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BY RITAM SAHA

CLASS- VIII “B”


1. REFRACTION OF LIGHT
2. What is Light?
3. Effects of materials on light
4. What is refraction?
5. Rules for deviation of rays
6. Refractive index
7. Refractive indices of some common substances
8. The laws of refraction
9. Refraction through a rectangular glass slab
10. Refraction through a prism
11. Dispersion of light and spectrum
12. Spherical lenses
13. Different types of spherical lensesSome Important Terms Related to Lenses
14. Comparison between prism and lens
15. RULES FOR OBTAINING IMAGES FORMED BY SPHERICAL LENSES
16. FORMATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF IMAGES BY A CONVEX LENS
17. FORMATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF IMAGES BY A CONCAVE LENS
18. Differences between a Convex Lens and a Concave Lens
19. THE HUMAN EYE
20. WORKING OF THE HUMAN EYE
21. STRUCTURE OF THE EYE
22. Function of Iris and Pupil
23. Accommodation (eye)
24. Focusing Light Rays
25. DEFECTS OF VISION AND THEIR CORRECTIONS
26. Optical instruments
27. Bibliography
 Light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which
ranges from radio waves to gamma rays.
Electromagnetic radiation waves, as their names
suggest are fluctuations of electric and magnetic
fields, which can transport energy from one location
to another. Visible light is not inherently different
from the other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum
with the exception that the human eye can detect
visible waves. Electromagnetic radiation can also be
described in terms of a stream of photons which are
mass less particles each travelling with wavelike
properties at the speed of light. A photon is the
smallest quantity (quantum) of energy which can be
transported and it was the realization that light
travelled in discrete quanta that was the origins of
Quantum Theory.
Materials can be classified based on how it
responds to light incident on them:
1. Opaque materials — Absorb light; Do not
let light to pass through
2. Transparent materials — Allow light to
easily pass through them
3. Translucent materials— Allow light to pass
through but distorts the light during the
passage
 When a ray of light passes from one
transparent medium to another transparent
medium of different densities, it suffers a
deviation of direction . This phenomenon of
deviation of direction is called refraction.

 The reason for the refraction of light rays is


that the speed of light is different in
different media or the speed of light changes
when it passes from one medium to another
of different densities.
Reflected
ray

Incident ray

Refracted
Point of incidence Ray

In the above diagram, an experiment is being shown about what happen


to ray of light when it passes through a air-plexi surface. Here it is being
shown that the incident ray is being sent at an angle of 60° and it is
forming two rays, the upper ray i.e. the reflected ray formed at the point
of incidence is moving out at an angle of 60°, same as the incident ray.
Whereas, the lower ray which has suffered refraction or which is the
refracted ray is goes into the medium at an angle of 35°.
1. When a light ray travels from a rarer medium to a denser
medium, it bends towards the normal.
2. When a light ray of light travels from a denser medium to a rarer
medium, it bend away from the normal.
3. When a light ray travels along the normal, there is no deviation ,
that is, the ray suffers no refraction
 Refractive index is the physical factor in terms
of which the amount of bending of light due to
refraction is measured.

 Ithas no unit and is represented by Greek


letter µ (mu).

 When light passes from one medium to another


medium, it is expressed as the ratio of the
speed of light in air or vacuum to the speed of
light in that medium.
 Law 1
The incident ray , the refracted ray and the
normal to the surface at the point of
incidence lie in the same plane.

