ORGANIZATIONA L CULTURE

Presented By: Anant Vijay Goel Vivek Goyal Satyabrata Sahu

The Meaning 
No Universal Definition.  Various Conceptual Frameworks.  Dimensions of OC.

Schein (1985) a pattern of basic assumptionsinvented, discovered or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration-that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems.

Pareek (1995) a cumulative preference of some states of life over others (values), the predispositions concerning responses towards several significant issues and phenomena (attitudes), organized ways of filling time in relation to certain affairs (rituals), and ways of promoting desired behaviors and preventing undesirable ones (sanctions).

Vision Mission Goals & Objectives Strategies Structure Culture Behaviour Performance

Levels of Culture

1.

At Level One ATRIFACTS the organisational culture can be observed in the form of physical objects, technology and other visible forms of behaviour like ceremonies and rituals. Though the culture would be visible in various forms, it would be only at the superficial level. For example, people may interact with one another but what the underlying feelings are or whether there is understanding among them would require probing. At Level Two VALUES there is greater awareness and internalisation of cultural values. People in the organisation try solutions of a problem in ways which have been tried and tested earlier. If the group is successful there will be shared perception of that µsuccess¶, leading to cognitive changes turning perception into values and beliefs. Level Three ASSUMPTIONS represents a process of conversion. When the group repeatedly observes that the method that was tried earlier works most of the time, it becomes the µpreferred solution¶ and gets converted into underlying assumptions or dominant value orientation. The conversion process has both advantages. The advantages are that the dominant value orientation guides behaviour, however at the same time it may influence objective and rational thinking.

2.

3.

Developing OC involves
* Developing a strong corporate identity * Development of important values * Building healthy traditions * Developing consistent management practices

Strong Corporate Identity
develops when employees have a sense of belonging, and feel proud of working with the organization, which develops as a result of interaction of employees with the organization.

* Developing an attractive Induction Booklet * Films on success experiences in the organization * Company newsletters * Mobility of People

Developing important values
Values of excellence and human consideration develop only by demonstrating these values in action.

* Surveys of Values and differences b/w espoused
v/s practiced values. * Special value orientation programmes. * Examining the various systems operating in the organization. * Special OD intervention in Cooperation and Collaboration.

Building Healthy traditions & practices
Traditions are built in org. on the basis of important Functional rituals or celebrations

* Induction programme for new entrant.
* Promotions as transition. * Ritual associated with old age and retirement. * Exceptional behaviour. * Celebration of special individual & important organizational days.

Types
* Autocratic or feudal culture is characterized by
centralized power concentrated in a few persons, and observation of proper protocol in relation to the person/s in power. * Bureaucratic culture is characterized by primacy of procedures and rules, hierarchy and distant and impersonal relationship. * Technocratic culture emphasizes technical / professional standards and improvement. * Entrepreneurial culture in concerned about achievement of results and providing excellent services to the customers.

Profile of OC
Cultures
Autocratic/ Feudal Bureaucratic Technocratic Entrepreneurial/ Democratic/ Organic

Focus
Proper Protocol Rules & Regulations Perfection Results, Customers

Climate
Dependency+ Affiliation Control + Dependency Expert power + Extension Achievement + Extension

ACQUIRE
Basic new knowledge, facts, skills, process, concepts, values and beliefs etc..

TEST
Implications of concepts in new situations

EMBED
New knowledge through reflection and practice

INTEGRATE
New facts into existing concepts and generalization

³Learning Culture Modelµ

Building Culture 
       

Recruitment and selection. Socialization. Performance Evaluation. Leadership - Employee Motivation & Decision Making Compensation Packages. Grievance Handling. Conflicts & Differences handling. Discipline & Morale Career Planning and Development

Measuring Organizational Culture
‡ Quantitative ‡ Questionnaire & Survey ‡ Qualitative ‡ Depth Interview ‡ Clinical Intervention ‡ Analyzing Visual Artifacts. ‡ Analyzing stories, rituals and myths. ‡ Participant Observation.

Changing Culture
# Understand the environmental & other forces that will influence your future strategy. # Determine what are the core values that have been fundamental to your business identity, core purpose & success and that you will not compromise. # Create a shared vision of what the company needs to become. # Assess the existing culture & determine what elements of culture need to change.

# Determine what changes need to occur to implement strategy and address the gaps. # Define the role of senior management in leading the culture change. # Craft an implementation plan with targets of intervention, time lines, milestones & accountabilities. # Communicate the need for change and plan for change and create motivation and buy in among key stake holders.

# Identify obstacles and sources of resistance and develop strategies for getting around them. # Institutionalize, model and reinforce the changes in culture. # Continually reassess the organization s culture and establish a norm of continuous learning and transformation.

Constituents of OC
Determinants Societal Culture Shared learning from shared history Leadership Consistent Mgt. practices Structural Stability Dimensions -Visual Artifacts - Values - Rituals - Stories & Myths - Assumptions

Consequences - Performance - Behaviour

How is culture seen today?

Different Organizational Cultures

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