safety
Better Information Applicable Applicable Applicable
for Engineering and
Planning
Strategic or Applicable Applicable Applicable
Marketing
Advantages

Improved Public Not Applicable Not Applicable Applicable


Image
A. Recent Trends in Distribution Engineering

1. Advancements In Power Delivery


2. Revolution In Utility Industry.
3.Automations
4.Data Flow
5.Equipment Monitoring
6.Condition Monitoring
7.Maintenance Intervals
8.Enhanced Monitoring
1. Advancements In Power Delivery

•Back in old days, field communications being paper based,


it would take customer a while to notify a fault.And still longer
for the utility to locate and repair the fault.

•Two way radios, portable telephones, commercial links,


pagers, cell phones expensive modem and software
gradually pressed into service. And now companies: are
providing low cost,real time,high power devices for unlimited
data flow in voice,soft or hard forms at affordable rates.
2. Revolution In Utility Industry.

• Within a short span, IT has invoked dramatic trends in the


power utility services.

• Activities, as diverse as generation,


transmission,supply,distribution,commercial
settlements,dispatching,frequency linked tariff,and
customer relations are getting seamlessly integrated on-
line.

•Privatization,competition,computerization, sleek
designs,compact foot prints,advanced engineering
materials are all aiding these trend settings.
3. Automations

•Electric industry used to have the hardware and the


technicians as its backbone.

•In some utilities remote actuation devices like


sectionalizes,automatic switches, autoreclosers
motorized ACBs etc have been in use for many years.

•But these systems have been slower, taking seconds


and minutes when compared to resolutions in milli and
micro seconds in vogue currently .
4. Data flow

• Utilities are installing LAN(Local Area


Network)in the substations,and connected to
WAN(Wide Area Network) of the utility.
•Higher bandwidth provided by LAN/WAN is
allowing much faster data transfer and useful
information.
•Scada has brought high degree of reliability.
•It would be a nightmare to operate large modern
grids without Scada, waiting for crew to drive out
and operate the CBs manually, entailing long
outages for clients.
5. Equipment monitoring
•While load demands are rising utilities are not finding it
affordable to fast replace or supplement the equipment.

•Substation devices that run on 100%Plus overload have


to be watched meticulously.

•Utilities rely on monitors and diagnostic tools and


software programs.

•Visual line or substation inspections or periodic DGA


testing are no more tolerable.

•On-line computer aided monitoring is pre-requisite for


high tech & efficient service
6.Condition monitoring

•Older programs created panic whenever a single


parameter would be unusual.
•On-line techniques co-relate many others to the one
affected.
•For decades, maintenance intervals were set and
followed.
•Now reliability has overtaken the rituals.
•Periodic maintenance is coming to an end.
•Condition monitoring is tool to get most out of
existing equipment & to cut costs.
7.Maintenance Intervals
•Maintenance intervals are no more as per schedule
but as dictated by monitoring.

•On-Load-Tap-Changers(OLTC),for example,may
have checks scheduled after 20,000 operations, but
monitoring of load current, temp;and oil (for
combustibles) may allow far more number of
operations.

•Each device is to be treated differently.

•Device with history is monitored & maintained more


vigorously.