 Law 2
The ratio of the sine of the angle of
incidence to the sine of the angle of
refraction remains a constant for a given
pair of media. The ratio remains constant
for a given colour of light. The law is called
Snell’s law or the law of sines.
 To understand the refraction of light through a glass slab consider the figure given
on the previous page which shows the refraction of light through a rectangular
glass slab.
 Here in this figure AO is the light ray travelling in air and incident on glass slab at
point O.
 Now on entering the glass medium this ray bends towards the normal NN’ that is
light ray AO gets refracted on entering the glass medium.
 After getting refracted this ray now travels through the glass slab and at point B it
comes out of the glass slab as shown in the figure.
 Since ray OB goes from glass medium to air it again gets refracted and bends away
from normal N1N'1and goes in direction BC.
 Here AO is the incident ray and BC is the emergent ray and they both are parallel
to each other and OB is the refracted ray.
 Emergent ray is parallel to incident ray because the extent of bending of the ray of
light at the opposite parallel faces which are PQ (air-glass interface) and SR (glass-
air interface) of the rectangular glass slab is equal and opposite.
 In the figure i is the angle of incidence, r is the angle of refraction and e is the
angle of emergence.
 Angle of incidence and angle of emergence are equal as emergent ray and incident
ray are parallel to each other.
 When a light ray is incident normally to the interface of two media then there is no
bending of light ray and it goes straight through the medium.
 If you take a glass prism, you can see that it has 2 triangular
bases and three rectangular lateral surfaces, inclined at an
angle. This angle is called the angle of the prism.
 As per Snell’s law, light traveling from a rarer medium to a
denser medium bends towards the normal, and vice versa. Glass
is denser than air, and thus, when a ray of light falls on the
surface of the prism, it bends towards the normal. According to
the diagram, ray PE falls on the surface of the prism and bends
towards the normal NE.
 Then, while moving from the glass to air, the emergent ray FS
bends away from the normal
 ∠HDS is the angle of deviation which tells us how much the
emergent ray has deviated from the incident ray. When the angle
of incidence is equal to the angle of emergence, the angle of
deviation is minimum.
 According to the figure, ∠PEN = ∠MES and ∠HDS is thus the angle
of minimum deviation. The refracted ray EF is parallel to side BC
in this case.
 This is how a ray of white light scatters into 7 colours when it
passes through a prism. The different colors of light wave
experience a different degree of deviation and thus white light
splits into its components when it is subjected to refraction.
The observations of the experiment may be
listed as follows:-
 The prism not only produces deviation but
also splits the beam of light into its
constituent colours.

 On the screen, a band of colours as in a


rainbow is seen with red at the top and
violet at the bottom. The sequence of
colours, that is, violet, indigo, blue, green,
yellow, orange and red can be easily
remembered by the word VIBGYOR.
The observations listed before may help us to
draw the following conclusions:
 The rays of different colours emerge from the
prism in different directions and therefore they
separate out.

 Red light appears at the top of the band of


different colours light because it suffers
minimum deviation as it has highest wavelength
among the colours of white light and violet light
appears at the bottom of the band because it
suffers maximum deviation as it has lowest
wavelength among the colours of light.
 Visible light, also known as white light, consists of a
collection of component colors. These colors are often
observed as light passes through a triangular prism.
Upon passage through the prism, the white light is
separated into its component colors - red, orange,
yellow, green, blue and violet. The separation of visible
light into its different colors is known as dispersion.
Each color is characteristic of a distinct wave
frequency; and different frequencies of light waves will
bend varying amounts upon passage through a prism. In
this unit, we will investigate the dispersion of light in
more detail, pondering the reasons why different
frequencies of light bend or refract different amounts
when passing through the prism.

 The spectrum is the range of different colours which is


produced when light passes through a glass prism or
through a drop of water.
A lens is a transparent medium, made of
glass or plastic bound by two spherical
surfaces, that refract light.

 Lensesare used in various optical


instruments. A watchmaker uses a lens ton
see extremely small parts of a watch clearly.

 Lensesare of two types – Convex lens or


converging lens and Concave lens or
diverging lens
The two types of spherical lenses are –
 Convex lens or converging lens –
A convex lens is a converging lens. When parallel
rays of light pass through a convex lens the
refracted rays converge at one point called the
principal focus. The distance between the principal
focus and the centre of the lens is called the focal
length.

Physical structure of a convex lens—


A convex lens is thicker in the middle and thinner
at the edges.
Types of convex lens—
 Bi-convex — It is bound by two convex surfaces.

 Plano-convex— It is bound by one convex surface


and one plane surface.

 Concavo-convex — It is bound by one convex


surface and one concave surface.
 Concave lens or diverging lens—
Concave lenses are thinner at the middle. Rays of
light that pass through the lens are spread out
(they diverge). A concave lens is a diverging lens.
When parallel rays of light pass through a concave
lens the refracted rays diverge so that they appear
to come from one point called the principal focus.

Physical structure of a concave lens—


A concave lens is thicker at the edges and thinner
at the middle.
Types of convex lens—
 Bi-concave — It is bound by two concave surfaces.

 Plano-concave— It is bound by one concave


surface and one plane surface.

 Convexo-concave — It is bound by one concave


surface and one convex surface.
 Optical Centre –The centre point of a lens which lies
on the principal axis of the lens is called its optical
centre. The optical centre is represented by letter C.

 Principal Axis -The principal axis of a lens is defined as


a straight line passing through the optical centre and
the centre of curvature of two surfaces of a lens. In
figure given below, the line C1 C2 represents principal
axis of both the convex lens and concave lens.
 Principal Focus- The principal focus of a lens is a point on
its principal axis to which the light rays parallel to the
principal axis converge (in case of convex lens) or appear to
diverge (in case of concave lens) after passing through
it. The principal focus of a lens is represented by letter F as
shown in figure given below.

 Focal Length- The focal length of a lens is the distance


between its optical centre and principal focus. The focal
length of a lens is represented by letter f. In figure given
above, the distance CF is the focal length of the lens.
SIMILARITIES

PRISM LENS

Prism is made of glass or plastic. Lens is also made of glass or plastic.

Prism refracts light Lens also refracts light.


DIFFERENCES

PRISM LENS

Prism consists of two triangular Lens is made up of large number of


crossections. triangular prisms.

Light rays passing through a prism When rays of light are passing
suffer refraction along with parallel to the principal axis of a
dispersion which separates white lens they either converge at the
light into its constituent colours. focus or appear to diverge from the
focus.
Following are the rules which are used for obtaining
the images formed by spherical lenses:-
1. A ray of light from the object parallel to the
principal axis of a lens passes through the
principal focus (of a convex lens) or appears to
pass through the principal focus (of a concave
lens) after refraction.
2. A ray of light passing through the optical centre
of a lens goes straight without any deviation
after refraction.
3. Aray of light passing through the principal focus
(of a convex lens) or appearing to pass through
the principal focus (of a concave lens) emerges
parallel to the principal axis after refraction.
 We will now discuss the formation of different
types of images by a convex lens when the object
is placed

1. At infinity
2. Beyond 2F
3. At 2F
4. Between F and 2F
5. At the focus F
6. Between the focus F and optical centre C
 Why convex lens is called converging lens?

A convex lens is called converging lens because of


its ability to converge a parallel beam of light on
a point called principal focus.
 Image formed by a convex lens when the object is
placed at infinity
When the object is placed at infinity, the two
rays AO and BD running parallel to the principal axis
get refracted at point O and D respectively and
intersect each other at the principal focus. Therefore,
in this case the image A’B’ is formed at the focus,
which is highly diminished (point sized), real and
inverted.


 When the object is placed beyond 2F

When an object is placed beyond the centre of curvature


then a ray of light AO which is parallel to the principal axis,
pass through the focus F along the direction OF after refraction.
While the other ray AC pass through the optical centre C and
goes straight without any deviation according to the rule (2).
These two refracted light rays intersect each other at point A’,
between the focus F and centre of curvature 2F on the other
side of the lens. In this way, a diminished, real and inverted
image A’B’ is formed.
 When the object is placed at 2F

When the object is placed at the centre of curvature of a


lens then a ray of light AO which is parallel to the principal axis
after refraction pass through the focus F along the direction OF.
While the other ray AC pass through the opticl centre C and
goes straight without any deviation. These two refracted light
rays intersect each other at point A’, on the other side of the
lens at the centre of curvature 2F. so, the image A’B’ formed in
this case is at the centre of curvature, of same size as the
object, real and inverted.
 When the object is placed between the focus F and the centre
of curvature 2F

When an object is placed between the focus and centre of


curvature of a convex lens then a ray of light AO which is parallel
to the principal axis after refraction pass through focus F along
the direction OF. While the other ray AC pass through the optical
centre C and goes straight without any deviation. These two
refractesd light rays intersect each other at point A’, beyond the
centre of curvature 2F on the other side of the lens. So, in this
case the image A’B’ formed is larger then the object, real and
inverted.
 When the object is placed at focus F

When an object is placed at the principal focus F, a ray of


light AO which is parallel to principal axis after refraction pass
through the focus along the direction OX. While the other ray AC
pass through the optical centre and goes straight without any
deviation along the direction CY. In this case, as is clear from the
Figure given below, both the refracted rays: OX and CY are
parallel to each other, so these rays cannot intersect each other,
hence the image will be formed at infinity. That is why, the image
A’B’ formed in this case will be highly enlarged, real and
inverted.
 When the object is placed between the focus F and optical centre C

When an object is placed between the principal focus and optical


centre of a convex lens, then a parallel ray of light AO passes through the
focus after refraction along the direction OX. while the other ray AC pass
through the optical centre and goes straight without any deviation along the
direction CY. But, in this case the two refracted light rays i.e. OX and CY are
diverging away from one another, so these cannot intersect each other to
form a real image on the right side of the convex lens. Thus, the refracted
rays OX and CY are extended backward by dotted lines. On extending back,
these rays appear to intersect at point A’. Hence, the image A’B’ formed in
this case is a virtual image which is formed on the same side of the lens
behind the object. Also the image formed is erect and highly enlarged.
 Table of Summary of Image Formed by a Convex Lens
S Size of Nature of
Position of Object Position of Image
No. Image Image
Highly
Real and
1. At infinity At the focus diminished,
inverted
Point sized
Between the focus
Real and
2. Beyond 2F and centre of Diminished
inverted
curvature
At the centre of Real and
3. At 2F Same size
curvature inverted
Beyond the centre Real and
4. Between F and 2F Enlarged
of curvature inverted
Highly Real and
5. At the focus F At infinity
enlarged inverted
Between the focus
Virtual and
6. F and optical Behind the object Enlarged
erect
centre C
 As a convex lens forms different types
of images depending on the position of
object, similarly a concave lens also
forms different types of images when
the object is placed at

1. At infinity
2. Between infinity and optical
centre
 Why concave lens is called diverging lens?

A concave lens is called diverging lens


because of its ability to diverge a parallel beam of
light.
 1. Formation of image by a concave lens when the object is placed at
infinity

When an object is placed at infinity, the two rays AO and BD running


parallel to the principal axis get refracted at point O and D respectively
and get diverged along the directions OX and DY respectively. These
diverged rays i.e. OX and DY appears to intersect each other at the
principal focus of the concave lens after extending back by dotted lines.
Therefore, in case of concave lens when the object is placed at infinity
the image is formed at the principal focus, highly diminished (point
sized), virtual and erect.
 When the object is placed between infinity and optical centre
When an object AB is placed between infinity and optical
centre of a concave lens, a ray of light AO which is parallel to the
principal axis diverges along the direction OX after refraction and
appears to come from the principal focus F along the direction
OF. While the other ray of light AC goes straight through the
optical centre C of the concave lens without any deviation along
the direction CY. As it is clear from the figure (given below) that
both the refracted rays i.e. OX and CY are diverging in nature, so
these rays appear to intersect each other at point A’ on the left
side of the lens on producing back. Hence, the image A’B’ formed
in this case is a virtual image which is formed at the same side of
the lens, between the optical centre and focus. Also the image
formed is diminished and erect.
 Tableof Summary of Image Formed by a
Concave Lens
S Position of Position of Nature of
Size of Image
No. Object Image Image

Highly
Virtual and
1. At infinity At the focus diminished,
erect
Point sized

Between the Between focus


Virtual and
2. infinity and and optical Diminished
erect
optical centre centre
S No. Convex lens Concave lens

A convex lens is thick in the A concave lens is thin in the


1.
middle and thin at the edges. middle and thick at the edges.

2. It is converging in nature. It is diverging in nature.

A concave lens has a virtual


3. A convex lens has a real focus.
image.

It is used for correction of It is used for correction of


4.
hypermetropia and presbyopia. myopia.
 The human eye is an organ that reacts to light
and has several purposes. As a sense organ, the
mammalianeye allows vision. Rod and cone cells
in the retina allow conscious light perception and
vision including color differentiation and the
perception of depth. The human eye can
distinguish about 10 million colors.
 The individual components of the eye work in a manner
similar to a camera. Each part plays a vital role in providing
clear vision. So think of the eye as a camera with the
cornea, behaving much like a lens cover. As the eye 's main
focusing element, the cornea takes widely diverging rays of
light and bends them through the pupil, the dark, round
opening in the center of the colored iris. The iris and pupil
act like the aperture of a camera.
Next in line is the lens which acts like the lens in a camera,
helping to focus light to the back of the eye. Note that the
lens is the part which becomes cloudy and is removed
during cataract surgery to be replaced by an artificial
implant nowadays.
 The iris control the amount of light entering the eyes.
The iris automatically adjust the size of the pupil
according to the intensity of light received by the eye.
If the amount of light received by the eye is large (as
during the day time ),then the iris contracts the pupil
(makes the pupil small) and reduces the amount of
light entering the eye. On the other hand , if the
amount of light received by the eye is small(as the
room is dark)the iris expands the pupil (make the
pupil large ) so that more light may enter the eyes.

 The adjustment of the size of pupil takes some time.


NORMAL EYE
 Accommodation (Acc) is the process by which the
vertebrate eye changes optical power to maintain a
clear image or focus on an object as its distance
varies.

 Accommodation acts like a reflex, but can also be


consciously controlled. Mammals, birds and reptiles
vary the optical power by changing the form of the
elastic lens using the ciliary body (in humans up to 15
dioptres). Fish and amphibians vary the power by
changing the distance between a rigid lens and the
retina with muscles.
 Light rays from distant objects enter the eye
parallel to one another
 Light rays from close objects diverge
Myopia – Short sightedness
Myopia commonly known as near-sightedness (American
English) and short-sightedness (British English), is a
condition of the eye where the light that comes in
does not directly focus on the retina but in front of it,
causing the image that one sees when looking at a
distant object to be out of focus, but in focus when
looking at a close object.
 This figure shows an defect
called myopia. In this case, the
parallel rays of light coming from
the distant object are converged
to form an image in front of the
retina due to which the eye
cannot see the distant object
clearly. Myopia is corrected by
using spectacles containing
concave lenses. When concave
lens is placed in front of the
myopic eye as shown in figure
then the parallel rays of light
coming from the distant object
at the far point of myopic eye.
Since the rays of light now
appear to be coming from the
eye’s far point they can be easily
focused by the lens to form an
image on the retina.
 Hypermetropia (Hyperopia) - Long Sightedness

The defects of eye


called
hypermetropia is
caused :
i. Due to low
converging
power of eye-
lens,
ii. Due to eye –ball
being too small
Hypermetropia means long
sight and is where the image of
nearby object is formed behind
the retina. This could be
because the eye is too short, or
the cornea or crystalline lens
does not refract the light
enough.
 A hypermetropic person may
have blurred vision when
looking g at objects close to
them, and clearer vision
when looking at objects in the
distance. By placing a
convex (plus powered) lens
in front of a hypermetric eye,
the image is moved forward
and focuses correctly on the
retina.
 Presbyopia
Presbyopia is a condition associated with
aging in which the eye exhibits a progressively
diminished ability to focus on near objects.
Presbyopia’s exact mechanisms are not fully
understood; research evidence most strongly
supports a loss of elasticity of the crystalline
lens, although changes in the lens’ curvature
from continual growth and loss of power of
the ciliary muscles (the muscles that bend and
straighten the lens) have also been postulated
as its cause.
 This defect is corrected in the same way as
hypermetropa is by using spectacles having
convex lenses.
 Cataract
A cataract is a clouding of the lens inside
the eye which leads to a decrease in vision. It is
the most common cause of blindness and is
conventionally treated with surgery. Visual loss
occurs because opacification of
the lens obstructs light from passing and being
focused on the retina at the back of the eye.
 Over time, yellow-brown pigment is deposited in
the lens, and this, together with disruption of
the lens fibers, reduces the transmission of light
and leads to visual problems.
SIMPLE MICROSCOPE
A microscope is an optical instrument which is used to
see highly magnified images of tiny objects such as
bacteria, cells , viruses and protozoans etc. because
these tiny objects cannot be seen by naked eyes. In
this chapter we shall study two types of microscopes:

1. Simple microscope
2. Compound microscope

A simple microscope is also called magnifying glass. It


is actually a convex lens of small focal length, which
is used for seeing the magnified images of small
objects.
 Principle of Simple Microscope

A simple microscope works on the principle that when a tiny


object is placed within its focus, a virtual, erect and magnified
image of the object is formed at the least distance of distinct vision
from the eye held close to the lens.

Working of Simple Microscope

The ray diagram to show the working of simple microscope is


shown in figure. A small object AB which is to be magnified is placed
between the principal focus F’ and optical centre C of the convex
lens. Now, a ray of light AO parallel to principal axis which is coming
from the point A of the object passes through the focus F along the
straight line OX after getting refracted by the convex lens. A second
ray of light AC coming from the point A of the object passes through
the optical centre C of the convex lens along the straight line CY. As
is clear from the figure that the two rays i.e. OX and CY are
diverging rays so these rays can intersect each other only at point A’
when produced backward. Now, on drawing A’B’ perpendicular from
point A’ to the principal axis, we get the image A’B’ of the object
which is virtual, erect and magnified.
Image formed by a Simple Microscope
 Uses of Simple Microscope
Following are the important uses of simple microscope:

 The simple microscope is commonly used by watch makers to see the


magnified view of small parts of a watch.

It is also used by the jewelers to see the magnified view of the fine parts
of jewellery.

Simple microscope is used to see the enlarged image of letters of a book,
textures of fibers or threads of a cloth.

Simple microscope is used to see the magnified view of different particles
of different types of soils.

It is used by palmists to see enlarged view of the lines of our hand.

Simple microscope is used by skin specialists to find out various diseases
of skin.

It is also used to see the details of stamp and engravings.
 Magnification of Simple Microscope
The magnifying power of a simple microscope is
given by:
m = 1 +
Where, D = least distance of distinct vision
F = focal length of the convex lens
It should be noted that the focal length of the
convex lens should be small because smaller the focal
length of the lens, greater will be its magnifying
power. Also the maximum magnification of a simple
microscope is about 10, which means that the object
will appear 10 times larger by using the simple
microscope of maximum magnification.
 Compound Microscope-
A compound microscope is an optical
instrument consisting of two convex lenses of
short focal lengths which is used for
observing the highly magnified images of tiny
objects. The compound microscope can
magnify the image of a tiny object up to
1000.
 Principle of compound microscope

A compound microscope works on the principle that when a tiny object


to be magnified is placed just beyond the focus of its objective lens, a
virtual, inverted and highly magnified image of the object is formed at the
least distance of distinct vision from the eye held close to the eye piece.

Construction of compound microscope

A compound microscope consists of two convex lenses: an objective


lens O of small aperture and an eye piece E of large aperture. The lens
which is placed towards the object is called objective lens, while the lens
which is towards our eye is called eye piece. These two convex lenses i.e.
the objective and the eye piece have short focal length and are fitted at the
free ends of two sliding tubes at a suitable distance from each other.
Although the focal length of both the objective lens and eye piece is short,
but the focal length of the objective lens O is a little shorter than that of
the eye piece E.
The reason for using the eye piece of large focal length and large
aperture in a compound microscope is, so that it may receive more light
rays from the object to be magnified and form a bright image.
 Working of compound microscope

The ray diagram to show the working of compound


microscope is shown in figure. A tiny object AB to be magnified is
placed in front of the objective lens just beyond its principal
focus fo’. In this case, the objective lens O of the compound
microscope forms a real, inverted and enlarged image A’B’ of the
object.

Now A’B’ acts as an object for the eye piece E, whose


position is adjusted so that A’B’ lies between optical centre C2
and the focus fe’ of eye piece. Now the eye piece forms a final
virtual, inverted and highly magnified image A”B”. this final
image A”B” is seen by our eye hold close to eye piece, after
adjusting the final image A”B” at the least distance of distinct
vision of 25 cm from the eye.
Image formed by a compound
microscope
 Magnification of compound microscope

The magnification of compound


microscope is given by:

m =

 where, D = Least distance of distinct vision


(25 cm)
L = Length of the microscope tube
fo = Focal length of the objective lens
fe = Focal length of the eye-piece lens
 Differences between Simple Microscope
and Compound Microscope

S No. Simple Microscope Compound Microscope

A simple microscope is also A compound microscope is an


called magnifying glass. It is optical instrument consisting of
actually a convex lens of small two convex lenses of short
1.
focal length, which is used for focal lengths which is used for
seeing the magnified images of observing the highly magnified
small objects. images of tiny objects.

It consists of two convex lenses


2. It consists of one convex lens.
of short focal length.

Its maximum magnifying power Its maximum magnifying power


3.
is 10. is 1000.
 Telescope—
A telescope is an optical instrument which is used to
see the distant objects. Telescopes are of two types:
1. Astronomical telescope
2. Galilean telescope or Terrestrial telescope

Astronomical Telescope—
An astronomical telescope is an optical instrument
which is used to see the magnified image of distant
heavenly bodies like stars, planets, satellites and
galaxies etc.
The final image formed by an astronomical telescope
is always virtual, inverted and magnified.
 Principle of Astronomical Telescope

An astronomical telescope works on the principle that when


an object to be magnified is placed at a large distance from the
objective lens of telescope, a virtual, inverted and magnified
image of the object is formed at the least distance of distinct
vision from the eye held close to the eye piece.

Construction of Astronomical Telescope

An astronomical telescope consists of two convex lenses :


an objective lens O and an eye piece E. the focal length fo of
the objective lens of astronomical telescope is large as
compared to the focal length fe of the eye piece. And the
aperture of objective lens O is large as compared to that of eye
piece, so that it can receive more light from the distant object
and form a bright image of the distant object. Both the
objective lens and the eye piece are fitted at the free ends of
two sliding tubes, at a suitable distance from each other.
 Working of Astronomical telescope
The ray diagram to show the working of the
astronomical telescope is shown in figure. A parallel beam
of light from a heavenly body such as stars, planets or
satellites fall on the objective lens of the telescope. The
objective lens forms a real, inverted and diminished
image A’B’ of the heavenly body. This image (A’B’) now
acts as an object for the eye piece E, whose position is
adjusted so that the image lies between the focus fe’ and
the optical centre C2 of the eye piece. Now the eye piece
forms a virtual, inverted and highly magnified image of
object at infinity. When the final image of an object is
formed at infinity, the telescope is said to be in ‘normal
adjustment’.
It should be noted that, the final image of object
(such as stars, planets or satellites) formed by an
astronomical telescope is always inverted with respect to
the object. But it does not matter whether the image
formed by an astronomical telescope is inverted or not, as
all the heavenly bodies are usually spherical is shape.
 Magnifying Power of an Astronomical Telescope

The Magnifying Power of a telescope is given


by:

m =

Where, fo = Focal length of the objective lens


fe = Focal length of the eye-piece lens

And the length (L) of the tube of telescope is


equal to the sum of the focal lengths of the
objective lens and the eye piece. Thus,

L = fo + fe
 GALILEAN TELESCOPE OR
TERRESTRIAL TELESCOPE—
A Galilean Telescope or a terrestrial
telescope is an optical instrument
which is used to see the magnified
image of distant objects on earth.
Galilean telescope consists of a
convex lens as objective lens but a
concave lens as eye piece. It always
forms erect images of the objects
seen through it.
Differences between Astronomical Telescope
and Galilean Telescope
S
Astronomical Telescope Galilean Telescope
No.
An astronomical telescope is an A Galilean Telescope or a
optical instrument which is used terrestrial telescope is an
to see the magnified image of optical instrument which is
1.
distant heavenly bodies like stars, used to see the magnified
planets, satellites and galaxies image of distant objects on
etc. earth.
It consists of a convex objective
2. It consists of two convex lenses.
lens and concave eye piece.
The final image formed by
The final image formed by
3. astronomical telescope is always
Galilean telescope is erect.
inverted.

4. Its magnifying power is high. Its magnifying power is low.


 Camera—
A camera consists of a lens and a light-sensitive
plate (film) mounted in a light tight box, with
provision for adjusting the distance between
lens and film. To regulate the amount of light
admitted through the lens , a shutter of
variable speed is used.
 Sources—
1. www.google.com
2. http://www.funscience.in/study-
zone/Physics
3. www.wikipedia.com
4. www.byjus.in/Physics_class8